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Oxford University Press, USA
EC Employment Law / Edition 3

EC Employment Law / Edition 3

by Catherine Barnard


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EC Employment Law / Edition 3

This new edition of EC Employment Law provides a complete revision and update of the leading English language text in the field. The coverage in the new edition has been expanded with material on all the latest developments, including the new Equality Directives, together with the Consolidated Equality Directive 2006/54, the development of the European Employment Strategy, the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) as well as more traditional regulatory techniques. It also analyses the ever-expanding body of employment case law.

The book begins with an examination of the development of EC employment law focusing on the shift from employment law to employment policy. The text then examines rule-making in the field of employment law, considering both the traditional routes to legislation and the new governance techniques, including OMC. The book then looks at the substantive area of employment law, examining the free movement of persons, equal treatment, health and safety and working conditions, the restructuring of enterprises, worker participation, and collective action. Throughout, the book addresses the fundamental question as to the purpose of EC employment law: is it primarily economic, social, or both?

About the Author:
Catherine Barnard is Fellow of Trinity College, Reader in European Union Law

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780199280032
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date: 11/13/2006
Series: Oxford European Community Law Library Series
Edition description: REV
Pages: 936
Product dimensions: 9.10(w) x 6.10(h) x 1.70(d)

About the Author

Catherine Barnard is Fellow of Trinity College, Reader in European Union Law and Jean Monnet Chair of European Law, University of Cambridge.

