Earth Under Siege: From Air Pollution to Global Change / Edition 2

Earth Under Siege: From Air Pollution to Global Change / Edition 2

by Richard P. Turco, Carl Sagan
Pub. Date:
Oxford University Press, USA
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Earth Under Siege: From Air Pollution to Global Change / Edition 2

"We urgently need a comprehensive and comprehensible book on the dangers to the environment. That need has now been supplied in the present book by Richard Turco."
—the Foreword by Carl Sagan

This acclaimed book examines one of the most important problems facing our modern technological age: environmental pollution. Written to inform general readers—including future policy makers, business administrators, and political leaders—the text offers a comprehensive description of environmental systems, providing a basic understanding of how the world around us works and how human activities affect it. Building on a popular course he taught at UCLA, Richard Turco clearly explains underlying environmental principles and processes including the role of evolutionary forces in shaping the environment, Earth's energy balance, and biogeochemical cycles. Against this background, Turco surveys local and regional problems, including indoor air pollution, smog, and acid rain, identifying the sources and fates of pollutants and examining human exposure to natural and manmade toxins. He then addresses global issues such as stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse climate warming and describes responses to these threats in the form of "global environmental engineering." Now in its second edition, Earth Under Siege has been revised and updated to reflect advances in knowledge and progress in regulation. It offers a comprehensive overview of environmental issues for students in the physical and life sciences, geography, economics, engineering, environmental management and law, policy studies, and social and health sciences.


· Presents information in a way that is readily accessible to nonscientists but is sufficiently detailed to hold the interest of scientists and engineers

· Explains the technical principles underlying a wide range of current environmental problems

· Addresses critical local, regional, and global issues and their impact on life and society

· Uses common experiences and novel illustrations to familiarize students with fundamental concepts

· Challenges readers to think about and approach problems objectively and creatively

· Includes a helpful primer on the basic mathematics employed in the text

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780195142747
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date: 02/21/2002
Edition description: REV
Pages: 552
Product dimensions: 9.90(w) x 7.40(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents

