The 2016 edition of the Economic Report on Africa (ERA 2016) focuses on greening industrialization and highlights sustainable and people-centred industrialization. Given the impacts of climate change, resource scarcities and environmental degradation, measures for de-risking Africa's development are critical. The form and pattern of Africa's industrialization, shaped by its abundant natural resources especially water and renewable energy sources, are discussed within the scale and scope that tackles inequality and promotes inclusivity. The report employs a value chain approach in analyzing the decoupling needs of key economic sectors towards low carbon intensive economic growth in Africa. Country case studies are used in demonstrating ongoing greening activities across key sectors. This is supported with modelling of future development scenarios under 'Business-as Usual' and "Greening" to demonstrate the additionality of greening policies and investments in making a business case to support the industrialization and transformation momentum in the continent's development agenda. The report therefore provides evidence-based information to policymakers and other stakeholders on greening Africa's industrialization to achieve inclusive and sustainable structural transformation and growth on the continent.