Educational Psychology: Developing Learners / Edition 8

Educational Psychology: Developing Learners / Edition 8

by Jeanne Ellis Ormrod
ISBN-10:
0132974428
ISBN-13:
2900132974423
Pub. Date:
01/21/2013
Publisher:
Pearson

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Overview

Educational Psychology: Developing Learners / Edition 8

This widely used book is known for its exceptionally clear and engaging writing, its in-depth focus on learning, and its extensive concrete applications. Its unique approach helps readers understand concepts by encouraging them to examine their own learning and then showing them how to apply these concepts as teachers. The book concentrates on core concepts and principles and gives readers an in-depth understanding of the central ideas of educational psychology. More coverage of learning than any other introductory educational psychology book. This book contains unique, integrated coverage of diversity and inclusion and offers readers an opportunity to apply their knowledge of ed psych in an authentic context while strengthening their skills in assessment. For professionals in the field of Educational Psychology.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900132974423
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 01/21/2013
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 744
Product dimensions: 8.90(w) x 10.90(h) x 1.20(d)

About the Author

Jeanne Ellis Ormrod received her A.B. in psychology from Brown University and her M.S. and Ph.D. in educational psychology from The Pennsylvania State University. She earned licensure in school psychology through postdoctoral work at Temple University and the University of Colorado at Boulder and has worked as a middle school geography teacher and school psychologist. She was Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Northern Colorado until 1998, when she moved east to return to her native New England. She has published numerous research articles on cognition and memory, cognitive development, and giftedness but is probably best known for this book and four others: Human Learning (currently in its sixth edition); Essentials of Educational Psychology (currently in its third edition); Child Development and Education (co-authored with Teresa McDevitt, currently in its fifth edition); and Practical Research (co-authored with Paul Leedy, currently in its tenth edition). She has also recently published a non-textbook for a broad audience: Our Minds, Our Memories: Enhancing Thinking and Learning at All Ages. With her three children now grown and out on their own, she lives in New Hampshire with her husband Richard.

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

Soon after I wrote the first edition of Educational Psychology, I had the good fortune to return to a middle school classroom teaching geography to two sections of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. On my first day back in a K-12 setting, I was quickly reminded of how exciting and energizing the process of teaching growing children can be. This experience confirmed once again what I have always known—that the principles of educational psychology have clear relevance to the decisions a classroom teacher must make on an ongoing basis. How children and adolescents learn and think, how they change as they grow and develop, why they do the things they do, how they are often very different from one another—our understanding of all these things has innumerable implications for classroom practice and, ultimately, for the lives of the next generation.

I have been teaching educational psychology since 1974, and I have loved every minute of it. Because I want the field of educational psychology to captivate you the way it has captivated me, I have tried to make the book interesting, meaningful, and thought-provoking as well as informative. I have a definite philosophy about how future teachers can best learn and apply educational psychology-a philosophy that has guided me as I have written all three editions of this book. More specifically, I believe that you can construct a more accurate and useful understanding of the principles of educational psychology when you:

  • Focus on core principles of the discipline
  • Relate the principles to your own learning and behavior
  • Mentally "process" theprinciples in an effective manner
  • Consider numerous classroom applications of the principles

As I will show you in a moment, I have incorporated numerous features into the book that will encourage you to do all of these things. I hope that you will learn a great deal from what educational psychology has to offer, not only about the students you will be teaching but also about yourself—a human being who continues to learn and develop even now.

Features of the Book

Focusing on Core Principles

Rather than superficially explore every aspect of educational psychology, I have chosen to offer in-depth treatment of the fundamental concepts and principles that have broad applicability to classroom practice. If I myself couldn't imagine how a concept or principle could be of use to a teacher, I left it out. I have highlighted many of the key principles in the Principles/Assumptions tables that appear throughout the book.

Relating Principles to Your Own Learning and Behavior

A central goal of this text is to help you discover more about yourself as a thinker and learner. If you can understand how you yourself learn, you will be in a better position to understand how your students learn and, as a result, to help them learn more effectively. Throughout the book, I've provided many exercises to help you discover important points firsthand and thereby construct a more complete, meaningful understanding of psychological principles of learning, development, motivation, and behavior. Appearing as Experiencing Firsthand features, these exercises are in some ways similar to the "hands-on" activities that can help students learn in elementary and secondary classrooms. But because I ask you to use your mind rather than your hands, you might more accurately think of them as "head-on" experiences.

"Processing" Principles Effectively

Research tells us that many students, including many at the college level, use relatively ineffective strategies for reading, studying, and learning. But research also tells us that students can acquire effective strategies and that when they begin to use such strategies, they find themselves successfully learning and remembering what they read and hear.

One important principle of learning is that people learn and remember new information more effectively when they relate it to what they already know—a process called meaningful learning. I will ask you to reflect on your own knowledge and experiences at the beginning of each chapter and in Thinking About What You Know features at various other spots throughout the book. In addition, some of the margin notes designated with a special (disc) symbol will ask you to consider personal experiences or to recall ideas discussed in previous chapters.

Another effective strategy is organization—making connections among the various pieces of information that you're learning; the Compare/Contrast tables that appear throughout the book will help you organize some of the key ideas in each chapter. Still another learning strategy is elaboration—expanding on information as you study it, drawing inferences, thinking of new examples, making predictions, and so on. Many of the (disc) questions in the margin will encourage you to elaborate on concepts and principles as I describe them. The (triangle) notes in the margin can help you with both organization and elaboration: They may show you how you can connect the material you are reading with ideas presented in later chapters, or they may provide additional, "elaborative" information about those ideas.

Taking Principles Into the Classroom

Throughout the text, I consistently apply psychological concepts and principles to class room practice. Some of these applications are summarized and illustrated in Into the Classroom features and Students in Inclusive Settings tables; many others are highlighted with an (apple) in the margin. Furthermore, the (disc) questions will sometimes ask you to consider possible applications in your own specific circumstances as a teacher.