Each chapter ends with Questions and Problems.
Foreword by Carl Sagan
Preface to the First Edition
1. Introduction
1.1. The Cronus Syndrome
1.2. On the Quality of Life
1.3. Global Change and Preservation
1.4. Methodology for Study
Part I. Fundamentals
2. Air: The Medium of Change
2.1. What Is Air?
2.1.1. Sensing Air
2.1.2. The Basic Ingredients
2.1.3. The Basic Properties
2.2. A Short History of Discovery
2.2.1. The Air Revealed
2.2.2. The Mechanics of Air
2.3. The Structure of the Atmosphere
2.3.1. How Much Air Is There?
2.3.2. Temperature Profiles
2.3.3. The Stratification of the Atmosphere
2.4. Air in Motion
2.4.1. Local Winds and Weather
2.4.2. Global Wind Systems
3. Basic Physical and Chemical Principles
3.1. The Mechanical Behavior of Gases and Particles
3.1.1. Gas Laws and Hydrostatics
3.1.2. Particles in Suspension
3.1.3. Clouds and Precipitation
3.2. Radiation and Energy
3.2.1. Sunlight and Heat
3.2.2. Scattering and Absorption
3.2.3. Common Optical Effects
3.3. Chemistry and the Environment
3.3.1. Symbols and Terminology
3.3.2. Properties of Common Substances
3.3.3. The Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions
3.3.4. Basic Chemical Reactions
4. The Evolution of Earth
4.1. The Origin of the Earth
4.1.1. Early Evolutionary Phases
4.1.2. Box Models for Earth Reservoirs
4.1.3. The Prebiotic Atmosphere
4.2. The Coevolution of the Environment and Life
4.2.1. The Evolution of Life Processes
4.2.2. Ancient Organisms and Greenhouse Gases
4.2.3. Photosynthesis and the Ozone Layer
4.3. The Mass Extinction of Life
4.3.1. Fossil History
4.3.2. The Dinosaurs: A Lesson in Longevity
4.3.3. Goddess Gaia and Homeostasis
4.4. The Coevolution of Intelligence and Pollution
4.4.1. Population and Technology
Part II. Local and Regional Pollution Issues
5. Sources and Dispersion of Pollutants
5.1. The Source of the Problem
5.1.1. What to Call Pollutants?
5.1.2. Distributed and Point Sources
5.1.3. Size Scales of Dispersion
5.2. The Dispersion of Pollutants
5.2.1. Diffusion and Turbulence
5.2.2. Convection and Lofting
5.2.3. Advection and Long-Range Transport
5.3. Temperature Inversions
5.3.1. Temperatures in the Lower Atmosphere
5.3.2. Atmospheric Stability
5.3.3. Large-Scale Inversions
5.4. Plumes of Pollution
5.4.1. Smokestack Plumes
5.4.2. Ground Plumes
5.4.3. Urban Heat Islands
5.5. Regional Dispersion of Pollutants
5.5.1. In Coastal Zones
5.5.2. Near Mountain Barriers
6. Smog: The Urban Syndrome
6.1. The History of Smog
6.1.1. Air Pollution and Poets
6.1.2. London Smog
6.1.3. Los Angeles Smog
6.2. Primary and Secondary Pollutants
6.2.1. The Basic Ingredients
6.2.2. Clean and Dirty Air
6.3. Smog Scenarios: A Typical Polluted Day
6.3.1. Carbon Monoxide
6.3.2. Nitrogen Dioxide
6.3.3. Ozone
6.4. Dissecting Smog
6.4.1. The Evolution of Smoggy Air
6.4.2. Trends in Air Pollution
6.5. Haze and Visibility
6.5.1. Total Suspended Particulate
6.5.2. Seeing through Air
6.5.3. Acid Particles and Fog
6.6. Controlling Smog: Everyone's Job
6.6.1. Reducing Emissions of Primary Pollutants
6.6.2. Alternative Fuels
6.6.3. Lifestyles for Health and Survival
7. Effects of Exposure to Pollution
7.1. How Pollutants Affect Health
7.1.1. The Discovery of Toxicity
7.1.2. The Physiology of Toxicity
7.2. The Toxic Effects of Air Pollutants
7.2.1. Common Ingredients of Smog
7.2.2. Eye Irritants
7.2.3. Organic Vapors
7.2.4. Problem Particles
7.2.5. Persistent Environmental Toxins
7.3. Radioactivity
7.3.1. Stability of the Elements
7.3.2. Sources of Radioactivity
7.3.3. The Physiological Effects of Radioactivity
7.4. Assessment of Health Risks
7.4.1. Defining the Threat
7.4.2. Risks and Benefits of Pollution
7.4.3. Box Models for Risk Assessment
7.4.4. Urban Smog: A Case Study
7.5. Limiting Risk
8. Indoor Air Pollution
8.1. What Are "Indoor" Air Pollutants?
8.1.1. The Special Character of Indoor Pollution
8.1.2. Indoor Pollution and the News
8.2. Radon: Mother and Daughters
8.2.1. Poison from the Earth
8.2.2. Radon Exposure and Its Effects
8.3. Formaldehyde
8.3.1. Embalmers' Fluid
8.3.2. Formaldehyde's Impacts on Health
8.4. Tobacco Smoke
8.4.1. Composition of Tobacco Smoke
8.4.2. Tobacco Smoke's Effects on Health
8.4.3. Smoke and Mirrors
8.5. Other Indoor Pollutants
8.5.1. Biogenic Pollutants
8.5.2. Indoor Water Pollution
8.6. Indoor Versus Outdoor Pollution
8.6.1. Is It Safe to Go Indoors?
8.6.2. Making Indoors Safe
9. Acid Rain
9.1. The Tainted Rain
9.2. Acidity and pH
9.2.1. The pH Scale
9.2.2. Acids in Water
9.2.3. Alkalinity: The Acid Buffer
9.3. Sources of Environmental Acids
9.3.1. How Acid Is Acid Rain?
9.3.2. Sulfur Oxides and Acid Rain
9.3.3. Nitrogen Oxides and Acid Rain
9.4. Acid Fog
9.5. The Costs of Excess Acidity
