Consistent evaluation and new recommendations for action are required of protective measures to address threats that were unrecognized or non-existent until recently. Global warming, noise pollution and reduced availability of prey are now of great concern. The all too familiar threats of accidental killing in fishing gear and exposure to toxic chemicals remain almost intractable. This Action Plan reviews threats and offers possible solutions. It also contains a thorough review of the status of species and a list of 57 recommended research projects and education initiatives.