In addition, every chapter begins and ends with case studies. The case study at the beginning of each chapter presents an example of one or more students dealing with a particular classroom learning task. As we proceed through the chapter, we will continually relate our discussion back to this case, helping you connect chapter content to a classroom context. The case study at the end of each chapter focuses on teachers and teaching; it will help you apply ideas you have encountered in the chapter and make instructional decisions based on what you have learned.

Changes in the Third Edition

Although most of the content in the second edition remains in the third, I have made several changes to reflect current trends in educational psychology and educational practice. Among the most significant changes to this revision are: the addition of three new chapters, including Learning in the Content Areas, Promoting Learning Through Student Interactions, and Students with Special Educational Needs; new and expanded topics; and a reorganization of Part 3.

New Chapter on "Learning in the Content Areas"

Chapter 9 applies principles of cognitive psychology to learning reading, writing, mathematics, science, and social studies. Four general themes—constructive processes, the influence of prior knowledge, metacognition, and developmental differences—and many content-specific teaching strategies appear throughout the chapter.

New Chapter on "Promoting Learning Through Student Interactions"

Discussion of instructional strategies has been expanded to two chapters, and Chapter 14 is now devoted exclusively to describing interactive approaches to instruction including: communities of learners, class discussions, reciprocal teaching, cooperative learning, and peer tutoring.

New Chapter on "Students with Special Educational Needs"

Chapter 5 describes recent trends in special education and presents numerous strategies for teachers who work in inclusive classrooms. (The "Students in Inclusive Settings" tables that appeared in each chapter of the second edition remain in the third edition as well.)

New and Expanded Topics

The third edition includes new sections on contemporary applications of Vygotsky's ideas; theoretical perspectives on language development; heredity, environment, and group differences in intelligence; how procedural knowledge is learned; critical thinking; setting events; behavioral momentum; positive behavioral support; self-regulated learning; lesson plans; direct instruction; and working effectively with parents. Discussions of other topics have, of course, been updated in keeping with recent developments in theory and research.

Reorganization of Part 3

Topics related to planning for instruction-identifying instructional goals, conducting task analyses, and developing lesson plans-now appear at the beginning of Chapter 13 ("Choosing Instructional Strategies") and pave the way for the discussion of instructional strategies. Chapter 15 is now devoted entirely to the topic of "Creating and Maintaining a Productive Classroom Environment."

Supplementary Materials

Numerous supplements to the textbook are available to enhance your learning and development as a teacher.

Student Study Guide. The Student Study Guide provides many support mechanisms to help you learn and study more effectively. These include focus questions to consider as you read the text, a chapter glossary, application exercises to give you practice in applying concepts and principles of educational psychology to classroom settings, answers to selected margin notes, sample test questions, and several supplementary readings.

Simulations in Educational Psychology and Research (Compact Disk). A compact disk accompanies the third edition of the textbook. This CD contains four activities that resemble actual research studies in educational psychology: "The Pendulum Experiment" (to be used with either Chapter 2 or Chapter 9); "Assessing Moral Reasoning" (to be used with Chapter 3); "Bartlett's Ghosts" (to be used with Chapter 7); and "Intuitive Physics" (to be used with Chapter 7, 8, or 9). As you use the CD, you will find yourself "participating" in the activities in much the same way that students in the original research studies did; the CD will ask you to respond to various situations and then give you feedback about your responses. The CD will also help you connect the activity with educational practice.

Companion Website. You can find the Website for Educational Psychology: Developing Learners at www.prenhall.com/ormrod. For each chapter of the book, the Website presents Key Questions that identify the chapter's central issues, a chapter glossary, key terms linked to Internet destinations, and a quick self-test (multiple-choice and essay questions that let you self-assess what you've learned). The Website also provides Syllabus Manager, which your instructor may use to post and occasionally update the course syllabus, as well as an interactive "Message Board" through which you and your classmates can engage in discussions about chapter content.

Videotapes and MultiMedia Guide. Videos are a highly effective means of visually demonstrating concepts and principles in educational psychology. The eight videotapes that accompany this textbook portray a wide variety of teachers, students, and classrooms in action. Six videos present numerous case studies in many content domains and at a variety of grades levels. Two additional videos are: `A Private Universe" (which examines learner misconceptions in science) and Constance Kamii's "Double-Column Addition: A Teacher Uses Piaget's Theory" (which depicts a constructivist approach to teaching mathematics). Opportunities to react to these videos in class discussions will further enhance your ability to think analytically and identify good teaching practices. Your instructor will have a MultiMedia Guide to help guide and enrich your interpretation and understanding of what you see in the videos.

Instructor's Manual. Available to your instructor are suggestions for learning activities, additional "head-on" exercises, supplementary lectures, case study analyses, discussion topics, group activities, and additional media resources. These have been carefully selected to provide opportunities to support, enrich, and expand on what you read in the textbook.

Transparencies. The transparencies that your instructor may use in class will include tables and classroom exercises similar to those found in your textbook. These transparencies are designed to help you understand, organize, and remember the concepts and principles you are studying.

PowerPoint Slides and Supplementary Lectures and Activities. Your instructor may use a CD-ROM that includes PowerPoint versions of the transparencies, supplementary lectures, and activities that appear in the Instructor's Manual.

Test Bank. Many instructors use the test questions that accompany this textbook. Some items (lower-level questions) will simply ask you to identify or explain concepts and principles you have learned. But many others (higher-level questions) will ask you to apply those same concepts and principles to specific classroom situations—that is, to actual student behaviors and teaching strategies. The lower-level questions assess your basic knowledge of educational psychology. But ultimately, it is the higher-level questions that will assess your ability to use principles of educational psychology in your own teaching practice.

Acknowledgments

Although I am listed as the sole author of this textbook, I have been fortunate to have had a great deal of assistance in writing it. First and foremost, I must thank my editor, Kevin Davis, whose ideas, insights, and clear commitment to the field of educational psychology have provided much of the driving force behind my writing and productivity. Kevin is a task master, make no mistake about it, and he always insists that I stretch my talents to the limit. Yet he also provides the guidance (scaffolding) I need to achieve things that initially seem so impossible. After spending countless hours working with Kevin, I can say that he is not only my editor but also my friend.

