ISBN-10:
0073380792
ISBN-13:
2900073380796
Pub. Date:
10/31/2008
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior / Edition 13

Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior / Edition 13

by Charles J. Ksir
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  • Product Details

    ISBN-13: 2900073380796
    Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
    Publication date: 10/31/2008
    Edition description: Older Edition
    Pages: 504
    Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

    About the Author

    Charles Ksir received his bachelor’s degree in Psychology from the University of Texas at Austin and his Ph.D. from Indiana University in Bloomington. Following his postdoctoral training in Neurobiology at the Worcester Foundation in Massachusetts, he began a 34-year career in teaching and research at the University of Wyoming, where he also served in a variety of administrative positions. Now a professor emeritus, he focuses his efforts on teaching and textbook writing. He has taught the psychology course Drugs and Behaviour to more than three thousand students since 1972 and has received several teaching awards.

    Dr. Carl Hart is an Associate Professor in both the Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology at Columbia University and is also a Research Scientist in the Division of Substance Abuse at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. A major focus of Dr. Hart’s research is to understand the complex interactions between neurobiological and environmental factors that mediate and modulate the actions of drugs of abuse, including drug-taking behaviour and cognitive performance. Dr. Hart’s research has been supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse for the past several years. In addition to his substantial research responsibilities, Dr. Hart teaches an undergraduate Drugs and Behaviour course and was recently awarded Columbia University’s highest teaching award.

    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1 Drug Use: An Overview

    “The Drug Problem”

    Use is Not Abuse

    Every Drug Has Multiple Effect

    Amount Matters

    Psychoactive Drug Effects Are Powerfully Influenced by the User’s History and Expectations

    Drugs, Per Se, Are Not Good or Bad How Did We Get Here?

    Drugs and Drug Use Today

    Extent of Drug Use

    Populations of Users

    Trends in Drug Use

    Correlates of Drug Use

    Risk and Protective Factors

    Deviant Drug Use

    Race, Gender, and Level of Education

    Personality Variables

    Genetics

    Antecedents of Drug Use

    Gateway Substances

    Motives for Drug Use

    Summary

    Review Questions

    References

    Check Yourself: Do Your Goals and Behaviors

    Match?

    Chapter 2 Drug Use as a Social Problem

    Land of the Free?

    Toxicity

    Categories of Toxicity

    Drug Abuse Warning Network

    How Dangerous Is the Drug?

    Blood-Borne Diseases

    Substance Dependence: What Is It?

    Three Basic Processes

    Changing Views of Addiction

    Which Is More Important, Physical Dependence or Psychological Dependence?

    Broad Views of Addiction

    Is Addiction Caused by the Substance?

    Is Dependence Biological?

    Is There an “Addictive Personality”?

    Is Dependence a Family Disorder?

    Is Substance Dependence a Disease?

    Crime and Violence: Does Drug Use Cause Crime?

    Why We Try to Regulate Drugs

    Summary

    Review Questions

    References

    Check Yourself: Are You Hooked on an Activity?

    Check Yourself: What’s Your Risk of Drug Toxicity?

    Chapter 3 Drug Policy

    The Beginnings

    Reformism

    Issues Leading to Legislation

    1906 Pure Food and Drugs Act

    Harrison Act of 1914

    Two Bureaus, Two Types of Regulation

    Regulation of Pharmaceuticals

    Purity

    Safety

    Effectiveness

    Marketing a New Drug

    Dietary Supplements

    Controlled Substances

    After the Harrison Act

    Narcotic Control Act of 1956

    Drug Abuse Control Amendments of 1965

    Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970

    Anti-Drug Abuse Acts of 1986 and 1988

    State and Local Regulations

    Federal Support for Drug Screening

    Military and Federal Employees

    Transportation Workers

    Private Employers

    Public Schools

    Testing Methods

    The Impact of Drug Enforcement

    Budget

    International Programs

    Other Federal Agencies

    Other Costs

    Effectiveness of Control

    Summary

    Review Questions

    References

    Check Yourself: Consider the Consequences

    Chapter 4 The Nervous System

    Homeostasis

    Components of the Nervous System

    Neurons

    Glia

    Neurotransmission

    Action Potential

    The Nervous System(s)

