Ecology: Theories and Applications

Ecology: Theories and Applications

by Peter D. Stiling

Paperback(Older Edition)

$73.15

Overview

Presents a comprehensive, yet concise and clear, overview of ecology—evolutionary, behavioral, population, community and applied. The Third Edition retains a broad scope and completely integrates the applied sections into the theories of ecology — showing how the theories are applied in the real world. Emphasizes critical thinking and problem solving. Discusses what is currently known about a topic as well as what is yet unknown—emphasizing that future study in the discipline can lead to important contributions. Completely new first chapter, introduction—Discusses the four main sections of the book: behavioral, population, community, and ecosystems ecology. Expanded coverage of behavioral and ecosystems ecology includes a new chapter which features sections on mating systems, sex ratios, habitat selection, dispersal and age structure. Includes discussions on energy flow; features a new, independent chapter for nutrient cycles; separate chapters on species richness, diversity, stability, succession and biogeography. Discusses non-equilibrium theories in coverage of stability and touches on cluster analysis and ordination in discussion of diversity. Broad discussion of evolutionary biology to put conservation and biodiversity in perspective. For ecolgists and environmental scientists.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780132219396
Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
Publication date: 02/28/1996
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 539
Product dimensions: 7.68(w) x 9.52(h) x 1.03(d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

Ecology is a fascinating science. It is the most valuable discipline for learning what causes the distribution of plants and animals on Earth. Knowledge of ecology is vital in taking conservation measures and in attempting to restore the planet after the ravages of pollution. Ecology provides the conceptual framework upon which environmental science is built. Indeed, ecology is to environmental science as physics is to engineering. That is, an engineer cannot build a bridge without knowing the physical principles underlying its construction, and similarly, environmental scientists cannot understand the environment without a sound knowledge of ecological principles.

Ecology is also a broad discipline. It borrows from many areas: from mathematics to build models of population growth, from physiology to understand how organisms live in their environments, from geology to understand soils, from chemistry to understand the chemical defenses of plants, and from genetics to understand the extinction of species. From all these fields, ecology has emerged as a science vital to the very preservation of our planet. Ecology is now a household word; this book will help you understand its every facet.

The changes to the fourth edition are substantial. The introduction has been completely rewritten to introduce students to the disciplines of evolutionary and behavioral ecology, population ecology, community ecology, and ecosystems ecology, the four pillars upon which this book is built. The introduction also discusses the methods used in ecological studies, giving examples of how investigators proceed from observation throughexperimentation to analysis. The section on evolutionary and behavioral ecology has been completely stripped down and refocused on ecology.

The population ecology section maintains its focus on factors affecting population growth, but more space has been allotted to mutualism and commensalism and to parasitism, in order to give balance to the chapters on competition and predation. The community ecology section has been simplified: Complex subjects such as ordination have been omitted, and the focus is now more on worked examples, using actual data sets. In the ecosystems section, I have again reworked all chapters. Here, Chapter 22, on nutrients, addresses the role of chemicals in the distribution of organisms and does not center on the nutrient cycles themselves.

There have been many pedagogical changes. Each chapter starts with its own Road Map, set of brief statements that give a one-sentence outline of what each section in the chapter is about. Many of the tables and figures have been replaced and redrawn using voice balloons, so that the student is instantly alerted to the main point each graphic is making. Nearly 50% of the diagrams in this edition are new, in addition to the scores of new color photographs, each carefully chosen to illustrate a particular point raised in the text.

The format of the chapters in the fourth edition remains similar to that of the last edition. Each chapter begins with an explanation of a concept, followed by examples well illustrated with data, figures, and tables. For example, in Chapter 13, a discussion of indispensable mortality is followed by how this concept relates to sea turtle conservation and how the protection of a few adult sea turtles may actually be much more profitable than protecting dozens of eggs on the beach. Following the examples is a synthesis of the preceding material in the section, with details of a review or a mathematical model, or both, that tell us where the preponderance of the evidence lies and which concept or theory is best supported. A summary at the end of the chapter reiterates the main points and should be a valuable study aid.

Supplements

Instructor's Resource CD-ROM (0-13-092639-6) and Transparency Acetates (0-13-061637-0). Prentice Hall's commitment to a four-color format for this edition of Ecology: Theories and Applications has enabled us to make the diagrams, data graphics, and photographs easier to interpret, and the overall presentation brighter and more accessible. These images are available to the instructor for presentation purposes on an easy-to-use CD-ROM.

Instructor's Resource CD-ROM or as Transparency Acetates. The Instructor's Resource CD-ROM contains every piece of line art from the text formatted for a clear on-screen lecture hall presentation as well as PowerPoint lecture presentations for each chapter. Also available are 150 transparencies. They are labeled with large, boldfaced type for easy reading in the classroom. Professors can receive the Instructor's Resource CD-ROM or the Transparency Acetates by contacting their local Prentice Hall representative or Prentice Hall faculty services at (800) 526-0485.