I am equally indebted to Linda Montgomery, developmental editor for the third edition, whose extensive experience as both an elementary school teacher and an editor have greatly enriched the quality of this edition. Linda's creativity, commitment to excellence, and ongoing support have always been there for me when I've needed them most. I must thank Linda Peterson as well; as developmental editor for both the first and second editions, she helped define much of the pedagogy of the book. Her continuing insistence on application, application, application! kept my focus on the things that future teachers really need to know.

Others at Merrill/Prentice Hall have also contributed in important ways. Copy editor Sue Snyder has gone through my manuscript with a fine-toothed comb and teased out many little places where the text wasn't quite right. Photography editor Nancy Ritz has located many photographs that have given life to the words on the page. And Julie Peters, as production editor for all three editions, has flawlessly coordinated and overseen the entire process of transforming a manuscript into a book—an incredibly complicated task that, in my mind, should far exceed any normal human being's working memory capacity.

In addition, many colleagues across the country have given the book a balance of perspectives that no single author could possibly do on her own. Drs. Margie Garanzini-Daiber and Peggy Cohen provided some of the ideas for the Students in Inclusive Settings tables. Dr. Ann Turnball offered many helpful suggestions for enhancing my discussions of students with special needs. Many other individuals have strengthened the final product considerably by reviewing one or more versions of the book.

Reviewers for the first and second editions were Margaret D. Anderson, SUNY-Cortland; Timothy A. Bender, Southwest Missouri State University; Stephen L. Benton, Kansas State University; Kathryn J. Biacindo, California State University-Fresno; Barbara Bishop, Eastern New Mexico University; Karen L. Block, University of Pittsburgh; Robert Braswell, Winthrop College; Randy L. Brown, University of Central Oklahoma; Kay S. Bull, Oklahoma State University; Margaret W Cohen, University of Missouri-St. Louis; Roberta Corrigan, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Richard D. Craig, Towson State University; Jose Cruz, Jr., The Ohio State University; Peggy Dettmer, Kansas State University; Joan Dixon, Gonzaga University; Leland K. Doebler, University of Montevallo; Joanne B. Engel, Oregon State University; Kathy Farber, Bowling Green State University; William R. Fisk, Clemson University; Roberta J. Garza, Pan American University Brownsville; Cheryl Greenberg, University of North Carolina-Greensboro; Richard Hamilton, University of Houston; Arthur Hernandez, University of Texas-San Antonio; Frederick C. Howe, Buffalo State College; Dinah Jackson, University of Northern Colorado; Janina M. Jolley, Clarion University of Pennsylvania; Caroline Kaczala, Cleveland State University; CarolAnne M. Kardash, University of Missouri-Columbia; Nancy F. Knapp, University of Georgia; Mary Lou Koran, University of Florida; Randy Lennon, University of Northern Colorado; Pamela Manners, Troy State University; Hermine H. Marshall, San Francisco State University; Teresa McDevitt, University of Northern Colorado; Sharon McNeely, Northeastern Illinois University; Michael Meloth, University of Colorado-Boulder; Janet Moursund, University of Oregon; Gary A. Negro, California State University; Judy Pierce, Western Kentucky University; James R. Pullen, Central Missouri State University; Gary F. Render, University of Wyoming; Robert S. Ristow, Western Illinois University; Gregg Schraw, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Dale H. Schunk, Purdue University; Mark Seng, University of Texas; Johnna Shapiro, University of California Davis; Harry L. Steger, Boise State University; Julianne C. Turner, University of Notre Dame; Alice A. Walker, SUNY-Cortland; Mary Wellman, Rhode Island College; and Jane A. Wolfle, Bowling Green State University.

Coming on board for the third edition were these reviewers: Joyce Alexander, Indiana University; J. C. Barton, Tennessee Technical University; Phyllis Blumenfeld, University of Michigan; M. Arthur Garmon, Western Michigan University; Arthur Hernandez, University of Texas, San Antonio; Mary Lou Koran, University of Florida; Victoria Fleming, Miami University of Ohio; Jennifer Mistretta Hampston, Youngstown State University; Pamela Manners, Troy State University; Bruce E Mortenson, Louisiana State University; Joe Olmi, The University of Southern Mississippi; Helen Osana, University of Missouri, Columbia; Gregory Schraw, University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Dale H. Schunk, Purdue University; Bruce Torg Hofstra University; Ann Turnbull, University of Kansas; Glenn E. Snelbecker, Temple University (ancillary material to text); and Karen Zabrucky, Georgia State University.

Last but certainly not least, I must thank my husband and children, who have been ever so patient as I have spent countless hours either buried in my books and journals or else glued to my computer. Without their continuing support and patience, this book would never have seen the light of day.