Table of Contents

Table of Cases from the European Court of Justice     xxxvii
Table of Cases from the Court of the First Instance     lxviii
Table of Cases from the European Court and Commission of Human Rights     lxix
Table of Cases from the EFTA Court     lxxi
Table of Cases-National     lxxii
Table of European Commission Decisions     lxxv
Table of Acts, Agreements, and Conventions     lxxvi
Table of Decisions     lxxxii
Table of EC Directives     lxxxiv
Table of Proposed Directives     cxvi
Table of National Legislation     cxviii
Table of European Community Regulations     cxxi
Table of Proposed European Community Regulations     cxxvii
Table of European Community Treaties     cxxviii
List of Tables     cxxxv
List of Figures     cxxxvii
The Evolution of EC Social' Policy
Introduction     3
The Development of EC Social Policy     4
The Treaty of Rome     4
The Social Provisions     4
The Influence of the Ohlin and Spaak Reports     5
A Change of Direction     8
The 1970s and Legislative Activity     8
The Early 1980s: Stagnation     10
The Single Market and the Community Social Charter 1989     11
The Single European Act 1986     11
The Community Social Charter 1989 and the Social Charter Action Programme     13
The Treaty on European Union     15
Introduction     15
The Social Chapter     17
Economic and Monetary Union     20
From Maastricht to Amsterdam     21
The Amsterdam Treaty     22
The Social Title     22
The Employment Title     24
The Lisbon Strategy     26
The Nice Treaty     28
Changes to the Social Title     28
The Charter of Fundamental Rights     28
The Constitutional Treaty     32
The Role of the European Court of Justice     33
Introduction     33
Social Policy in the Face of the Internal Market     36
The Internal Market without a Social Face     36
Striking a Balance between the Internal Market and (National) Social Policy     39
The Role of Public Interest Requirements     39
The Principle of Solidarity     41
Conclusions     44
The Citizenship Case Law     45
The Nature and Purpose of EC Social Policy     49
The European Social Model     49
Market Making vs Market Correcting     51
Introduction     51
The Market-Making Thesis Examined     54
The New Approach: Active Labour Market Policies     57
The Legislative Impact     59
Conclusions     60
(Hard) Law-making in the Field of Social Policy
Introduction     62
Adopting Community Social Legislation     63
Introduction     63
Competence     63
The Nature of Competence     63
Article 118a     65
The Scope of the Competence     65
The Legislative Procedure     66
Article 137     68
The Competence     68
Minimum Standards     70
Changes introduced by the Treaty of Nice     71
Subsidiarity and Proportionality     72
The Form of Legislation: Diversity and Flexibility     75
Introduction     75
The EU's Response: the Need for Flexibility     77
The Use of Directives     78
The Use of Soft Law Measures     80
'Internal Flexibility'     81
Negotiated Flexibility      82
Conclusions     84
The Legislative Process     84
Introduction     85
Consultation of Management and Labour     85
The Legislative Route     88
The Collective Route     88
Negotiation     88
Implementation     90
Via National or Subnational Collective Agreements: Autonomous Agreements     90
Via a 'Decision' of the Council     91
The Collective Route to Legislation in Practice     93
Introduction     93
Negotiating the Parental Leave Directive     94
A Challenge to the Legitimacy of the Collective Route     96
Sectoral Dialogue     102
Conclusions     104
The Employment Title and the Lisbon Strategy: (Soft) Law-making in the Field of Social Policy
Introduction     105
The Economic and Social Context Prior to Amsterdam     106
Levels of Unemployment in Europe in the mid-1990s     106
Methods of Addressing Unemployment in Europe Pre-Amsterdam: the Essen Council     107
The Employment Title     109
The Treaty Provisions     109
The Co-ordination of Policy     109
The Review Process     110
Drawing up the Guidelines      110
The Role of EMCO     110
National Action Plans/National Reform Programmes     112
The Recommendation Procedure     113
Incentive Measures     113
Assessment     114
The Luxembourg Process     115
The Luxembourg Guidelines     115
The Guidelines 1999-2001     118
The 2002 Review and the 2003 Guidelines     120
The 2004 and 2005 Guidelines     125
Assessment     125
Economic and Monetary Union     128
The Lisbon Strategy     132
Introduction     132
The Strategy     133
Overview of the Strategy     133
Modernizing the European Social Model     133
The European Social Model     133
Its Modernization     134
Education and Training     135
More and Better Jobs     137
More Jobs     137
Better Jobs     138
The Means     140
Introduction     140
OMC     141
What is It?     141
Perspectives on OMC     143
Corporate Social Responsibility     145
The Structural Funds      146
What are They?     146
Justification for Expenditure of the Structural Funds     148
Legislation and Social Dialogue     149
The Actors     151
Introduction     151
The Social Partners     151
The Missing Actors     155
Relaunch of the Lisbon Strategy     156
Introduction     156
Relaunching the Lisbon Process     157
The Substance     157
Improving Governance     158
The Basic Rules     158
The New Cycle     160
Conclusions     167
Migrant Workers
Free Movement of (Economically Active) Persons
