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Dynamic Social Studies for Constructivist Classrooms: Inspiring Tomorrow's Social Scientists / Edition 9

Dynamic Social Studies for Constructivist Classrooms: Inspiring Tomorrow's Social Scientists / Edition 9

by George W. Maxim


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Dynamic Social Studies for Constructivist Classrooms: Inspiring Tomorrow's Social Scientists / Edition 9

Authentic Classroom video shows real teachers and students interacting, and helps prepare you for the classroom.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900138132438
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 02/27/2009
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 480
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

George Maxim began his professional career in rural Appalachia and ultimately taught in varied settings and at different levels from preschool through the elementary school grades. After completing a very enjoyable early childhood and elementary school teaching career, he pursued a PhD in Elementary Education from Penn State University, specializing in early childhood and social studies education. He accepted a position at West Chester University, teaching graduate and undergraduate courses in early childhood education, creativity, social studies methods, and literacy. In addition, Dr. Maxim has spoken to various groups, conducted in-service programs, and delivered workshops to teachers throughout the region. He has been invited to speak to audiences in locations as distant as Seoul, South Korea.

Dr. Maxim has received a number of teaching awards, including the Certificate of Excellence in College Teaching from the Pennsylvania Department of Education. Dr. Maxim’s articles have appeared in various journals, including Childhood Education, Social Education, Social Studies and the Young Learner, Science and Children, The Arithmetic Teacher, and other relevant professional journals. He has written several books, including The Very Young, The Sourcebook, Learning Centers for Young Children, and Dynamic Social Studies for Constructivist Classrooms.

Table of Contents

Part I Foundations of Instruction

Chapter 1 Dynamic Social Studies: The Subject You Will Teach 1

What Do You Remember about Social Studies? 4

What Is Social Studies? 7

The Six Major Social Sciences 8

The Social Science/Social Studies Connection 11

Defining the Term Social Studies 12

Why Is Social Studies Important? 15

Participatory Citizenship 15

What Are the Major Goals of Social Studies Instruction in Elementary School? 17

What Is Dynamic Social Studies? 18

Functional Content 19

Cross-Cultural Integration 29

Constructivist Teaching Practices 32

Intrinsic Motivation 35

Respect for Diversity 39

A Final Thought 41

References 42

Chapter 2 Diversity in the Classroom: The Children You Will Teach 45

What Is Multicultural Education? 48

What Is Culture and Ethnicity? 51

How Are Multicultural Perspectives Incorporated into the Social Studies Curriculum? 53

The Contributions Approach 54

The Additive Approach 56

The Transformative Approach 58

The Social Action Approach 60

What Are the Goals of Multicultural Education? 61

Teaching in Culturally Diverse Settings 62

Characteristics of Culturally Responsive Teaching 64

What Other Inequities Must Be Addressed by Our Schools? 76

Educating Children with Special Needs 76

Gender and Classroom Instruction 83

A Final Thought 87

References 88

Chapter 3 Integrated Teaching: Connecting Learning to the Real World 91

What Is Integrated Learning? 95

Drawing from Other Subjects 96

The Arts 96

Reading 103

Mathematics 107

Science 113

Integrative Learning Materials and Activities 116

Hands-On Learning 117

Field Trips 119

Classroom Visitors 122

Computer-Based Multimedia124

Hypermedia (Presentation Software) 126

Projects 129

Key Events of a Project 129

Thematic Units 132

A Final Thought 134

References 135

Part II Classrooms for Young Social Scientists

Chapter 4 Young Historians: Learning to Unlock the Past 137

What Is History? 139

Why Is History Important? 141

What Should Students Know or Be Able to Do? 142

In General, How Should History Be Taught? 143

Investigating with Historical Artifacts 144

Communicating through Historical Narratives 170

How Should Chronology Be Taught? 181

Timelines 182

A Final Thought 184

References 185

Chapter 5 Young Geographers: Exploring the People-Place Connection 187

What Is Geography? 189

Why Is Geography Important? 193

What Should Young Geographers Know or Be Able to Do? 194

The Five Themes of Geography 194

National Geography Standards 197

In General, How Should Geography Be Taught? 201

Teacher-Guided Discovery 201

Maps: The Tools of Geographers 208

What Is a Map? 208

Maps as Models of Our World 209

Representing the World through Block Play 211

Children's First Maps 213

Maps Representing the Classroom 214

Model Neighborhoods and Communities 220

Story Maps 221

The Globe 221

Map Instruction in the Middle and Upper Grades 223

Advanced Map Reading Strategies 227

A Final Thought 240

References 241

Chapter 6 Young Political Scientists: Citizens in Action 243

What Is Civics? 244

Why Is Civics Important? 245

What Should Young Political Scientists Know or Be Able to Do? 246

In General, How Should Civics Be Taught? 249

Engaging Children in Citizenship Processes: The Democratic Learning Community 251

The First Day of School 254

Establishing Rules (Standards) for Classroom Behavior 256

Class Meetings 260

Classroom Symbols 261

Civic Knowledge: Comprehending Fundamental Information and Ideas 262

The United States Constitution 263

National Symbols 268

National Holidays 274

Electing and Voting 277

The Actions and Attitudes of Civic Responsibility 280

Learning about the Civic Responsibility of Model Citizens 283

Civic Dispositions and Virtues 287

Critical Thinking 288

A Final Thought 305

References 307

Part III Constructivist Approaches to Classroom Instruction

Chapter 7 The Learning Cycle: Teacher Scaffolded Social Constructivism 309

What Is Constructivism? 312

What Is Social Constructivism? 315

Zones of Development 316

Scaffolding 316

The Learning Cycle: What Is the Teacher's Role in a Social Constructivist Classroom? 318

The Exploration Phase 318

The Concept/Skill Development Phase 327

The Concept/Skill Application Phase 350

A Final Thought 354

References 355

Chapter 8 Collaborative and Cooperative Learning: Student-Assisted Social Constructivism 357

What Are Collaborative and Cooperative Groups? 360

How Does Group Learning Work? 361

Getting Started 361

Collaborative and Cooperative Learning Groups 365

Collaborative Learning 365

Cooperative Learning 372

A Final Thought 382

References 383

Chapter 9 Inquiry and Problem Solving: Cognitive Constructivism in Action 385

What Is Cognitive Constructivism? 387

How Do Teachers Facilitate Inquiry and Problem Solving? 388

The Inquiry Process 388

The Essence of Inquiry-Based Learning 389

Content-Focused Constructivist Inquiry 400

Creative Problem Solving (CPS) 412

A Final Thought 418

References 419

Part IV Key Organizational Decisions

Chapter 10 Managing Instruction: Planning Lessons and Units 421

Why Is Planning Important? 424

How Are Unit Plans Constructed? 425

Stage 1 Identify Desired Results 427

Stage 2 Determine Acceptable Evidence 434

Stage 3 Planning for Learning 443

A Final Thought 454

References 454

Appendix A: Cited Children's Literature 455

Author Index 457

Subject Index 459

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