Early Pithouse Villages of the Mimbres Valley and Beyond: The McAnally and Thompson Sites in Their Cultural and Ecological Contexts

Early Pithouse Villages of the Mimbres Valley and Beyond: The McAnally and Thompson Sites in Their Cultural and Ecological Contexts

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Overview

Early Pithouse period villagers played a generative role in the cultural and historical sequence of the Mogollon region, which is best known for the stunning black-on-white pottery of the Classic Mimbres culture. This volume presents a complete report on the archaeology of two important Early Pithouse settlements located along the Rio Mimbres, including detailed accounts of the excavation units, depositional contexts, architectural details, radiocarbon dates, miscellaneous artifacts, and ceramic frequency distriductures.

The Thomson and McAnally sites contain architecture, artifacts, and other remains of the earliest relatively sedentary horticulturalists to occupy this part of the Southwest. The authors synthesize the data about charges over time in the villagers' lifestyle to develop a new chronology for the occupation of the region.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780873652117
Publisher: Harvard
Publication date: 06/20/2001
Series: Papers of the Peabody Museum , #83
Pages: 160
Product dimensions: 7.31(w) x 10.50(h) x (d)

About the Author

Steven A. LeBlanc is an archaeologist and former Director of Collections at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University.

Table of Contents

AcknowledgmentsVI
1.Introduction1
Background to the Mimbres Foundation Excavations2
Culture History Summary3
The Organization of This Volume4
2.The Environmental Context and Culture-Historical Framework of the Upland Mogollon Region7
The Upland Mogollon Region As It Is Defined in This Volume7
Upland Mogollon As a Prehistoric Resource Use Area9
A Description of Biotic Provinces Within 60 Km of Upland Mogollon Sites12
The Upland Mogollon Region As a Culture Area17
The Upland Mogollon Chronological Sequence Used in This Volume20
3.Competing Models of Upland Mogollon Pithouse Period Life-Styles25
Models That Describe What Happened Between A.D. 200 and 100026
The Hilltop Locations of Early Pithouse Villages: Warfare Versus Social Interaction31
Economic Transitions from the Archaic to the Early Pithouse Period33
Concluding Thoughts: Mogollon Pithouse Village Archaeology and the "Big Picture"34
4.Mogollon Pithouse Architecture and Changes in Residential Mobility37
Are Su Site Pithouses Statistically Larger Than McAnally Site Pithouses?37
The Use of Architectural Details to Assess the Intensity of Site Occupations38
Attributes of Prehistoric Architectural Construction41
A Comparison of the Intensity of Site Occupation from A.D. 200 to 100043
Summary46
5.Paleobotanical Remains47
Excavation and Processing Methods47
Seeds and Diet49
Intersite Distributions of Seeds At Mogollon Early Pithouse Villages51
Diachronic Changes in the Use of Maize51
Conclusion57
6.Ground Stone Analyses59
New Plants and Higher Populations: Catalysts for Change?59
The Methodology of the Ground Stone Analysis62
Mano Analyses65
Summary and Conclusion68
7.A Functional Analysis of Early Pithouse Period Ceramics69
Relationships Between Attributes of Ceramic Design and Use69
McAnally Site Ceramics71
Thompson Site Ceramics75
Summary75
8.Osteofaunal Remains77
9.Chipped Stone81
Efficiency, Foraging, and Farming81
Potential Interpretive Biases82
The McAnally and Thompson Site Assemblages83
Conclusions89
10.Miscellaneous Studies on the McAnally and Thompson Sites: Excavated Units and Depositional Contexts, Ceramic Seriation, and Miscellaneous Artifacts91
Excavation Methods91
The McAnally Site (La 12110)93
The Thompson Site (NM Z:5:35)103
Ceramic Descriptions and Seriation108
Miscellaneous Artifacts112
Summary113
11.Population Dynamics at McAnally and Thompson Sites and Their Valleywide Context115
Population Dynamics at the McAnally and Thompson Sites115