Introduction     171
The Worker, the Self-Employed Person, and the Service Provider     172
Worker     172
The Self-Employed     174
The Service Provider     176
Citizen of the Union     177
The Rights Conferred on Workers     178
Introduction     178
The Treaty Provisions     178
Direct Effect     179
The Secondary Legislation     181
Introduction     181
The Personal Scope of the Citizens' Rights Directive 2004/38      181
The Rules     181
Spouses and Partners     182
Dependants     183
Rights of Departure, Entry, and Residence     184
The Right to Depart the Home State     184
The Right to Enter the Host State     184
The Right of Residence in the Host State     185
Right of residence for up to Three Months     185
Right of Residence between Three Months and Five Years     185
Right of Permanent Residence     187
Access to Employment and the Right to Equal Treatment     187
Introduction     187
Equal Treatment in respect of Access to Employment     188
Direct Discrimination     189
Indirect Discrimination     190
Non-discrimination and Measures which Substantially Impede Market Access     192
Justification     194
Equal Treatment during the Employment Relationship     195
Equal Treatment in Respect of the Terms and Conditions of Employment     195
Equal Treatment in Respect of Social and Tax Advantages     197
Tax Advantages     197
Social Advantages     199
Equal Treatment and Vocational Training     202
Equal Treatment and Other Benefits      204
Equal Treatment and the Right to Work for Family Members     205
Equal Treatment and Schooling     206
The Right to Permanent Residence in the Host Member State     207
Social Security: Regulation 1408/71 and Regulation 883/2004     210
Introduction     210
The Principles of Co-ordination     211
Introduction     211
Non-discrimination     213
Single State Rule     214
The Principle of Aggregation     215
The Principle of Exportability     216
Other Principles     217
The Personal Scope of the Regulation     218
The Material Scope of the Regulation     221
Introduction     221
Specific Benefits     229
Sickness and Maternity Benefits for Migrant Workers     229
Unemployment Benefits     230
Conclusions     233
Qualifications     233
Introduction     233
Where there is no Community Legislation     233
Where there is Community Legislation     235
Introduction     235
The Vertical Approach     235
The Horizontal Approach     237
Directive 2005/36      240
The Basic Rules     240
Free Provision of Services     240
Freedom of Establishment     241
The General System for the Recognition of Professional Qualifications     241
System of Automatic Recognition of Qualifications Attested by Professional Experience     243
System of Automatic Recognition of Qualifications for Specific Professions     243
Common Provisions     243
Non-application of Horizontal Directives     244
Qualifications Obtained in Third Countries     245
Conclusions     246
Limitations on Freedom of Movement
Introduction     247
Express Derogations     247
Introduction     247
Public Policy, Public Security, Public Health     248
Introduction     248
Public Policy and Public Security     249
Personal Conduct     249
Measures which can be Taken against the Migrant Expulsion or Exclusion     253
Other Measures     254
The Right to Reapply     256
Public Health     256
Procedural Requirements     257
General Provisions     257
Remedies     258
The New Rules     258
Access to Judicial Redress: Appeal and Review     259
Administrative Redress     260
Employment in the Public Service     261
Introduction     261
Article 39(4): 'Employment in the Public Service'     262
The Exercise of 'Official Authority'     265
Justifications     266
The General Approach     266
Justifications     266
Proportionality     270
Fundamental Human Rights     270
The Viking case     272
Posted Workers     275
Introduction     275
The Case Law     275
Rush Portuguesa     275
The Subsequent Case Law     278
The Posted Workers Directive 96/71/EC     280
Personal and Material Scope of the Directive     280
Directive 96/71/EC     280
The Relationship between the Directive and the Rome Convention     284
Access to Information and Administrative Co-operation     285
Remedies     286
Exceptions and Derogations to the Directive     287
Assessment     288
Other Related Measures: the Services Directive     289
Background     289
The 'Bolkestein' Directive      289
The McCreevy Package     292
Conclusions     294
Equality Law
Equality Law: An Introduction
Introduction     297
The Development of EC Law and Policy on Equality     298
Sex Equality     298
Introduction     298
The Development of EU Law and Policy on Sex Equality     300
Legislation     300
Hard law     300
Soft Law and the Open Method of Co-ordination (OMC)     303
Treaty of Amsterdam     306
Institutional Support     307
Equality in Other Fields     308
Race     308
The Scope of the Directives     310
A Common Approach: Social Inclusion     311
Institutional Support     311
Equality under the Constitutional Treaty     312
The Meaning of Equality in the EU Context     313
Introduction     313
Equality as a General Principle of Law     314
Introduction     314
The Use of the Principle of Equality to Challenge the Validity of Community Acts     315
Equality as a Vehicle for Interpretation     317