    Somatic Nervous System

    Autonomic Nervous System

    Central Nervous System

    The Brain

    Chemical Pathways Implicated in Reward

    Structures

    Drugs and the Brain

    Life Cycle of a Neurotransmitter

    Examples of Drug Actions

    Chemical Theories of Behavior

    Brain Imaging Techniques

    Structural Imaging

    Functional Imaging

    Word of Caution

    Summary

    Review Questions

    References

    Chapter 5 The Actions of Drugs

    Sources and Names of Drugs

    Sources of Drugs

    Names of Drugs

    Categories of Drugs

    Drug Effects

    Nonspecific (Placebo) Effects

    Dose-Response Relationships

    Potency

    Time-Dependent Factors in Drug Actions

    Getting the Drug to the Brain

    A Little “Chemistry”

    Routes of Administration

    Transport in the Blood

    More about the Blood-Brain Barrier

    Mechanisms of Drug Actions

    Effects on All Neurons

    Effects on Specific Neurotransmitter Systems

    Drug Deactivation

    Mechanisms of Tolerance and Withdrawal

    Symptoms

    Summary

    Review Questions

    References

    Chapter 6 Stimulants

    Cocaine

    History

    Coca Wine

    Local Anesthesia

    Early Psychiatric Uses

    Early Legal Controls on Cocaine

    Forms of Cocaine

    Contemporary Legal Controls on Cocaine

    Mechanism of Action

    Absorption and Elimination

    Beneficial Uses

    Causes for Concern

    Supplies of Illicit Cocaine

    Current Patterns of Cocaine Use

    Amphetamines

    History

    Basic Pharmacology

    Beneficial Uses

    Causes for Concern

    Summary

    Review Questions

    References

    Chapter 7 Depressants and Inhalants

    History and Pharmacology

    Before Barbiturates

    Barbiturates

    Meprobamate

    Methaqualone

    Benzodiazepines

    Nonbenzodiazepine Hypnotics

    Mechanism of Action

    Beneficial Uses

    Anxiolytics

    Sleeping Pills

    Anticonvulsants

    Causes for Concern

    Dependence Liability

    Toxicity

    Patterns of Abuse

    Inhalants

    Gaseous Anesthetics

    Nitrites

    Volatile Solvents

    Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid

    Summary

    Review Questions

    References

    Chapter 8 Medication for Mental Disorders

    Mental Disorders

    The Medical Model

    Classification of Mental Disorders

    Treatment of Mental Disorders

    Before 1950

    Antipsychotics

    Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs

    Antidepressants

    Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Mood Stabilizers

    Consequences of Drug Treatments for Mental Illness

    Summary

    Review Questions

    References

    Check Yourself: Track Your Daily Mood Changes

    Chapter 9 Alcohol

    Alcoholic Beverages

    Fermentation and Fermentation Products

    Distilled Products

    Beer

    Wine

    Distilled Spirits

    Alcohol Use and “The Alcohol Problem”

    The Temperance Movement in America

    Prohibition

    Prohibition Worked!

    Prohibition Is Repealed

    Regulation after 1933

    Taxation

    Who Drinks? And Why?

    Cultural Influences on Drinking

    Trends in U.S. Alcohol Consumption

    Regional Differences in the United States

    Gender Differences

    Drinking among College Students

    Alcohol Pharmacology

    Absorption

    Distribution

    Metabolism

    Mechanism(s) of Action

    Behavioral Effects

    Time-out

    Driving under the Influence

    Sexual Behavior

    Blackouts

    Crime and Violence

    Physiological Effects

    Alcohol Toxicity

    Alcohol Poisoning

    Hangover

    Chronic Disease States

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Alcohol Dependence

    Withdrawal Syndrome

    Alcohol Use Disorder

    Summary

    Review Questions

    References

    Check Yourself: Do You Have a Drinking Problem?

    Chapter 10 Tobacco

    Tobacco History

    Early Medical Uses

    The Spread of Tobacco Use

    Snuff

    Tobacco in Early America

    Chewing Tobacco

    Cigars

    Cigarettes

    Tobacco under Attack

    The Quest for “Safer” Cigarettes

    Electronic Cigarettes

    Tobacco Products and the FDA

    Current Cigarette Use

    Smokeless Tobacco

    Hookahs

    Causes for Concern

    Adverse Health Effects

    Secondhand Smoke

    Smoking and Health in Other Countries

    Smoking and Pregnancy

    Pharmacology of Nicotine

    Absorption and Metabolism

    Physiological Effects

    Behavioral Effects

    Nicotine Dependence

    How to Stop Smoking

    Summary

    Review Questions

    References

    Check Yourself: Test Your Tobacco Awareness

    Chapter 11 Caffeine

    Caffeine: The World’s Most Common Psychostimulant

    Coffee

    Tea

    Chocolate

    Other Sources of Caffeine

    Soft Drinks

    Energy Drinks

    Over-the-Counter Drugs

    Caffeine Pharmacology

    Time Course

    Mechanism of Action

    Physiological Effects

    Behavioral Effects

    Causes for Concern

    Cancer

    Reproductive Effects

    Heart Disease

    Caffeinism

    Summary

    Review Questions

    References

    Check Yourself: How Much Caffeine Do You Consume?

