Educating Early Christians through the Rhetoric of Hell: 'Weeping and Gnashing of Teeth' as Paideia in Matthew and the Early Church

Educating Early Christians through the Rhetoric of Hell: 'Weeping and Gnashing of Teeth' as Paideia in Matthew and the Early Church

by Meghan Henning

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783161529634
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
Publication date: 11/01/2014
Series: Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 2.Reihe Series , #382
Pages: 307
Product dimensions: 6.06(w) x 9.06(h) x 0.90(d)

Table of Contents

Preface vii

Chapter 1 The History of Hellish Rhetoric

I Why Hell?: The Historical Relevance of the Rhetoric of Eternal Punishment 1

II Hell and the History of Religions 3

III Beyond Genesis: Ideology, Fluidity, and the History of Interpretation 8

IV A Word about the Terminology for Eternal Punishment 10

V Plan of the Book 11

Chapter 2 Death, Judgment, and the Abode of the Dead as Malleable Rhetorical Tools in the Hebrew Bible

I Introduction 14

II Concepts of the Abode of the Dead in the Hebrew Bible 17

a All Dead Travel to a Common place 19

b The Place of the Dead as a Descripter 23

i Dark, Dusty and Generally Undesirable Place 23

ii A Poetic Marker for Depth, or a Remote Place 24

iii The Opposite of the Heavens 24

III The Abode of the Dead as a Rhetorical Tool in the Hebrew Bible 25

a Vivid or Dramatic Imagery: The Abode of the Dead as Spectacle or Metaphor 25

b Sorting the Dead: The Abode of the Dead Signifying Judgment or Punishment 28

c The Abode of the Dead as a Tool for Moral Formation in the Hebrew Bible 33

i The Life and Death Contrast in the Hebrew Bible 33

ii The Abode of the Dead as Ethical Motivation 36

IV Conclusion 41

Chapter 3 Learning from the Dead: Hades as an Expression of Paideia in Greek and Latin Literature

I Introduction 43

II Greek and Roman Rhetoric and Education: The Role of Ethical Instruction within Greek and Roman Paideia 44

a Paideia as Rhetorical Training 44

b Paideia and Early Christianity 48

c Paideia as Cultural and Ethical Education 51

d Ekphrasis: The Pedagogical use of Rhetoric in Transmitting Cultural Values 54

III Greek and Roman Examples of Hell as Paideia 65

a Prevalence of Homer and Virgil in Ancient School Texts 65

b Visualizing Punishment: The Use of Ekphrasis in Depictions of Hades 67

i The Katabasis 67

ii Evidence of Ekphrasis: The Language of Perception 69

iii Evidence of Ekphrasis: The Presence of Enargeia or "Vividness" 72

iv Explicit Communication of the Didactic Function of the Ekphrasis 75

c The Spectacle of Punishment as Paideia 77

IV Conclusion 82

Chapter 4 Periegesis?: The Journey through the Places of the Dead in Jewish Apocalyptic Literature

I Introduction 83

II The Genre of Geographic "Tours" in Jewish Apocalyptic Literature 85

III The Rhetorical Function of "Tours": Parallel to Periegesis of Greek and Latin Literature? 92

a Spatial Differentiation: Directional Cues and Geographic Descriptions 94

b Order and Meaning: Implicit Paideia in the Jewish Apocalypses 99

IV Conclusion 107

Chapter 5 A Choice Between Two Ways: The Rhetoric of Eternal Punishment in the New Testament

I Introduction 108

II Ekphrasis of Enargeia?: Analyzing the Rhetoric of Description in the NT 109

III The Pedagogical Function of Eternal Punishment in the NT 112

a Mark 9:42-50 112

b Q 10, 15 and 12, 4-5 117

c Luke 122

d James 126

e 2 Peter 128

f Revelation 131

IV Conclusion 137

Chapter 6 The Pedagogical Role of Eschatological Judgment, Eternal Punishment, and the Afterlife in Matthew

I Introduction 138

II Education in Matthew: An Exercise in Community Formation 138

a Matthew's Audience 139

b Matthew's Interest in Paideia and the Formation of Ecclesia 139

III The Role of Apocalyptic Eschatology within Matthew's "Curriculum" 149

IV The Pedagogical Function of Eternal Punishment in Matthew 153

a Matthew's Use of Terminology 153

b Evidence of Ekphrasis: The Presence of Enargeia or "Vividness" 156

c Explicit Communication of the Didactic Function of the Ekphrasis 163

d The Description of Punishment as Paideia: Rhetoric of Ethical and Cultural Education 166

V Conclusion 173

Chapter 7 The Pedagogical Function of Hell in the Early Christian Apocalypses and the Early Church

I Introduction 174

II Dating and Reception of Tours of Hell 175

III Interpreting and Expanding the New Testament Picture of "Hell" in Early Christian Apocalypses 182

a Interpreting Matthew in the Apocalypse of Peter 183

b Reading Matthew and Paul together in the Apocalypse of Paul 189

c Pleading for Mercy and Reinventing the Beatitudes in the Latin Vision of Ezra and the Greek Apocalypse of Ezra 196

d "Biblical Theology" in the Greek Apocalypse of Mary 199

IV The Pedagogical Function of Hell in the Early Christian Apocalypses 202

a Evidence of Ekphrasis: Periegesis 202

b Evidence of Ekphrasis: Language of Perception 205

c Evidence of Ekphrasis: Enargeia or "Vividness" 207

d The Spectacle of Punishment as Paideia: Explicit Communication of the Didactic Function of Ekphrasis 211

V The Pedagogical Function of Hell in the Early Church Fathers 217

a Chrysostom: Zeal in Appropriating Hell as the Heart of Christian Paideia 218

b Augustine: Distinguishing Christian Paideia from the Tools of the Empire 220

VI Conclusion 222

Chapter 8 Conclusion: The Landscape of Hell and the Cultivation of Early Christianity

I How did "Hell" Emerge as an Educational Tool for Early Christians? 224

II Hell, What is it Good For?: Damnation and the Cultivation of Culture 228

III Dante's Spell: Reflections on Our Hellish Inheritance 230

Appendix A Concepts of the Abode of the Dead in the Hebrew Bible 233

Appendix B The Abode of the Dead as a Rhetorical Tool in the Hebrew Bible 240

Appendix C Ekphrasis in Greek and Latin Texts that Deal with Hades extensively 247

Appendix D Enargeia of "Hell" in the New Testament (apart from Matthew) 248

Appendix E Enargeia of Eternal Punishment in Matthew 249

Appendix F Eschatological Fire in Matthew 252

Appendix G "Weeping and Gnashing of Teeth" in Matthew 252

Bibliography 255

Index of Ancient Sources 277

Index of Modern Authors 291

Subject Index 292

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