The Use of the Principle of Equality to Challenge the Acts of the Member States when Acting in the Sphere of Community Law     319
Non-discrimination on Prohibited Grounds     320
Introduction     320
Direct Discrimination     321
The Principle     321
Can Direct Discrimination be Justified     321
Indirect Discrimination     324
The Definition of Indirect Discrimination     324
'Provision, Criterion or Practice'     325
'...Would Put Persons of One Sex at a Particular Disadvantage'     325
Introduction     325
Selecting the Pool     326
Determining Disparate Impact     328
Intention     331
'...Unless that Provision, Criterion or Practice is Justified by a Legitimate Aim, and the Means of Achieving that Aim are Appropriate and Necessary'     332
Conclusions     333
Formal and Substantive Equality     333
The Formal Equality Model     333
The Substantive Equality Model     335
The EU Model of Equality: Equal Opportunities     338
Equal Pay
Introduction     339
The Scope of Article 141     340
Workers     340
Meaning of 'Pay'     341
What Remuneration Constitutes 'Pay'?     341
Remuneration Considered to be Social Security Payments     343
The Relationship between 'Pay' and Equal Treatment     344
The Scope of the Comparison     345
Introduction     345
Unequal Pay Practices by Employers     345
Identifying the Comparator     345
Real Comparator Similarly Situated     345
Hard Cases     347
Type of Work Undertaken by the Comparator     348
Equal Pay for the Same Work     348
Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value     348
Equal Pay for Work of Greater Value     350
Same Establishment or Service     350
The Prohibition of Discrimination on the Grounds of Sex     354
Introduction     354
Non-discrimination     355
The Principle of Non-discrimination     355
On the Grounds of Sex     356
Material Scope     357
The Problem with Applying the Principle of Non-discrimination in Equal Pay Cases     358
Discriminatory Legislative Rules     361
Justifications     362
Introduction     362
The Factors     362
Personal Factors     362
Market Forces/Labour Market Factors     365
Collective Bargaining      367
Different Levels of Scrutiny     368
Introduction     368
The Sliding Scale of Objective Justification     368
Proportionality     371
Enforcement of Equality Rights     372
Direct Effect     372
Burden of Proof     373
Judicial Remedies     375
Effectiveness of the Remedy     375
Levelling Up or Down     379
Proportionate Value?     380
Conclusions     381
Equal Treatment
Introduction     383
The Prohibited Grounds of Discrimination     383
Introduction     383
Sex, Gender Reassignment, Marital and Family Status     384
Race and Ethnic Origin     386
Religion or Belief     388
Sexual Orientation     389
Age     390
Disability     391
The Material Scope     393
Sex     393
Field of Application     393
Social Security     395
Race and Ethnic Origin     396
Framework Directive     397
Prohibition of Discrimination     397
Direct Discrimination     398
The Basic Rule      398
Sex Discrimination     398
Indirect Discrimination     399
Sex, Race and Ethnic Origin, Religion or Belief, Age, Sexual Orientation     399
Disability and the Duty of Reasonable Accommodation     400
Justification/Proportionate Means of Achieving a Legitimate Aim     402
Instruction to Discriminate     402
Harassment     402
Sex     403
Recommendation and Code     403
The Directive     404
The Article 13 Directives     407
Derogations     407
Sex     407
Introduction     406
Sex of the Worker Constitutes a Determining Factor     408
Protection of Women, particularly as regards Pregnancy and Maternity     412
Race and Ethnic Origin     413
The Framework Directive     413
Introduction     414
Religion or Belief     414
Ethos-based Organizations     414
Special Provisions Relating to Northern Ireland     415
Age     416
Conflicts between the Grounds     417
Positive Action     417
Sex     417
Introduction to the Issues     417
The Role of the Court of Justice     419
The Early Days     419
Kalanke and Marschall     420
The Effect of Article 141 (4) EC     424
Beyond Kalanke and Marschall     426
The Article 13 Directives     429
Positive Duty to Promote Equality     430
Directive 86/613 on Equal Treatment of the Self-Employed     431
Remedies     433
Introduction     433
Sex     433
Direct Effect and Beyond     433
Effectiveness of the Remedy     436
Victimization     439
Burden of Proof     440
Representative Organizations     440
Race and Ethnic Origin     442
Framework Directive     443
Conclusions     444
Family Friendly Policies
Introduction     445
Pregnancy, Maternity and Beyond     446
Introduction     446
The Approach under the Equal Treatment Directive     447
The (Equal) Treatment of Pregnant Women     447
Appointment and Dismissal     447
Terms and Conditions of Employment     449
Sick Leave     451
Maternity leave     452
Express Derogation from the Principle of Equal Treatment     454
Directive 92/85 on Pregnant Workers     454
Introduction     454
'Employment' Rights     455
Health and Safety Protection     458
Division of Responsibilities in the Family: the Balance between Work and Caring     460
Introduction     460
Equal Treatment and the Changing Approach of the Court of Justice     462
Parental Leave Directive     464
The Relationship between the Parental Leave Directive and other Measures     467
Childcare     467
Atypical Workers: Part-time, Fixed Term and Agency Work     469