    Chapter 12 Dietary Supplements and Over-the- Counter Drugs

    Dietary Supplements

    Some Psychoactive Dietary Supplements

    Saint John’s Wort

    SAMe

    Ginkgo biloba

    Weight-Control Products

    Over-the-Counter Drugs

    FDA Regulation of OTC Products

    Simplifying Labels

    Over-the-Counter versus Prescription Drugs

    Behind-the-Counter Drugs?

    Some Psychoactive OTC Products

    Stimulants

    Weight-Control Products

    Sedatives and Sleep Aids

    Analgesics

    People and Pain

    Aspirin

    Acetaminophen

    Ibuprofen and Other NSAIDs

    Cold and Allergy Products

    The All-Too-Common Cold

    Treatment of Cold Symptoms

    Allergy and Sinus Medications

    Choosing an OTC Product

    Summary

    Review Questions

    References

    Check Yourself: Can You Guess What These OTC Products Are Used For?

    Chapter 13 Opioids

    History of Opioids

    Opium

    Morphine

    Heroin

    Opioid Abuse before the Harrison Act

    Abuse after the Harrison Act

    Abuse of Prescription Opioids

    Pharmacology of Opioids

    Chemical Characteristics

    Mechanism of Action

    Beneficial Uses

    Pain Relief

    Intestinal Disorders

    Cough Suppressants

    Causes for Concern

    Dependence Potential

    Toxicity Potential

    Misconceptions and Preconceptions

    Summary

    Review Questions

    References

    Chapter 14 Psychedelics

    Animism and Religion

    Terminology and Types

    Indoles

    Catechols

    N-Methyl-DL-Aspartate (NMDA) Antagonists

    PCP

    Anticholinergic Hallucinogens

    Amanita Muscaria

    Salvia Divinorum

    Summary

    Review Questions

    References

    Check Yourself: Hallucinogens from Plants

    Chapter 15 Cannabis

    Cannabis, the Plant

    Preparations from Cannabis

    Extracts

    Edibles

    History

    Early History

    Harry Anslinger’s Case against Marijuana

    The Marijuana Tax Act of 1937

    After the Marijuana Tax Act

    Pharmacology

    Cannabinoid Chemicals

    Absorption, Distribution, and Elimination

    Mechanism of Action

    Physiological Effects

    Behavioral Effects

    Medical Uses of Cannabis

    Causes for Concern

    Abuse and Dependence

    Toxicity Potential

    Marijuana and American Society

    Summary

    Review Questions

    References

    Chapter 16 Performance-Enhancing Drugs

    Historical Use of Drugs in Athletics

    Ancient Times

    Early Use of Stimulants

    Amphetamines

    International Drug Testing

    American Football

    Steroids

    The BALCO Scandal

    The Battle over Testing

    Stimulants as Performance Enhancers

    Steroids

    Psychological Effects of Steroids

    Adverse Effects on the Body

    Regulation

    Other Hormonal Manipulations

    Beta-2 Agonists

    Creatine

    Getting “Cut”

    Summary

    Review Questions

    References

    Chapter 17 Preventing Substance Abuse

    Defining Goals and Evaluating Outcomes

    Types of Prevention

    Prevention Programs in the Schools

    The Knowledge-Attitudes-Behavior Model

    Affective Education

    Antidrug Norms

    Development of the Social Influence Model

    DARE

    Programs That Work

    Peers, Parents, and the Community

    Peer Programs

    Parent and Family Programs

    Community Programs

    Prevention in the Workplace

    What Should We Be Doing?

    Summary

    Review Questions

    References

    Check Yourself: Do Your Goals and Behaviors Match?

    Chapter 18 Rethinking Drug Policy: What Works, What’s Possible, and What’s Feasible

    Impetus for Change

    Drug Decriminalization

    Uncommon Strategies to Enhance Public Health and Safety

    Drug Purity-Testing

    Heroin-Assisted Treatment

    Safe Drug Consumption Sites

    Concluding remarks

    Summary

    Review Questions

    References

    Appendix A Drug Names

    Appendix B Resources for Information and Assistance

    Glossary

    Photo Credits

    Index

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