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Dyslexia: Research and Resource Guide / Edition 1

Dyslexia: Research and Resource Guide / Edition 1

by Carol Sullivan Spafford, George S. Grosser

ISBN-10: 0205159079

ISBN-13: 9780205159079

Pub. Date: 09/14/1995

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

A comprehensive overview of reading problems experienced by students with dyslexia. It covers characteristics, early warning signs, learning disabilities subtypes, effective treatments, and inclusive practices. Assessment and placement issues such as inclusion, teacher assisted teaming, and the use of IFSP's are covered in-depth. It explains how to develop word


A comprehensive overview of reading problems experienced by students with dyslexia. It covers characteristics, early warning signs, learning disabilities subtypes, effective treatments, and inclusive practices. Assessment and placement issues such as inclusion, teacher assisted teaming, and the use of IFSP's are covered in-depth. It explains how to develop word recognition skills, comprehension, and text strategies and reading-writing connections with dyslexics and other individuals with learning disabilities. Special Education and Learning Disabilities Teachers. A Longwood Professional Book.

Product Details

Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date:
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
7.24(w) x 9.58(h) x 1.15(d)

Table of Contents


1. Introduction, Overview of the Field.
Introductory Remarks—The Challenge.
Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1990.
Definition • Majority of LD Population are Dyslexic • Table— Affective and Instructional Dimensions and Strategic Procedures for Dyslexics.
Historical Basis for the Term “Dyslexia.”
Kirk (1963) Brings LD to the Forefront.
Correlating Factors of Dyslexia.
Table—Early Warning Signs of Dyslexia.
No Definitive Answers.
Identifying Characteristics.
Other Types of Learning Disabilities.
Memory Disorders • Mathematics Disabilities • Non-verbal Disabilities • Language Learning Disabilities.
Subculture Factors and Considerations.
Personality Factors • Culture-fair Tests Not Panaceas • Culture-free Tests Not Recommended • Multicultural Considerations.
Curriculum Planning.
Tables—Integrating Across the Curriculum.
Table—Wise Tidbits from Yesteryear.

2. Dyslexia—The Elusive Disorder.
Table—Correlating Behaviors.
Keeping an Open Mind.
Issue—Inclusion versus Mainstream Practices.
Tables—Inclusion and Mainstreaming Similarities and Differences.
Famous Individuals with Dyslexia.
Identifying Characteristics of Gifted Dyslexics—Table • Posthumous Diagnoses.
An Adult Coping with Dyslexia.
Self-Realization of the Problem • Misinterpretations of Symptoms • Coping • Peer Relations • Depressed School Performance •Dyslexia Affects All Facets of Life • College Failure Not Forever • Support Systems • Developing a Positive Attitude • Professional Support Needed • Summing Up Case Study.
Dyslexia Defined.
Word Origin • Word Blindness • Dyslexia-A Learning Disability • World Federation of Neurology Definition • Critchley's 1970 Definition Preferred • DSM-IV Draft Criteria • Orton's Contributions • Causation Linked to Cerebral Dysfunctions • Dyslexia-Aphasia Link • Speech Dysfunctions in Aphasia • Current Conceptualizations Tied to 1896 Definition • NJCLD 1988 Definition • IDEA Definition (PL 94-142).
The “Matthew Effect.”
Sex Differences.
Sex Ratios.
Hair Color.