Valleywide Population Dynamics118
Discussion119
AppendixTree-Ring Dates from Upland Mogollon Pithouse Villages121
References129
Figures
2.1.The Upland Mogollon region of the greater American Southwest8
2.2.Biotic provinces within 60 kilometers of the McAnally site11
2.3.Petran Subalpine Conifer Forest12
2.4.Petran Montane Conifer Forest13
2.5.Great Basin Conifer Woodland14
2.6.Plains Grassland15
2.7.Semidesert Grassland16
2.8.Chihuahuan Desertscrub16
6.1.The relationship between time stress, grinding tool size, and efficiency63
6.2.Histogram of surface areas of manos from Upland Mogollon pithouse villages64
6.3.Surface areas of large, maize-grinding manos from Upland Mogollon pithouse villages67
8.1.Antler tool from the McAnally site78
9.1.Projectile points from the Thompson and McAnally sites89
10.1.The Rio Mimbres floodplain viewed from the McAnally site92
10.2.A typical summer flow of the Rio Mimbres near the McAnally site92
10.3.Aerial view of the McAnally site and the Mattocks Ruin94
10.4.Site plan for the McAnally site94
10.5.Plan view and profile of Unit 8 at the McAnally site96
10.6.McAnally site, Unit 8, excavated to floor97
10.7.McAnally site, Unit 8, Loci 3, 4, and 797
10.8.Plan view and profile of Unit 11 at the McAnally site100
10.9.McAnally site, Unit 11, excavated to floor102
10.10.Site plan for the Thompson site103
10.11.Plan view and profile of the Thompson site, Unit 1104
10.12.Thompson site, Unit 1, excavated to floor105
10.13.Plan view and profile of the Thompson site, Unit 2107
10.14.Thompson site, Unit 2, excavated to floor108
10.15.Aerial view of the Thompson site109
10.16.Shell ornament from the Thompson site112
Tables
2.1.Biotic provinces within 60 kilometers of Upland Mogollon branches or sites10
2.2.Means of most recent tree-ring dates from Mogollon pithouses19
2.3.Radiocarbon dates from Upland Mogollon pithouse villages20
2.4.Upland Mogollon Pithouse period attributes and chronology22
4.1.Surface areas of McAnally pithouses38
4.2.Frequencies of different hearth types in Mogollon pithouses43
4.3.Presence or absence of plaster in Mogollon pithouses44
4.4.Wall construction materials in Upland Mogollon pithouses44
4.5.Spjotvoll-Stoline analysis of variance of mean value of post density45
4.6.Presence or absence of remodeling in Upland Mogollon pithouses45
4.7.Changes in architectural indices of occupation duration/residential mobility46
5.1.Latin taxonomic and common names of plants found in McAnally and Thompson site samples48
5.2.Frequencies of charred seeds from the McAnally and Thompson sites49
5.3.Ubiquities of plant seeds at various Upland Mogollon Early Pithouse villages52
5.4.Ubiquities of maize from Upland Mogollon pithouse intervals52
5.5.Frequencies of charred wood taxa from the McAnally and Thompson sites54
5.6.Ubiquities of charred wood taxa at Upland Mogollon pithouse villages54
5.7.Pollen counts from McAnally and Thompson site samples56
6.1.Ground stone artifacts from the McAnally and Thompson sites60
6.2.Manos from Mogollon Pithouse period sites used in this research65
6.3.Mean grinding surface areas of manos from Early Pithouse period Upland Mogollon sites67
6.4.Spjotvoll-Stoline analysis of variance of mean surface areas for Pithouse period maizegrinding manos68
7.1.Rim diameters of McAnally site jars72
7.2.Rim diameters of McAnally site bowls72
7.3.Rim diameters of McAnally site tecomates73
7.4.Use-alteration of partially reconstructed McAnally site jars74

What People are Saying About This

The latest of many important contributions to the science of anthropology and the archaeology of the Southwest that have--improbably--emerged from the vandal-ridden, archaeologically battered Mimbres Valley during the last quarter century.

J. J. Brody

The latest of many important contributions to the science of anthropology and the archaeology of the Southwest that have--improbably--emerged from the vandal-ridden, archaeologically battered Mimbres Valley during the last quarter century.

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