Introduction     469
Directive 91/383/EEC on Health and Safety of Atypical Workers     471
Part-time work     472
Equal Treatment Approach     472
The Part-time Work Directive 97/81     475
Introduction     475
Personal Scope     476
The Principle of Non-discrimination     477
Encouragement of Part-time Work     478
Fixed term work     479
Agency Work     482
Telework     484
Assessment     485
Conclusions     487
Equal Treatment in Social Security and Pensions
Introduction     488
Directive 79/7: Equal Treatment in Social Security     489
Introduction     489
The Material and Personal Scope of the Directive     489
Material Scope     489
Personal Scope     491
The Principle of Equal Treatment     493
Direct and Indirect Discrimination     493
Objective Justification     496
Exceptions and Derogations     499
Article 7(l)(a) on the Determination of Pensionable Age for Granting Old-age and Retirement Benefits     499
Discrimination for the Purposes of Granting Old-age and Retirement Benefits     500
Discrimination in respect of other Benefits Objectively Linked to Old-age and Retirement Benefits     500
Transitional Arrangements     503
Levelling Up or Down?     505
Other Derogations     506
Remedies     506
Adequacy of Compensation     506
Time Limits     508
Equality, Retirement, and Pensions     510
Introduction     510
Retirement Age     511
State Pension Age     513
Occupational Pensions     514
Introduction     514
Directive 86/378 on Equal Treatment in Occupational Social Security     515
Occupational Pensions, 'Pay', and Article 141     517
The Application of the Equality Principle to Occupational Pension Schemes     520
The Non-retrospective Effect of the Barber Judgment: the Temporal Limitation     522
Levelling Up or Down?     527
Barber and Beyond     529
Survivors' Benefits     529
Actuarial Factors     530
Additional Voluntary Contributions     531
Remedies     532
Conclusions     535
Health and Safety and Working Conditions
Health and Safety
Introduction     539
The Development of a Union Policy in Respect of Health and Safety     540
Introduction     540
Historical Perspective     541
The Early Days     541
The Single European Act 1986 and Beyond     544
The European Employment Strategy and the Commission's Strategy on Health and Safety at Work     546
The Social Partners' Agreement on Work-related Stress     550
Framework Directive 89/391 on Health and Safety     551
Introduction     551
The Personal Scope of the Directive     552
Employers' Obligations     552
The Basic Requirements     552
Duty of Awareness and Evaluation     555
Duty to Plan and Take Action     555
Duty to Train and Direct the Workforce     558
Duty to Inform Workers and Workers' Representatives, to Consult, and to Encourage the Participation of the Workforce     558
Duty to Report     561
Workers' Responsibilities     561
Remedies     562
The Daughter Directives     562
Introduction     562
The Workplace Directives     563
Directive 89/654/EEC on the Minimum Safety and Health Requirements for the Workplace     563
Specific Risk Sectors     564
Equipment Used at Work     565
Carcinogens, Chemical, Physical and Biological Agents     569
Conclusions     572
Working Conditions
Introduction     573
Working Time     573
Introduction     573
Personal and Material Scope of Directive 2003/88     577
Limits and Entitlements     577
Introduction     577
Entitlements     579
Daily Rest and In-work Rest Breaks (Articles 3 and 4)     579
Weekly Rest (Article 5)     580
Annual Leave (Article 7)      581
The Basic Rules     581
Rolled up Holiday Pay     582
The Effect of Sick Leave and Maternity Leave     585
Limits     586
Working Time     586
The Basic Rule     586
The Definition of Working Time     587
The Consequences of a Broad Definition of Working Time     588
The Opt-out     589
Night Work     591
Derogations     592
Unmeasured Working Time (Article 17(1))     593
Other Special Cases (Article 17(3))     593
Shift Work (Article 17(4))     594
Collective Agreements or Agreements between the Two Sides of Industry (Article 18)     595
Doctors in Training (Article 17(5))     596
Transport Workers (Articles 20 and 21)     597
Conclusions     597
Young Workers     598
Introduction     598
The Personal Scope of the Directive and Derogations     599
Health and Safety     600
Working Time Limits     601
Rest Periods     602
Conclusions     603
Working Conditions     604
Proof of Employment Contract     605
Introduction      605
Material and Personal Scope of the Directive     605
The Employer's Obligations to Notify     606
The Probative Value of the Written Statement     608
Implementation and Remedies     609
Pay     610
Introduction     610
The Opinion on Equitable Wages     610
Supporting Measures     611
Recommendation 92/441     611
Recommendation 92/442     612
Reform of the National Systems of Social Protection     613
Conclusions     614
Employee Rights on Restructuring Enterprises
Transfers of Undertakings
Introduction     619
Transfers of Undertakings: Overview     620
The Personal Scope of the Directive     623
'Employees'     623
'Representatives of Employees'     625
The Material Scope of the Directive     627
Introduction     627
Legal Transfer or Merger     628
Legal Transfer     628
Introduction     628
Leasing Arrangements     629
Contracting out     630
Transfer as a Result of a Legislative or Administrative Decision     633