3. Controversial Theories.
Cerebellar-Vestibular Dysmetria (CVD).
Blurring, Scrambling, and Reversals Linked to CVD • Internal Releasing Mechanism (IRM).
Neural Organization Technique (NOT).
Ocular Lock Syndrome • The Pelvic Girdle and Dyslexia • Chiropractor Interventions • Physiological and Psychological Inconsistencies.
Hypoglycemia, Hyperinsulinism, and Dysinsulinism • Diet Eliminations and Supplements • Basis for Megavitamin Treatment • American Academy of Pediatrics Warning.
K-P Diet (Kaiser Permanente) by Feingold.
Elimination Diet Program • Diet Approaches and Cognition • Healthy Diets Commonsensible for All.
Analysis of Mineral Levels.
Proven Toxicant-Lead • Chelation Treatment • Hair Mineral analysis • Link Between Mineral Concentrations and Learning • Hair Color.
Tomatis Audiological Psycho-Phonology (APP) Program.
Ontogenic Perspective - (APP).
Postural Rehabilitation-The Delacato System.
Delacato Categorizes Learning Problems on a Continuum • Establishing Cerebral Dominance According to Delacato • Delacato System Hasn't Passed Test of Time • Delacato System Partially Revived in the 1980s.
Perceptual-Motor Approaches that are Linked to IQ/.
Academic Progress • Kephart's Influence • Perceptual-Motor Programs Academically Inefficient Alone • Barsch and Movigenics.
The Eye Patch Treatment.
Unstable Eye Movements • What is the Look of One's Eye Vergence? or The Zen of Oculomotor Maintenance • Dunlop Test • Normal and Dyslexic Readers-Negligible Convergence and Stereopsis Differences.
The Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome (SSS) Irlen Lenses.
Treating the SSS • Scientific Support Sinking (SSS).
The Effects of Blues and Grays • Theoretical Rationale for Syntonics • Research Weak in Methodology • Compared to What?

4. Developing Word Recognition Skills.
Bottom Up/Top Down Models.
Chart—Models of Reading.
Subtyping Considerations.
Developmental Issuers.
Cognitive Learning Styles.
Cases of Gifted/Attention Deficits—Table.
Affective Dimensions.
Motivation for Reading • Background Building and Purpose Setting • Table—Activating Background Knowledge.
Sensitivity to Multicultural Literacy.
Special Activities for Multicultural Education • Graphics—2 Multicultural Activities.
Establishing an Inviting Classroom Environment.
Initial Reading Challenges/Developing Word Recognition Skills.
Table—Word Recognition Characteristics • Sequence When Encountering Pronunciation Problems • Table—Diagnostic Word Recognition Checklist • Developing Metalinguistic Awareness • Table—Phonological Training • Phonemic Awareness—Strong Reading Predictor.
Automaticity in Reading.
Controlled versus Automatic Processing • Speed in Word Recognition • Automaticity and Cognition • Sight Word Recognition and Automaticity.
Sight Word Approaches.
Instructional Strategies • Acrostics/Word Fun Graphics • Multiple Re-Readings • The Cloze Procedure • Predictable Books • Language Experience Approach • Word Banks and Word Fun Graphics • Word Games.
Developing Sight Vocabularies.
Using Context Cues • Vocabulary Maps—Visual • Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS) • Vocabulary Overview Guide • Vocabulary/Concept Circles—Visuals • Feature Analysis—Visual • Keyword Strategies • Using the Dictionary as a Learning Aid.
Special Technology Usage.
Visual—Wise Tidbits from Yesteryear.

5. Word Recognition Programs Which Develop Phonemic Awareness.
Developing Decoding Proficiency—Phonemic Awareness.
Phonemic Awareness • Poor Phonemic Awareness in Students with Dyslexia.
Phonetic Awareness Programs.
Lindamood Auditory Discrimination in Depth Program (A.D.D.) • Reading from Scratch • Analytic Phonics Approaches • The Writing Road to Reading/Spalding Method • Synthetic Phonics Approaches.
Decoding—One Key to Future Reading Successes.
Subtyping Schemes Confound Remedial Efforts.
Reading Interventions for Individuals with Severe Dyslexia.
Monroe Approach • VAKT Approach.
General Reading Suggestions for Troubled Readers.

6. Comprehension and Text Strategies.
Setting a Reading Purpose.
Chart—Comprehension Characteristics • Chart—Activating Background Knowledge • Chart—Integrating Across the Curriculum.
The Skills Perspective.
The Whole Language Approach.
Interactive Models.
Compensatory Strategies.
Cognitive Strategy Instruction—Swanson • Deshler's Strategies Intervention Model.
Cooperative Learning.
Comprehension Activities.
Consideration of Special Language Requirements • Comprehension Assessment Chart • Think-Alouds—Diagnostic Teaching Tool • Emergent Readers • Story Maps • Story Grammar • Graphic Organizers • Text Structure Guides • Skimming • Scanning • Paraphrasing • Surveying • Working with Basal readers • Working with Gifted Students • Oral and Silent Reading • Oral Reading Activities • Silent reading Comprehension • Interrogative Reading.
Sample Software • CD-ROM Multimedia Presentations.

