Dividing Hispaniola: The Dominican Republic's Border Campaign against Haiti, 1930-1961

Dividing Hispaniola: The Dominican Republic's Border Campaign against Haiti, 1930-1961

by Edward Paulino

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Overview

The island of Hispaniola is split by a border that divides the Dominican Republic and Haiti. This border has been historically contested and largely porous. Dividing Hispaniola is a study of Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo’s scheme, during the mid-twentieth century, to create and reinforce a buffer zone on this border through the establishment of state institutions and an ideological campaign against what was considered an encroaching black, inferior, and bellicose Haitian state. The success of this program relied on convincing Dominicans that regardless of their actual color, whiteness was synonymous with Dominican cultural identity.
Paulino examines the campaign against Haiti as the construct of a fractured urban intellectual minority, bolstered by international politics and U.S. imperialism. This minority included a diverse set of individuals and institutions that employed anti-Haitian rhetoric for their own benefit (i.e., sugar manufacturers and border officials.) Yet, in reality, these same actors had no interest in establishing an impermeable border.
Paulino further demonstrates that Dominican attitudes of admiration and solidarity toward Haitians as well as extensive intermixture around the border region were commonplace. In sum his study argues against the notion that anti-Haitianism was part of a persistent and innate Dominican ethos.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780822963790
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press
Publication date: 01/15/2016
Series: Pitt Latin American Series
Edition description: 1
Pages: 304
Sales rank: 826,521
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.70(d)

About the Author

Edward Paulino is assistant professor of global history at John Jay College, City University of New York. He is a cofounder of Border of Lights, an organization that commemorates the anniversary of the 1937 genocidal Haitian massacre and promotes solidarity between Haitians and Dominicans. Paulino serves on the board of the Northern Manhattan Coalition for Immigration Rights, and is a member of the International Association of Genocide Scholars.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments ix

Prologue xv

Introduction 1

Chapter 1 "The Barbarians Who Threaten This Part of the World": Protecting the Unenforceable 13

Chapter 2 "Making Crosses on His Chest": U.S. Occupation Confronts a Border Insurgency 36

Chapter 3 "A Systematic Campaign of Extermination": Racial Agenda on the Border 56

Chapter 4 "Demands of Civilization": Changing Identity by Remapping and Renaming 84

Chapter 5 "Silent Invasions": Anti-Haitian Propaganda 116

Chapter 6 "Instructed to Register as White or Mulatto": White Numerical Ascendency 150

Epilogue: "Return to the Source" 160

Notes 169

Bibliography 233

Index 251

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