9.5.1. Dying Forests and Lakes
9.5.2. A Potpourri of Destruction
9.5.3. Health Implications
9.6. Controlling Acid Rain and Fog
Part III. Global-Scale Pollution Issues
Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect
Ozone Depletion and the Ozone Hole
Climate Change Caused by Nuclear War: Nuclear Winter
The Relationship between Population and Pollution
10. Global Biogeochemical Cycles
10.1. The Grand Chemical Cycles of Earth
10.1.1. Reservoirs in the Earth System
10.1.2. Simple Reservoir Models
10.2. Biogeochemical Cycles of the Primary Elements
10.2.1. Sulfur
10.2.2. Nitrogen
10.2.3. Oxygen
10.2.4. Carbon
10.3. The Hydrological Cycle
10.4. A Global Garbage Dump?
11. The Climate Machine
11.1. Weather and Climate
11.2. Energy from the Sun
11.2.1. Solar Illumination
11.2.2. The Four Seasons
11.3. The Temperature of Earth
11.3.1. Sunlight In, Earthglow Out
11.3.2. An Energy Balance Model
11.3.3. The Temperatures of the Planets
11.4. The Greenhouse Effect
11.4.1. Atmospheric Band Absorption
11.4.2. Radiation Emission from the Earth
11.4.3. Clouds and Radiation
11.4.4. The Greenhouse Energy Balance
11.5. Energy Reservoirs: The Climate Flywheel
11.5.1. Reservoirs for Heat
11.5.2. Ice: The Cool Reservoir
11.5.3. A Coupled Climate System
11.6. Causes of Climate Change
11.6.1. Climate Variability
11.6.2. Solar Variability: External Forcing
11.6.3. Ice Ages
11.6.4. Volcanic Eruptions
11.6.5. The Albedo Effect
11.7. The Vulnerability of Life to a Changing Climate
11.7.1. Modern Society and Climate
11.7.2. Do We Need Climate Insurance?
12. Greenhouse Warming
12.1. Greenhouse Gases
12.1.1. The Greenhouse Culprits: A Rogue's Gallery
12.1.2. Water Vapor: Innocent Bystander or Good Samaritan?
12.2. Carbon Dioxide
12.2.1. Increasing CO[2: What Is the Cause?
12.2.2. The Problem with Energy Addiction
12.3. Other Greenhouse Gases
12.3.1. Methane
12.3.2. Nitrous Oxide
12.3.3. Chlorofluorocarbons
12.3.4. Ozone
12.4. the Warming Effect of Greenhouse Gases
12.4.1. Climate History and the Greenhouse Effect
12.4.2. Recent Temperature Trends
12.4.3. Forecasts of Greenhouse Warming
12.4.4. Uncertainty Is the Future
12.4. Solutions?
12.5.1. Recyclable Fuels
12.5.2. Alternative Energy Sources
12.5.3. Climate Correction: Endangering the Environment
13. The Stratospheric Ozone Layer
13.1. The Ozone Shield
13.2. The Formation and Destruction of Ozone
13.2.1. The Photochemistry of Ozone
13.2.2. The Destruction of Catalytic Ozone
13.3. The Distribution of Ozone in the Atmosphere
13.3.1. Dobson Units: Ozone Overhead
13.3.2. How Much Ozone Is There?
13.4. Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation
13.4.1. Regions of the Ultraviolet Spectrum
13.4.2. Health Effects of UV-B Radiation
13.4.3. Environmental Effects of UV-B Radiation
13.5. Threats Against Ozone
13.5.1. A Litany of Threats
13.5.2. Chlorine
13.5.3. Nitrogen Oxides and Ozone Change
13.5.4. Bromine and the Halons
13.6. Forecasts of Global Ozone Depletion
13.6.1. Scenarios and Projections
13.6.2. Signature of the Culprit
13.7. The Ozone Hole
13.7.1. Discovery
13.7.2. The Polar Vortex
13.7.3. Polar Stratospheric Clouds
13.7.4. Ozone Depletion: The Hole Story
13.7.5. A Global Ozone Disaster?
13.8. Solutions and Actions
13.8.1. The Montreal Protocol
13.8.2. Saving the Earth's Ozone Layer
14. Global Environmental Engineering
14.1. What Is Global Environmental Engineering?
14.1.1. Living Thermostats: Natural Compensation
14.1.2. Planetary Engineering
14.2. Technological Traps
14.2.1. Nuclear Winter
14.2.2. Carbon Dioxide
14.2.3. Chlorofluorocarbons
14.3. Technological Cures
14.3.1. Preventing Armageddon
14.3.2. Cooling Down the Greenhouse
14.3.3. Fixing the Ozone Shield
14.4. A Rational Approach to Environmental Management
Appendix A. Scientific Notation, Units, and Constants
A.1. Scientific Notation
Applications of Scientific Notation
Large and Small Numbers
Using Mixing Ratios
A.2. The Metric System: Units and Conversions
Common Units of Measure
Manipulation of Dimensions and Units
A.3. Physical and Mathematical Constants
Physical Constants (and Their Common Symbols)
Mathematical Constants
A.4. Mathematical Operations
Squares and Square Roots
Higher Powers
Exponentials and Logarithms
Algebraic Equations
Appendix B. Demonstrations of Common Natural Phenomena
Demonstration 1: Light Scattering by Small Particles
Experimental Procedure
Demonstration 2: Gas-to-Particle Conversion in Smog
Experimental Procedure
Demonstration 3: Atmospheric Pressure and Water Vapor Condensation
Experimental Procedure
Demonstration 4: Acid Rain Formation
Experimental Procedure
Appendix C. Radiation Nomenclature

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