Ecology: Plants, Animals, and the Environment

Ecology: Plants, Animals, and the Environment


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Ecology: Plants, Animals, and the Environment by Michael Allaby, Richard Garratt

Discovering the Earth is a Fascinating seven-volume set that describes the steps by which we have reached our cumulative understanding of the way Earth functions. Each volume concentrates on a particular branch of science and area of scientific discovery through the lives and research of individuals of a specific time. Designed to complement science curricula, the books depict the challenges that scientists overcame and the obstacles presented when their contemporaries did not recognize their discoveries as relevant or significant.

Ecology: Plants, Animals, and fhe Environment traces the origin of ecology and explains what it is and how it has progressed over time. By examining the notable contributions of naturalists, botanists, and other scientists, the book shows how ecology has developed not only into a scientific discipline devoted to the study of organisms and their natural environment but also an environmentalist movement. Sidebars throughout the book enhance fundamental concepts and provide capsule biographical portraits of key personalities who contributed to the field of environmental science.

The volume includes information on

the "balance of nature"


Rachel Carson

the classification of plant communities

Charles Darwin


the Great Chain of Being

research in Europe and in North America


Gilbert White

The book contains more than 30 full-color photographs and four-color line illustrations, a glossary, a detailed list of print and Internet resources, and an index. Discovering the Earth is an essential set for high school students, teachers, and general readers who wish to learn how scientists acquiredtheir knowledge of the world that led to how they "discovered" the Earth.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780816061006
Publisher: Facts on File, Incorporated
Publication date: 10/01/2009
Series: Discovering the Earth Series
Pages: 240
Product dimensions: 7.60(w) x 9.30(h) x 0.80(d)
Age Range: 14 - 17 Years

Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xi

Introduction xii

Chapter 1 Gilbiert White and His Letters to Naturalists 1

The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne 2

Gilbert White, Naturalist of Selborne 3

Controlling Pests to Improve Crop Yields 7

Chapter 2 The Beginning of Conservation 12

Renewable Resources in Medieval Forests 15

John Evelyn and Forestry 19

George Perkins Marsh and the Consequences of Deforestation 23

National Parks and Wildlife Reserves 27

Henry David Thoreau and Walden 31

Aldo Leopold and Preserving Wilderness 34

The Meaning of the Dust Bowl 36

Public or Private? "The Tragedy of the Commons" 40

Chapter 3 The Chain of Being 44

John Ray and the Classification of Plants 45

Adaptation and the Great Chain of Being 48

Charles Bonnet (1720-1793), and the Discovery of Parthenogenesis 50

William Derham and the Interdependence of Organisms 52

Linnaeus and Binomial Nomenclature 54

René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur (2683-1757), and Experiments with Nature 55

What Is a Species? 61

Chapter 4 Geography of Living Things 65

Eden, Noah, and Migration 66

Johann Forster, Georg Forster, James Cook, and Voyages of Biological Exploration 69

The Comte de Buffon and Geographic Isolation 74

Karl Willdenow and Plant Distribution 78

Alexander von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland, Exploring South America 79

Chapter 5 Charles Darwin and his "Entangled Bank" 85

Darwin and the Beagle 86

Evolution by Means of Natural Selection 90

Population and Resources 96

Thomas Malthus and An Essay on the Principle of Population 98

Ernst Haeckel and "Oecology," the Study of the Household 101

How "Oecology" Became "Ecology" 104

VladimirVernadsky and the Discovery of the Biosphere 106

James Lovelock and the Physiology of the Earth 108

Gaia Hypothesis 110

G. F. Gause and the Struggle for Existence 112

Chapter 6 The Growth of Ecology 115

Abandoning the "Balance of Nature" 116

Karl Möbius, His Oysters, and the Biocoenosis 118

Stephen Forbes and "The Lake as a Microcosm" 120

François-Alphonse Forel and the Inhabitants of Lac Léman 123

Victor Hensen, Karl Brandt, and Studies of Sea Life 126

Chapter 7 Social Organization of Plants 131

Oscar Drude and Plant Communities 132

Josias Braun-Blanquet and Phytosociology 133

The Zurich-Montpellier School 135

Eugenius Warming and the Ecology of Plants 136

Chapter 8 American Ecology 139

Charles C. Adams and the Survey of Isle Royale 140

Henry Chandler Cowles and the Sand Dunes of Lake Michigan 142

Frederic E. Clements, Plant Succession, and the Superorganism 146

The Climax Concept 149

Henry Allan Gleason and the Individualistic Concept 150

Victor E. Shelford and Animal Communities 152

Robert H. MacArthur and the Testing of Hypotheses 153

Alfred J. Lotka, Vito Volterra, and the Mathematics of Relationships 155

Raymond Lindeman, Energy and Efficiency 158

The Odum Brothers and Systems Ecology 160

Chapter 9 British Ecology 165

Arthur G. Tansley, Exploring British Plants 166

Charles Elton, Regulating Populations 170

Ecological Pyramids 173

Ronald Aylmer Fisher and the Union of Evolution and Ecology 174

Mendel's Laws 175

Chapter 10 The Rise of Scoiobiology 178

William D. Hamilton and the Evolution of Behavior 179

Edward O. Wilson and Sociobiology 183

Chapter 11 Ecology and Environmentalism 186

Rachel Carson and Silent Spring 187

The Rise of the Environmentalist Movement 190

The Stockholm Conference and the United Nations Environment Programme 192

Environmental Protection and Reducing Pollution 196

Conclusion 199

Glossary 201

Further Resources 208

Index 214

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