Student Companion Website (www.prenhall.com/stiling). The companion website for Ecology: Theories and Applications has been revised and expanded. Each unit now features Case Studies that challenge students to pose questions, formulate hypotheses, design experiments, analyze data, and draw conclusions. Many tutorials include real data sets from current ecological research projects that students are asked to interpret and analyze. The website also features extensive links to other ecology sites as well as chapter self quizzes that can be submitted to the instructor.

Acknowledgments

I have had many new people help me in this fourth edition, but my first vote of thanks should go to my editor, Teresa Ryu. She raised the production values enabling the book to enjoy full color throughout. My Developmental Editor, Ellen Smith, worked tirelessly with me to make every word and every illustration count for the student. Her attention to detail and quality shows on every page, as she read the text and asked questions like a student. Travis Moses-Westphal, Project Manager, was instrumental in engineering the media and supplements package with much enthusiasm. Brian Baker was meticulous in his copyediting and went well beyond the normal duties of a copy editor, even calling for new illustrations if he felt the need! Robin Manasse labored long and hard to turn my chicken-scratch figures into graceful works of art. She often improved the clarity of my original figures and never complained when I sent her work back with new modifications. Shari Toron, Production Editor, seamlessly wove together the art, photographs, figures, and copyedited manuscript into a bright new ecology text. Finally, I am grateful to the following reviewers of the third edition, who suggested so many of the improvements herein:

Gregory H. Adler, University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh
Clifford Amundsen, University of Tennessee
Gerardo B. Camilo, St. Louis University
Mitchell B. Cruzan, University of Tennessee
Richard Deslippe, Texas Tech University
James Drake, University of Tennessee
Leo S. Luckinbill, Wayne State University
Nancy McCreary Waters, Lafayette College
Peter Meserve, Northern Illinois University
L. Maynard Moe, California State University, Bakersfield
John Mull, Weber State University
Katharine Nash Suding, University of Colorado, Boulder
Christopher Paradise, Davidson College
Craig Plante, College of Charleston
Frank Romano, III, Jacksonville State University
Anthony M. Rossi, University of North Florida
Jan Savitz, Loyola University of Chicago
Benjamin Steele, Colby-Sawyer College
William R. Teska, Furman University

Once again, Jacqui Stiling, out of all these people, deserves special credit for her untiring help in preparing the manuscript and supervising the wonderful task of acquiring permissions!

Peter D. Stiling
University of South Florida

Table of Contents

Prefacexi
Section 1Introduction1
Chapter 1Why and How to Study Ecology2
Section 2Evolution and Behavioral Ecology19
Chapter 2Genetics and Ecology20
Chapter 3Extinction30
Chapter 4Group Selection and Individual Selection42
Chapter 5Life History Strategies54
Section 3Population Ecology65
Chapter 6Population Growth66
Chapter 7Physical Environment89
Chapter 8Competition and Coexistence108
Chapter 9Mutualism135
Chapter 10Predation150
Chapter 11Herbivory170
Chapter 12Parasitism189
Chapter 13Evaluating the Controls on Population Size206
Section 4Community Ecology227
Chapter 14The Main Types of Communities228
Chapter 15Global Patterns in Species Richness249
Chapter 16Species Diversity273
Chapter 17Stability, Equilibrium, and Nonequilibrium289
Chapter 18Succession303
Chapter 19Island Biogeography318
Section 5Ecosystems Ecology335
Chapter 20Trophic Structure336
Chapter 21Energy Flow348
Chapter 22Nutrients360
Glossary373
Literature Cited380
Photo Credits391
Index393

Preface

Preface

Ecology is a fascinating science. It is the most valuable discipline for learning what causes the distribution of plants and animals on Earth. Knowledge of ecology is vital in taking conservation measures and in attempting to restore the planet after the ravages of pollution. Ecology provides the conceptual framework upon which environmental science is built. Indeed, ecology is to environmental science as physics is to engineering. That is, an engineer cannot build a bridge without knowing the physical principles underlying its construction, and similarly, environmental scientists cannot understand the environment without a sound knowledge of ecological principles.

Ecology is also a broad discipline. It borrows from many areas: from mathematics to build models of population growth, from physiology to understand how organisms live in their environments, from geology to understand soils, from chemistry to understand the chemical defenses of plants, and from genetics to understand the extinction of species. From all these fields, ecology has emerged as a science vital to the very preservation of our planet. Ecology is now a household word; this book will help you understand its every facet.

The changes to the fourth edition are substantial. The introduction has been completely rewritten to introduce students to the disciplines of evolutionary and behavioral ecology, population ecology, community ecology, and ecosystems ecology, the four pillars upon which this book is built. The introduction also discusses the methods used in ecological studies, giving examples of how investigators proceed from observation through experimentation toanalysis. The section on evolutionary and behavioral ecology has been completely stripped down and refocused on ecology.