7. Developing Reading-Writing Connections and Study Skills.
Reading/Writing Connections.
Spelling Accommodations • Process Writing • Reading Autobiographies • Using Literature • Journal Writing • Portfolio Projects—Graphics • Writing Workshops • Literature Conferences • Literature Festivals and Author Receptions.
Study Skills Acquisitions.
Note-Taking • Test-Taking Strategies • Organizational and Time-Management Skills • Test-Taking Techniques • Study Skills Training • Homework Adaptations for Dyslexics.
Enhancing Informational Recall.
Graphic—Enhancing Informational Recall • Verbal Mediation • Mnemonics and Graphic • Memory Tips • KWL with Graphic.
Spafford/Grosser Dyslexia Checklist Guide.

8. Math Disabilities.
Research Lacking in Math Disabilities.
Historical Antecedents.
Math Subtypes • Math Performances a Growing Concern.
Cognitive Factors.
Redefining the Math Teacher's Mission.
Constructivist Math Teaching.
Constructivist Math Builds on “Old Math Ideas” • Constructivists Support NCTM Recommendations • Graphic—Constructivist Math • NCTM Recommendations—Table • Cooperative Activities Enhance Constructivist Approach.
Error Pattern Analysis • Focus Remedial Efforts After Testing • Multiple Measures of Assessment Required.
Remediation Overview.
Reliance on Teacher Input • Culture and Gender Issues • The Language of Math • Teaching Math Vocabulary—Graphics • Developmentally Appropriate Practices • Rote Drill and Practice—Graphic • Developing Problem-Solving Strategies • SQRQCQ • Teaching Math Vocabulary Comprehension • Teaching Estimation Strategies • Formatting Problems in Different Ways—Graphics • Bulletin Boards—Graphic • Math Art • Games • Tips for Parents—Graphics • Using Technology in Math.

9. Assessment Applications and Placement Issues.
Symptomotology • Key Questions • Eclecticism • Classroom Climate.
Life after Diagnosis.
IFSP's or Family Service Plans.
Placement Issues.
Appropriate Placements • Flexibility in Programming • Research-Based Factors on Programming • Teacher-Assistance Teaming.
The Inclusion Model.
Classroom Teachers Key Facilitators to Inclusion • Benefits to Classmates • Cautions Regarding Full Inclusion • LDA Position on Inclusion.
Resource Room Programs.
Definition • Role of the Resource Room Specialist • Primary Advantages and Disadvantages.
Self-Contained Classrooms.
Definition and Program Overview.
Collaborative Programs.
Definition and Program Overview.
Special Schools.
Professional Assistance.
LD Problem Consultant—Spafford/Grosser • School Consultants.
Peer Power.
Definition • Enhancing Peer Relations.
Teaching the “Whole Child.”
The Medical Perspective.
Multicultural Issues.
Personalizing the Reading Experience.
Specific Teaching Methods and Materials.
Overview • Graphic—Developing Self-Esteem.
The Adult with Dyslexia.
No Magic Cures.
Overview • A Reflective Process.

10. Professional Development.
Professional Improvement Plans (PIP's) with Graphic.
Professional Portfolios.
Organizational Support.
Public Agencies.
Support for the Adult with Dyslexia.
State-Level Departments of Rehabilitation.
Specific Organizations which Deal with Dyslexia.
NJCLD (National Joint Committee on LD).
Professional Support for Parents and Educators.
Organizations for Dyslexics and Other LD.
The Importance of Reading Research.
Periodicals which Address Dyslexia • Journal reading a Must.
Data-Based Computer Program Search Systems.
ERIC- Data-based Computer Search System • NICEM • CEC Information Services • PAIS • PsychScan:LD/MR • Special/Net Communication Network.
Legal Services Available.
Research Participants?

Index A.
Author Index.

Index B.
Subject Index.



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