J. E. O.

Table of Contents


Educational Psychology and Teacher Decision Making     2
Case Study: Hidden Treasure     3
Teaching as Decision Making     4
Using Research in Classroom Decision Making     5
Drawing Conclusions from Research     7
Applying Psychological Theories in Classroom Decision Making     10
Importance of Regular Assessments in Classroom Decision Making     10
Accommodating Diversity in the Classroom     11
Developing as a Teacher     13
Studying Educational Psychology Effectively     14
The Big Picture     16
Case Study: More Harm Than Good?     16
Development and Diversity
Cognitive and Linguistic Development     18
Case Study: Economic Activities     19
Basic Principles of Human Development     20
Role of the Brain in Cognitive Development     22
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development     24
Piaget's Basic Assumptions     25
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development     26
Current Perspectives on Piaget's Theory     31
Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development     33
Vygotsky's Basic Assumptions     34
Current Perspectives on Vygotsky's Theory     37
AnInformation Processing View of Cognitive Development     42
Attention     43
Learning Strategies     44
Knowledge     45
Metacognition     46
Critiquing Information Processing Theory     48
Linguistic Development     49
Theoretical Perspectives on Language Development     50
Trends in Language Development     50
Learning a Second Language     53
Considering Diversity in Cognitive and Linguistic Development     55
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     55
The Big Picture     57
Case Study: In the Eye of the Beholder     58
Development of Self, Social Skills, and Morality     60
Case Study: The Bad Apple     61
Environmental Influences on Personal, Social, and Moral Development     61
Effects of Parenting     62
Effects of Culture     62
Peer Influences     64
Self-Socialization     64
Development of a Sense of Self     65
Factors Influencing the Development of Self-Views     66
Developmental Changes in Sense of Self     68
Social Development     72
Peer Relationships      73
Social Cognition     77
Fostering Social Skills     83
Promoting Social Interaction Among Diverse Groups     85
Moral and Prosocial Development     86
Developmental Trends in Morality and Prosocial Behavior     87
Development of Moral Reasoning: Kohlberg's Theory     89
Possible Gender Differences in Moral Reasoning: Gilligan's Theory     91
Determinants of Moral and Prosocial Behavior     92
Promoting Moral and Prosocial Development in the Classroom     93
Considering Diversity in Sense of Self, Social Development, and Morality     95
Ethnic Differences     95
Gender Differences     96
Socioeconomic Differences     96
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     97
The Big Picture     98
Characteristics of Different Age-Groups     98
General Themes in Personal, Social, and Moral Development     98
Case Study: The Scarlet Letter     99
Group Differences     102
Case Study: Why Jack Wasn't in School     103
Keeping Group Differences in Perspective     104
Cultural and Ethnic Differences     105
Navigating Different Cultures at Home and at School      105
Examples of Cultural and Ethnic Diversity     107
Creating a More Multicultural Classroom Environment     113
Gender Differences     116
Origins of Gender Differences     121
Socioeconomic Differences     124
Risk Factors Associated with Poverty     125
Working with Homeless Students     128
Fostering Resilience     128
Building on Students' Strengths     129
Students at Risk     129
Characteristics of Students at Risk     130
Why Students Drop Out     131
Supporting Students at Risk     131
Remembering Within-Group Diversity     133
Group Differences and Special Needs     134
The Big Picture     135
Case Study: The Active and the Passive     136
Individual Differences and Special Educational Needs     138
Case Study: Tim     139
Keeping Individual Differences in Perspective     140
Intelligence     140
Measuring Intelligence     141
How Theorists Conceptualize Intelligence     144
Nature, Nurture, and Group Differences in Intelligence     147
Being Optimistic About Students' Potential      148
Temperament     149
Temperament in the Classroom     150
Educating Students with Special Needs in General Education Classrooms     151
Public Law 94-142: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)     151
Is Inclusion in the Best Interest of Students?     153
Classifying Students with Special Needs     154
Students with Specific Cognitive or Academic Difficulties     155
Learning Disabilities     155
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)     159
Speech and Communication Disorders     161
General Recommendations for Students with Specific Cognitive or Academic Difficulties     162
Students with Social or Behavioral Problems     163
Emotional and Behavioral Disorders     163
Autism     166
General Recommendations for Students with Social or Behavioral Problems     167
Students with General Delays in Cognitive and Social Functioning     168
Mental Retardation     169
Students with Physical and Sensory Challenges     170
Physical and Health Impairments     170
Visual Impairments     171
Hearing Loss     172
Severe and Multiple Disabilities     174
General Recommendations for Students with Physical and Sensory Challenges     174
Students with Advanced Cognitive Development     176
Giftedness     176
Considering Diversity When Identifying and Addressing Special Needs     178
The Big Picture     179
Case Study: Quiet Amy     180
Learning and Motivation
Learning and Cognitive Processes     182
Case Study: Darren's Day at School     183
Looking at Learning from Different Perspectives     184
Learning as a Change in Behavior     184
Learning as a Change in Mental Representations or Associations     185
Learning and the Brain     186
Keeping an Open Mind About Theories of Learning     187
Basic Assumptions of Cognitive Psychology     187
Basic Terminology in Cognitive Psychology     189
A Model of Human Memory     191
The Nature of the Sensory Register     191
Moving Information to Working Memory: The Role of Attention     192
The Nature of Working (Short-Term) Memory     193
Moving Information to Long-Term Memory: Connecting New Information with Prior Knowledge     194
The Nature of Long-Term Memory     195
Critiquing the Three-Component Model     195
Long-Term Memory Storage     196
The Various Forms of Knowledge     196
How Declarative Knowledge Is Learned     197
How Procedural Knowledge Is Learned     206
Prior Knowledge and Working Memory in Long-Term Memory Storage     207
Using Mnemonics in the Absence of Relevant Prior Knowledge     208
Long-Term Memory Retrieval     210
The Nature of Long-Term Memory Retrieval     210
Factors Affecting Retrieval     211
Why Learners Sometimes Forget     214
Giving Students Time to Process: Effects of Increasing Wait Time     216
Accommodating Diversity in Cognitive Processes     217
Facilitating Cognitive Processing in Students with Special Needs     219
The Big Picture     219
Case Study: How Time Flies     220
Knowledge Construction     222
Case Study: Pulling It All Together     223
Constructive Processes in Learning and Memory     224
Construction in Storage     224
Construction in Retrieval     226
Knowledge Construction as a Social Process     227
Benefits of Joint Meaning-Making with Peers     227
Organizing Knowledge     228
Concepts      228
Schemas and Scripts     233
Theories     234
When Knowledge Construction Goes Awry: Origins and Effects of Misconceptions     235
Promoting Effective Knowledge Construction     238
Providing Opportunities for Experimentation     238
Presenting the Ideas of Others     239
Emphasizing Conceptual Understanding     239
Promoting Dialogue     241
Using Authentic Activities     242
Creating a Community of Learners     243
The Challenge of Conceptual Change     245
Considering Diversity in Constructive Processes     250
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     251
The Big Picture     251
Case Study: Earth-Shaking Summaries     251
Higher-Level Thinking Processes     254
Case Study: A Question of Speed     255
The Nature of Higher-Level Thinking     256
Metacognition and Study Strategies     257
Effective Study Strategies     259
Factors Affecting Strategy Use     265
Transfer     269
Basic Concepts in Transfer     269
Factors Affecting Transfer     271
Importance of Retrieval in Transfer     273
Problem Solving     274
Basic Concepts in Problem Solving     275
Cognitive Factors Affecting Problem Solving     278
Using Computer Technology to Promote Problem Solving     283
Creativity     284
Fostering Creativity     285
Critical Thinking     287
Fostering Critical Thinking     288
Considering Diversity in Higher-Level Thinking Processes     290
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     291
The Big Picture     292
Case Study: Checks and Balances     292
Behaviorist Views of Learning     294
Case Study: The Attention Getter     295
Basic Assumptions of Behaviorism     295
Classical Conditioning     298
Classical Conditioning of Emotional Responses     299
Common Phenomena in Classical Conditioning     300
Operant Conditioning     301
Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning     302
Reinforcement in the Classroom     302
Using Reinforcement Effectively     307
Shaping New Behaviors     310
Effects of Antecedent Stimuli and Responses     311
Reducing and Eliminating Undesirable Behaviors      314
Extinction     314
Cueing Inappropriate Behaviors     314
Reinforcing Incompatible Behaviors     315
Punishment     315
Maintaining Desirable Behaviors Over the Long Run     319