The population ecology section maintains its focus on factors affecting population growth, but more space has been allotted to mutualism and commensalism and to parasitism, in order to give balance to the chapters on competition and predation. The community ecology section has been simplified: Complex subjects such as ordination have been omitted, and the focus is now more on worked examples, using actual data sets. In the ecosystems section, I have again reworked all chapters. Here, Chapter 22, on nutrients, addresses the role of chemicals in the distribution of organisms and does not center on the nutrient cycles themselves.

There have been many pedagogical changes. Each chapter starts with its own Road Map, set of brief statements that give a one-sentence outline of what each section in the chapter is about. Many of the tables and figures have been replaced and redrawn using voice balloons, so that the student is instantly alerted to the main point each graphic is making. Nearly 50% of the diagrams in this edition are new, in addition to the scores of new color photographs, each carefully chosen to illustrate a particular point raised in the text.

The format of the chapters in the fourth edition remains similar to that of the last edition. Each chapter begins with an explanation of a concept, followed by examples well illustrated with data, figures, and tables. For example, in Chapter 13, a discussion of indispensable mortality is followed by how this concept relates to sea turtle conservation and how the protection of a few adult sea turtles may actually be much more profitable than protecting dozens of eggs on the beach. Following the examples is a synthesis of the preceding material in the section, with details of a review or a mathematical model, or both, that tell us where the preponderance of the evidence lies and which concept or theory is best supported. A summary at the end of the chapter reiterates the main points and should be a valuable study aid.

Supplements

Instructor's Resource CD-ROM (0-13-092639-6) and Transparency Acetates (0-13-061637-0). Prentice Hall's commitment to a four-color format for this edition of Ecology: Theories and Applications has enabled us to make the diagrams, data graphics, and photographs easier to interpret, and the overall presentation brighter and more accessible. These images are available to the instructor for presentation purposes on an easy-to-use CD-ROM.

Instructor's Resource CD-ROM or as Transparency Acetates. The Instructor's Resource CD-ROM contains every piece of line art from the text formatted for a clear on-screen lecture hall presentation as well as PowerPoint lecture presentations for each chapter. Also available are 150 transparencies. They are labeled with large, boldfaced type for easy reading in the classroom. Professors can receive the Instructor's Resource CD-ROM or the Transparency Acetates by contacting their local Prentice Hall representative or Prentice Hall faculty services at (800) 526-0485.

Student Companion Website (www.prenhall.com/stiling). The companion website for Ecology: Theories and Applications has been revised and expanded. Each unit now features Case Studies that challenge students to pose questions, formulate hypotheses, design experiments, analyze data, and draw conclusions. Many tutorials include real data sets from current ecological research projects that students are asked to interpret and analyze. The website also features extensive links to other ecology sites as well as chapter self quizzes that can be submitted to the instructor.

Acknowledgments

I have had many new people help me in this fourth edition, but my first vote of thanks should go to my editor, Teresa Ryu. She raised the production values enabling the book to enjoy full color throughout. My Developmental Editor, Ellen Smith, worked tirelessly with me to make every word and every illustration count for the student. Her attention to detail and quality shows on every page, as she read the text and asked questions like a student. Travis Moses-Westphal, Project Manager, was instrumental in engineering the media and supplements package with much enthusiasm. Brian Baker was meticulous in his copyediting and went well beyond the normal duties of a copy editor, even calling for new illustrations if he felt the need! Robin Manasse labored long and hard to turn my chicken-scratch figures into graceful works of art. She often improved the clarity of my original figures and never complained when I sent her work back with new modifications. Shari Toron, Production Editor, seamlessly wove together the art, photographs, figures, and copyedited manuscript into a bright new ecology text. Finally, I am grateful to the following reviewers of the third edition, who suggested so many of the improvements herein:

Gregory H. Adler, University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh
Clifford Amundsen, University of Tennessee
Gerardo B. Camilo, St. Louis University
Mitchell B. Cruzan, University of Tennessee
Richard Deslippe, Texas Tech University
James Drake, University of Tennessee
Leo S. Luckinbill, Wayne State University
Nancy McCreary Waters, Lafayette College
Peter Meserve, Northern Illinois University
L. Maynard Moe, California State University, Bakersfield
John Mull, Weber State University
Katharine Nash Suding, University of Colorado, Boulder
Christopher Paradise, Davidson College
Craig Plante, College of Charleston
Frank Romano, III, Jacksonville State University
Anthony M. Rossi, University of North Florida
Jan Savitz, Loyola University of Chicago
Benjamin Steele, Colby-Sawyer College
William R. Teska, Furman University

Once again, Jacqui Stiling, out of all these people, deserves special credit for her untiring help in preparing the manuscript and supervising the wonderful task of acquiring permissions!

Peter D. Stiling
University of South Florida

Customer Reviews

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See All Customer Reviews