The Economic Development of the Third World Since 1900

The Economic Development of the Third World Since 1900

by Paul Bairoch

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781136600500
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 11/05/2013
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 280
File size: 5 MB

Table of Contents

LIST OF STATISTICAL TABLES ix

NOTE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION xii

INTRODUCTION 1

1 POPULATION 5

A Changes in population of the under-developed countries from 1900 to 1970 5

B Recent changes and future prospects 8

2 AGRICULTURE 13

A Agricultural production 14

(i) Changes in production up to 1934/38 14

(ii) Changes in agricultural production since 1934/38 16

B Agricultural productivity 21

(i) Method of calculating the index of agricultural productivity 22

(ii) Productivity thresholds 26

(iii) Index of agricultural productivity: Results and comments 29

C Recent changes: A green revolution? 45

3 EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRY 49

A The connexion between the extractive and manufacturing industries 49

B Changes in extractive industry: Causes and consequences 51

(i) Changes in output 51

(ii) Causes of growth in output 54

(iii) The consequences of growth of mining and extraction in under-developed countries 57

4 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY 63

A Rates of growth in manufacturing industry 64

(i) All non-communist, under-developed countries 64

(ii) Rate of growth in manufacturing industry by country 72

B Level of development of manufacturing industry 77

(i) General indicators based on the relative position of manufacturing industry 78

(ii) Simple indicators 83

C Agriculture and manufacturing industry 88

(i) Levels of development in agriculture and manufacturing 88

(ii) Changing conditions in agriculture and industry 90

5 FOREIGN TRADE

A General changes in foreign trade 92

B The pattern of foreign trade by commodities 98

C The geographical pattern of foreign trade 101

(i) General changes 101

(ii) The place of the under-developed countries in the foreign trade of the western developed countries 104

D Note on the foreign trade of China 109

6 THE TERMS OF TRADE 111

A The terms of trade 1870–1938 112

(i) Critique of the estimates proving a secular fall in the terms of trade of primary products 113

(ii) Additional proofs of the reality of a secular improvement in the terms of trade of primary products 116

B The terms of trade 1926–1970 122

(i) Changes in the prices of raw materials and manufactures 1926/29 to 1950/54 123

(ii) Changes in terms of trade, 1948–1970 125

7 THE LEVEL OF EDUCATION 135

A The level of literacy and primary schooling 135

B Secondary and higher education 140

8 URBANIZATION 144

A Changes in urbanization 145

B Urbanization and levels of economic development 148

C Causes of urban inflation 151

D Urbanization in China 156

9 THE LABOUR FORCE & EMPLOYMENT 158

A The labour force 158

(i) Past changes and future projections of total labour force 158

(ii) The structure of the labour force by branch of activity 159

B Unemployment and under-employment 165

(i) Rural unemployment and under-employment 167

(ii) Urban unemployment and under-

employment 168

10 MACRO-ECONOMIC DATA 172

A Capital formation and imports of capital equipment 172

(i) Changes in the rate of capital formation 172

(ii) Capital equipment as a share of imports 175

B Financial aid 177

(i) General changes 177

(ii) Geographical distribution of financial aid 182

C Growth and level of per capita product or national income 183

(i) Rate of growth of Gross Product in noncommunist, less-developed countries 183

(ii) Comparisons with developed countries 186

(iii) Mainland China 188 (iv) Changes in per capita income and output 190

11 GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 194

POSTSCRIPT (1974) 210

NOTES 211

APPENDIX: SYNOPTIC TABLE 244

BIBLIOGRAPHY 250

INDEX

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Economic Development of the Third World Since 1900 5 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 1 reviews.
Willp More than 1 year ago
This is a classic study of development. He argues that sustained development needs to be socialist. As he writes, "It does not seem possible that a liberal regime, such as the free market economy which was the setting for the western industrial revolution, could nowadays be capable of giving less-developed countries similar opportunities for advance." He notes, "China's success and the, at least partial, failure of the non-communist Third World." For national development, land reform, i.e. expropriation of the landlord class, is essential. As he points out, "without agrarian reform a rise in productivity could have but a minor influence on development because the mass of the agricultural population would not be in a position to share in any of the benefits." To develop, nations need industry, and, as he observes, "it seems essential for the state to play a leading role in industrial investment." Governments need to defend their infant industries against destruction by foreign competitors, so "Policy makers should not be afraid to set up tariff barriers to protect local industries." He points out, "the success of industrialisation in the Third World is primarily dependent on domestic demand", not on exports. This is true not just in the Third World. He sums up, "the fundamental choices should be subject to a national plan and the state should, in addition to the traditional fields of centralized powers, intervene extensively in the following ways: 1. by stimulating agricultural development on a vast scale: where this stimulation requires an agrarian reform this reform should be a priority; 2. by creating industrial enterprises which favour general economic development and by devising a tariff policy which encourages industry; 3. by instituting a policy of birth control."