Promoting Intrinsic Reinforcement     320
Using Intermittent Reinforcement     320
Addressing Especially Difficult Classroom Behaviors     321
Applied Behavior Analysis     321
Functional Analysis and Positive Behavioral Support     322
Considering Diversity in Student Behaviors     323
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     324
Strengths and Potential Limitations of Behavioral Approaches     324
The Big Picture     326
Case Study: Hostile Helen     326
Social Cognitive Views of Learning     328
Case Study: Parlez-Vous Francais?     329
Basic Assumptions of Social Cognitive Theory     329
The Social Cognitive View of Reinforcement and Punishment     331
Expectations     331
Vicarious Experiences     332
Cognitive Processing     332
Decisions About How to Behave     333
Nonoccurrence of Expected Consequences     333
Modeling      334
Behaviors That Can Be Learned Through Modeling     335
How Modeling Affects Behavior     336
Characteristics of Effective Models     337
Helping Students Learn from Models     338
Self-Efficacy     340
How Self-Efficacy Affects Behavior and Cognition     341
Factors in the Development of Self-Efficacy     342
Fostering High Self-Efficacy     344
Teacher Self-Efficacy     346
Self-Regulation     346
Self-Regulated Behavior     347
Self-Regulated Learning     352
Self-Regulated Problem Solving     355
Reciprocal Causation     357
Considering Diversity from a Social Cognitive Perspective     359
Using Diverse Models to Promote Success and Self-Efficacy     359
Promoting Self-Regulation in Students at Risk     360
Supporting Students with Special Needs     360
The Big Picture     361
Unifying Ideas in Social Cognitive Theory     361
Comparing the Three Perspectives of Learning     362
Case Study: Teacher's Lament     363
Motivation and Affect     364
Case Study: Quick Draw     365
The Nature of Motivation      365
How Motivation Affects Learning and Behavior     366
Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Motivation     367
Theoretical Perspectives of Motivation     368
The Trait Perspective     368
The Behaviorist Perspective     369
The Social Cognitive Perspective     370
The Cognitive Perspective     370
What Basic Needs Do People Have?     370
Self-Worth     370
Relatedness     372
Affect and Its Effects     374
How Affect Is Related to Motivation     375
How Affect Is Related to Learning and Cognition     376
Anxiety     377
Addressing Diversity in Motivation and Affect     383
Cultural and Ethnic Differences     384
Gender Differences     385
Socioeconomic Differences     385
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     385
The Big Picture     386
Guiding Principles     387
Case Study: When "Perfect" Isn't Good Enough     387
Cognitive Factors in Motivation     390
Case Study: Passing Algebra     391
The Interplay of Cognition and Motivation     392
Self-Perceptions and Intrinsic Motivation      392
Self-Efficacy     393
Self-Determination     394
Expectancies and Values     398
Internalizing the Values of Others     399
Fostering Expectancies and Values in the Classroom     400
Interest     400
Situational Versus Personal Interest     401
Promoting Interest in Classroom Subject Matter     403
Goals     403
Achievement Goals     404
Work-Avoidance Goals     408
Social Goals     408
Career Goals     409
Coordinating Multiple Goals     409
Dispositions     410
Attributions: Perceived Causes of Success and Failure     412
How Attributions Influence Affect, Cognition, and Behavior     414
Developmental Trends in Attributions     415
Factors Influencing the Development of Attributions     417
Mastery Orientation Versus Learned Helplessness     418
Teacher Expectations and Attributions     419
How Expectations and Attributions Affect Classroom Performance     420
Forming Productive Expectations and Attributions for Student Performance     421
Considering Diversity in the Cognitive Aspects of Motivation     424
Ethnic Differences     424
Gender Differences     425
Socioeconomic Differences     425
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     427
The Big Picture     428
General Principles of Motivation     428
Revisiting the Four Theoretical Perspectives     428
Case Study: Writer's Block     430
Classroom Strategies
Instructional Strategies     432
Case Study: Oregon Trail     433
Overview of Instructional Strategies     434
Planning for Instruction     435
Identifying the Goals of Instruction     436
Conducting a Task Analysis     440
Developing a Lesson Plan     442
Expository Approaches     443
Lectures and Textbooks     443
Mastery Learning     446
Direct Instruction     447
Computer-Based Instruction     449
Online Research     450
Hands-On and Practice Activities     451
Discovery Learning     451
In-Class Activities     453
Computer Simulations and Applications     454
Homework     455
Authentic Activities     456
Interactive and Collaborative Approaches      457
Teacher Questions     458
Class Discussions     460
Reciprocal Teaching     462
Technology-Based Discussions     465
Cooperative Learning     465
Peer Tutoring     470
Taking Student Diversity into Account     474
Considering Group Differences     474
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     475
The Big Picture     477
Case Study: Uncooperative Students     477
Creating a Productive Learning Environment     482
Case Study: A Contagious Situation     483
Creating an Environment Conducive to Learning     484
Arranging the Classroom     485
Creating an Effective Classroom Climate     485
Setting Limits     490
Planning Activities That Keep Students on Task     493
Monitoring What Students Are Doing     496
Modifying Instructional Strategies     496
Taking Individual and Developmental Differences into Account     497
Dealing with Misbehaviors     499
Ignoring Behavior     499
Cueing a Student     500
Discussing a Problem Privately with a Student     500
Teaching Self-Regulation Strategies     502
Using Behaviorist Approaches     503
Conferring with Parents     504
Addressing Aggression and Violence at School     504
Creating a Nonviolent School Environment     506
Intervening Early for Students at Risk     507
Providing Intensive Intervention for Students in Trouble     507
Taking Student Diversity into Account     507
Creating a Supportive Climate     508
Defining and Responding to Misbehaviors     509
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     510
Coordinating Efforts with Others     510
Working with Other Teachers     510
Working with the Community at Large     512
Working with Parents     512
The Big Picture     519
Case Study: Old Friends     520
Classroom Assessment Strategies     522
Case Study: The Math Test     523
Assessments as Tools     524
The Various Forms of Educational Assessment     525
Using Assessment for Different Purposes     527
Promoting Learning     527
Guiding Instructional Decision Making     529
Diagnosing Learning and Performance Problems      529
Promoting Self-Regulation     529
Determining What Students Have Learned     529
Important Qualities of Good Assessment     530
Reliability     531
Standardization     534
Validity     534
Praticality     538
Informal Assessment     539
RSVP Characteristics of Informal Assessment     540
Paper-Pencil Assessment     541
Constructing the Assessment Instrument     542
Administering the Assessment     549
Scoring Students' Responses     550
RSVP Characteristics of Paper-Pencil Assessment     552
Performance Assessment     553
Choosing Appropriate Performance Tasks     553
Planning and Administering the Assessment     555
Scoring Students' Responses     556
RSVP Characteristics of Performance Assessment     557
Including Students in the Assessment Process     561
Encouraging Risk Taking     562
Evaluating an Assessment Tool Through Item Analysis     563
Taking Student Diversity into Account in Classroom Assessments     564
Test Anxiety     564
Testwiseness     566
Accommodating Group Differences      566
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     566
The Big Picture     568
Learning, Motivation, and Assessment     568
General Guidelines for Classroom Assessment     568
Case Study: Pick and Choose     569
Summarizing Student Achievement     570
Case Study: B in History     571
Revisiting Self-Regulation and the RSVP Characteristics     572
Summarizing the Results of a Single Assessment     572
Raw Scores     572
Criterion-Referenced Scores     573
Norm-Referenced Scores     574
Using Criterion-Referenced Versus Norm-Referenced Scores in the Classroom     577
Determining Final Class Grades     577
Considering Improvement, Effort, and Extra Credit     579
Choosing Criterion-Referenced or Norm-Referenced Grades     580
Including Students in the Grading Process     581
Using Portfolios     582
Standardized Tests     584
Types of Standardized Tests     584
Technology and Assessment     587
Guidelines for Choosing and Using Standardized Tests     587
Interpreting Standardized Test Scores     588
High-Stakes Testing and Accountability      591
Problems with High-Stakes Testing     592
Potential Solutions to the Problems     593
Taking Student Diversity into Account     594
Cultural Bias     594
Language Differences     595
Accommodating Students with Special Needs     595
Confidentiality and Communication About Assessment Results     596
Communicating Assessment Results to Students and Parents     598
The Big Picture     599
Case Study: Can Johnny Read?     600
Describing Associations with Correlation Coefficients     A-1
Analyses of the Ending Case Studies     B-1
Matching Book and Ancillary Content to the Praxis Principles of Learning and Teaching Tests     C-1
Glossary     G-1
References     R-1
Name Index     N-1
Subject Index     S-1