Conclusion     634
Merger      634
A Transfer of an Undertaking     636
The Spijkers criteria     636
The Labour Law Approach: Similarity of Activity     638
The Commercial Approach: Economic Entity     641
Public Sector Reorganization     644
Territorial Scope     646
Insolvency and Measures Falling Short of a Declaration of Insolvency     647
The Basic Rules     647
Distinguishing between Insolvency and Pre-insolvency Situations     651
Safeguarding Individual Employees' Rights     653
Introduction     653
Rights Arising from the Contract of Employment     653
Transfer of Rights and Obligations     653
Basic Rules     653
Date of Transfer     655
Contractual Variation     656
Rights Arising from a Collective Agreement     658
Pension Rights, Invalidity and Survivors' Benefits     659
Consent to Transfer     661
Rights Relating to Dismissal     663
The Basic Rules     663
The Relationship between Articles 3 and 4     663
The Limits to the Protection contained in Article 4(1)     664
Collective Rights     666
Implementation and Remedies      668
Implementation     668
Remedies     669
Conclusions     670
Collective Redundancies and Employees' Rights on the Employer's Insolvency
Introduction     672
The Collective Redundancies Directive     672
Introduction     672
The Material and Personal Scope of the Directive     674
The Meaning of Collective Redundancies     674
Where the Directive does not Apply     677
The Employer's Obligations     678
Consultation of Workers' Representatives     679
'Contemplating' Collective Redundancies     679
Consultations with the Workers' Representatives     680
The Subject-Matter of Consultation     680
With a View to Reaching an Agreement     682
Notification of the 'Competent Public Authority'     683
Implementation and Remedies     684
The Insolvency Directive 80/987/EEC     685
Introduction     685
The Material and Personal Scope of the Directive     686
The Definition of Insolvency     686
Employees     687
The Application of the Provisions     688
The Protection Conferred by the Directive     689
Payment by Guarantee Institutions of Employees' Claims     689
The Content of the Right     689
Enforcement of the Rights     691
Provisions concerning Social Security Benefits     692
Provisions concerning and Old-age Benefits     692
Provisions concerning Transnational Situations     692
Abuse     693
Implementation and Remedies     694
Implementation     694
Remedies     695
Conclusions     696
Collective Labour Law
Worker Involvement in Decision-Making: Information, Consultation, and Worker Participation
Introduction     701
Information, Consultation, and Participation: Setting the Scene     702
Introduction     702
Different Forms of Worker Involvement     704
Developments at Community Level     706
European Works Councils     707
Background to the Adoption of the Directive     707
The Thresholds Laid Down by the Directive     710
The Negotiating Procedure     711
Starting the Negotiations     711
The Outcomes of the Negotiations     712
The Subsidiary Requirements     714
Related Provisions     715
Assessment      716
Flexibility     716
The EWC's Success as a Model     717
Looking Forward     719
European Company Statute     720
Introduction     720
The Key Features of the Regulation     722
The Content of the Employee Involvement Provisions     723
Introduction     723
Negotiating Procedure     724
The Possible Outcomes of the Negotiations     725
The Standard Rules     728
Supporting Provisions     731
Assessment     732
National-level Information and Consultation Provisions     732
Background to the Adoption of the Measure     732
The Directive     735
Scope of the Directive     735
Information and Consultation Agreements     737
Related Provisions     738
Worker Participation under other Community Instruments     740
The Merger Regulation     740
State Aid     742
The Takeover Directive     743
Financial Participation of Employees in a Company     744
Introduction     744
Pepper     745
Conclusions     746
Freedom of Association, Collective Bargaining, and Collective Action
Introduction     747
Freedom of Association     747
The Meaning of Freedom of Association     747
Legal Sources of the Right     747
The Content of the Right     749
The Right to Establish Unions     749
The Right to Join or not to Join Trade Unions     749
Legal Protection for those Exercising their Rights     752
Restrictions on the Right of Freedom of Association     752
Freedom of Association and Community Law     753
The Creation of a European-wide Trade Union Movement?     756
The Right to Engage in Collective Bargaining     757
Introduction     757
Collective Bargaining and Collective Agreements     758
The Meaning of Collective Bargaining     758
The Content of Collective Agreements     758
Collective Bargaining at Community Level     760
The Early Days     760
The SEA 1986 and the TEU 1992     761
Assessment     763
Is there a Fundamental Right to Bargain Collectively?     764
Collective Bargaining and Competition Law     765
The Right to Take Collective Action     769
Introduction     769
Recognizing the Right to Strike     770
The Meaning of the 'Right' to Strike     772
The Right to Strike and Community Law     773
Prevention and Settlement of Disputes     774
Conclusions     775
Index     777

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