Preface

Preface

Soon after I wrote the first edition of Educational Psychology, I had the good fortune to return to a middle school classroom teaching geography to two sections of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. On my first day back in a K-12 setting, I was quickly reminded of how exciting and energizing the process of teaching growing children can be. This experience confirmed once again what I have always known—that the principles of educational psychology have clear relevance to the decisions a classroom teacher must make on an ongoing basis. How children and adolescents learn and think, how they change as they grow and develop, why they do the things they do, how they are often very different from one another—our understanding of all these things has innumerable implications for classroom practice and, ultimately, for the lives of the next generation.

I have been teaching educational psychology since 1974, and I have loved every minute of it. Because I want the field of educational psychology to captivate you the way it has captivated me, I have tried to make the book interesting, meaningful, and thought-provoking as well as informative. I have a definite philosophy about how future teachers can best learn and apply educational psychology-a philosophy that has guided me as I have written all three editions of this book. More specifically, I believe that you can construct a more accurate and useful understanding of the principles of educational psychology when you:

  • Focus on core principles of the discipline
  • Relate the principles to your own learning and behavior
  • Mentally "process" the principles in aneffective manner
  • Consider numerous classroom applications of the principles

As I will show you in a moment, I have incorporated numerous features into the book that will encourage you to do all of these things. I hope that you will learn a great deal from what educational psychology has to offer, not only about the students you will be teaching but also about yourself—a human being who continues to learn and develop even now.

Features of the Book

Focusing on Core Principles

Rather than superficially explore every aspect of educational psychology, I have chosen to offer in-depth treatment of the fundamental concepts and principles that have broad applicability to classroom practice. If I myself couldn't imagine how a concept or principle could be of use to a teacher, I left it out. I have highlighted many of the key principles in the Principles/Assumptions tables that appear throughout the book.

Relating Principles to Your Own Learning and Behavior

A central goal of this text is to help you discover more about yourself as a thinker and learner. If you can understand how you yourself learn, you will be in a better position to understand how your students learn and, as a result, to help them learn more effectively. Throughout the book, I've provided many exercises to help you discover important points firsthand and thereby construct a more complete, meaningful understanding of psychological principles of learning, development, motivation, and behavior. Appearing as Experiencing Firsthand features, these exercises are in some ways similar to the "hands-on" activities that can help students learn in elementary and secondary classrooms. But because I ask you to use your mind rather than your hands, you might more accurately think of them as "head-on" experiences.

"Processing" Principles Effectively

Research tells us that many students, including many at the college level, use relatively ineffective strategies for reading, studying, and learning. But research also tells us that students can acquire effective strategies and that when they begin to use such strategies, they find themselves successfully learning and remembering what they read and hear.

One important principle of learning is that people learn and remember new information more effectively when they relate it to what they already know—a process called meaningful learning. I will ask you to reflect on your own knowledge and experiences at the beginning of each chapter and in Thinking About What You Know features at various other spots throughout the book. In addition, some of the margin notes designated with a special (disc) symbol will ask you to consider personal experiences or to recall ideas discussed in previous chapters.

Another effective strategy is organization—making connections among the various pieces of information that you're learning; the Compare/Contrast tables that appear throughout the book will help you organize some of the key ideas in each chapter. Still another learning strategy is elaboration—expanding on information as you study it, drawing inferences, thinking of new examples, making predictions, and so on. Many of the (disc) questions in the margin will encourage you to elaborate on concepts and principles as I describe them. The (triangle) notes in the margin can help you with both organization and elaboration: They may show you how you can connect the material you are reading with ideas presented in later chapters, or they may provide additional, "elaborative" information about those ideas.

Taking Principles Into the Classroom

Throughout the text, I consistently apply psychological concepts and principles to class room practice. Some of these applications are summarized and illustrated in Into the Classroom features and Students in Inclusive Settings tables; many others are highlighted with an (apple) in the margin. Furthermore, the (disc) questions will sometimes ask you to consider possible applications in your own specific circumstances as a teacher.

In addition, every chapter begins and ends with case studies. The case study at the beginning of each chapter presents an example of one or more students dealing with a particular classroom learning task. As we proceed through the chapter, we will continually relate our discussion back to this case, helping you connect chapter content to a classroom context. The case study at the end of each chapter focuses on teachers and teaching; it will help you apply ideas you have encountered in the chapter and make instructional decisions based on what you have learned.

Changes in the Third Edition

Although most of the content in the second edition remains in the third, I have made several changes to reflect current trends in educational psychology and educational practice. Among the most significant changes to this revision are: the addition of three new chapters, including Learning in the Content Areas, Promoting Learning Through Student Interactions, and Students with Special Educational Needs; new and expanded topics; and a reorganization of Part 3.

New Chapter on "Learning in the Content Areas"

Chapter 9 applies principles of cognitive psychology to learning reading, writing, mathematics, science, and social studies. Four general themes—constructive processes, the influence of prior knowledge, metacognition, and developmental differences—and many content-specific teaching strategies appear throughout the chapter.

New Chapter on "Promoting Learning Through Student Interactions"

Discussion of instructional strategies has been expanded to two chapters, and Chapter 14 is now devoted exclusively to describing interactive approaches to instruction including: communities of learners, class discussions, reciprocal teaching, cooperative learning, and peer tutoring.

New Chapter on "Students with Special Educational Needs"

Chapter 5 describes recent trends in special education and presents numerous strategies for teachers who work in inclusive classrooms. (The "Students in Inclusive Settings" tables that appeared in each chapter of the second edition remain in the third edition as well.)

New and Expanded Topics

The third edition includes new sections on contemporary applications of Vygotsky's ideas; theoretical perspectives on language development; heredity, environment, and group differences in intelligence; how procedural knowledge is learned; critical thinking; setting events; behavioral momentum; positive behavioral support; self-regulated learning; lesson plans; direct instruction; and working effectively with parents. Discussions of other topics have, of course, been updated in keeping with recent developments in theory and research.

Reorganization of Part 3

Topics related to planning for instruction-identifying instructional goals, conducting task analyses, and developing lesson plans-now appear at the beginning of Chapter 13 ("Choosing Instructional Strategies") and pave the way for the discussion of instructional strategies. Chapter 15 is now devoted entirely to the topic of "Creating and Maintaining a Productive Classroom Environment."

Supplementary Materials

Numerous supplements to the textbook are available to enhance your learning and development as a teacher.

Student Study Guide. The Student Study Guide provides many support mechanisms to help you learn and study more effectively. These include focus questions to consider as you read the text, a chapter glossary, application exercises to give you practice in applying concepts and principles of educational psychology to classroom settings, answers to selected margin notes, sample test questions, and several supplementary readings.

Simulations in Educational Psychology and Research (Compact Disk). A compact disk accompanies the third edition of the textbook. This CD contains four activities that resemble actual research studies in educational psychology: "The Pendulum Experiment" (to be used with either Chapter 2 or Chapter 9); "Assessing Moral Reasoning" (to be used with Chapter 3); "Bartlett's Ghosts" (to be used with Chapter 7); and "Intuitive Physics" (to be used with Chapter 7, 8, or 9). As you use the CD, you will find yourself "participating" in the activities in much the same way that students in the original research studies did; the CD will ask you to respond to various situations and then give you feedback about your responses. The CD will also help you connect the activity with educational practice.

Companion Website. You can find the Website for Educational Psychology: Developing Learners at www.prenhall.com/ormrod. For each chapter of the book, the Website presents Key Questions that identify the chapter's central issues, a chapter glossary, key terms linked to Internet destinations, and a quick self-test (multiple-choice and essay questions that let you self-assess what you've learned). The Website also provides Syllabus Manager, which your instructor may use to post and occasionally update the course syllabus, as well as an interactive "Message Board" through which you and your classmates can engage in discussions about chapter content.

Videotapes and MultiMedia Guide. Videos are a highly effective means of visually demonstrating concepts and principles in educational psychology. The eight videotapes that accompany this textbook portray a wide variety of teachers, students, and classrooms in action. Six videos present numerous case studies in many content domains and at a variety of grades levels. Two additional videos are: `A Private Universe" (which examines learner misconceptions in science) and Constance Kamii's "Double-Column Addition: A Teacher Uses Piaget's Theory" (which depicts a constructivist approach to teaching mathematics). Opportunities to react to these videos in class discussions will further enhance your ability to think analytically and identify good teaching practices. Your instructor will have a MultiMedia Guide to help guide and enrich your interpretation and understanding of what you see in the videos.

Instructor's Manual. Available to your instructor are suggestions for learning activities, additional "head-on" exercises, supplementary lectures, case study analyses, discussion topics, group activities, and additional media resources. These have been carefully selected to provide opportunities to support, enrich, and expand on what you read in the textbook.

Transparencies. The transparencies that your instructor may use in class will include tables and classroom exercises similar to those found in your textbook. These transparencies are designed to help you understand, organize, and remember the concepts and principles you are studying.

PowerPoint Slides and Supplementary Lectures and Activities. Your instructor may use a CD-ROM that includes PowerPoint versions of the transparencies, supplementary lectures, and activities that appear in the Instructor's Manual.

Test Bank. Many instructors use the test questions that accompany this textbook. Some items (lower-level questions) will simply ask you to identify or explain concepts and principles you have learned. But many others (higher-level questions) will ask you to apply those same concepts and principles to specific classroom situations—that is, to actual student behaviors and teaching strategies. The lower-level questions assess your basic knowledge of educational psychology. But ultimately, it is the higher-level questions that will assess your ability to use principles of educational psychology in your own teaching practice.

Acknowledgments

Although I am listed as the sole author of this textbook, I have been fortunate to have had a great deal of assistance in writing it. First and foremost, I must thank my editor, Kevin Davis, whose ideas, insights, and clear commitment to the field of educational psychology have provided much of the driving force behind my writing and productivity. Kevin is a task master, make no mistake about it, and he always insists that I stretch my talents to the limit. Yet he also provides the guidance (scaffolding) I need to achieve things that initially seem so impossible. After spending countless hours working with Kevin, I can say that he is not only my editor but also my friend.

I am equally indebted to Linda Montgomery, developmental editor for the third edition, whose extensive experience as both an elementary school teacher and an editor have greatly enriched the quality of this edition. Linda's creativity, commitment to excellence, and ongoing support have always been there for me when I've needed them most. I must thank Linda Peterson as well; as developmental editor for both the first and second editions, she helped define much of the pedagogy of the book. Her continuing insistence on application, application, application! kept my focus on the things that future teachers really need to know.

Others at Merrill/Prentice Hall have also contributed in important ways. Copy editor Sue Snyder has gone through my manuscript with a fine-toothed comb and teased out many little places where the text wasn't quite right. Photography editor Nancy Ritz has located many photographs that have given life to the words on the page. And Julie Peters, as production editor for all three editions, has flawlessly coordinated and overseen the entire process of transforming a manuscript into a book—an incredibly complicated task that, in my mind, should far exceed any normal human being's working memory capacity.

In addition, many colleagues across the country have given the book a balance of perspectives that no single author could possibly do on her own. Drs. Margie Garanzini-Daiber and Peggy Cohen provided some of the ideas for the Students in Inclusive Settings tables. Dr. Ann Turnball offered many helpful suggestions for enhancing my discussions of students with special needs. Many other individuals have strengthened the final product considerably by reviewing one or more versions of the book.

Reviewers for the first and second editions were Margaret D. Anderson, SUNY-Cortland; Timothy A. Bender, Southwest Missouri State University; Stephen L. Benton, Kansas State University; Kathryn J. Biacindo, California State University-Fresno; Barbara Bishop, Eastern New Mexico University; Karen L. Block, University of Pittsburgh; Robert Braswell, Winthrop College; Randy L. Brown, University of Central Oklahoma; Kay S. Bull, Oklahoma State University; Margaret W Cohen, University of Missouri-St. Louis; Roberta Corrigan, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Richard D. Craig, Towson State University; Jose Cruz, Jr., The Ohio State University; Peggy Dettmer, Kansas State University; Joan Dixon, Gonzaga University; Leland K. Doebler, University of Montevallo; Joanne B. Engel, Oregon State University; Kathy Farber, Bowling Green State University; William R. Fisk, Clemson University; Roberta J. Garza, Pan American University Brownsville; Cheryl Greenberg, University of North Carolina-Greensboro; Richard Hamilton, University of Houston; Arthur Hernandez, University of Texas-San Antonio; Frederick C. Howe, Buffalo State College; Dinah Jackson, University of Northern Colorado; Janina M. Jolley, Clarion University of Pennsylvania; Caroline Kaczala, Cleveland State University; CarolAnne M. Kardash, University of Missouri-Columbia; Nancy F. Knapp, University of Georgia; Mary Lou Koran, University of Florida; Randy Lennon, University of Northern Colorado; Pamela Manners, Troy State University; Hermine H. Marshall, San Francisco State University; Teresa McDevitt, University of Northern Colorado; Sharon McNeely, Northeastern Illinois University; Michael Meloth, University of Colorado-Boulder; Janet Moursund, University of Oregon; Gary A. Negro, California State University; Judy Pierce, Western Kentucky University; James R. Pullen, Central Missouri State University; Gary F. Render, University of Wyoming; Robert S. Ristow, Western Illinois University; Gregg Schraw, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Dale H. Schunk, Purdue University; Mark Seng, University of Texas; Johnna Shapiro, University of California Davis; Harry L. Steger, Boise State University; Julianne C. Turner, University of Notre Dame; Alice A. Walker, SUNY-Cortland; Mary Wellman, Rhode Island College; and Jane A. Wolfle, Bowling Green State University.

Coming on board for the third edition were these reviewers: Joyce Alexander, Indiana University; J. C. Barton, Tennessee Technical University; Phyllis Blumenfeld, University of Michigan; M. Arthur Garmon, Western Michigan University; Arthur Hernandez, University of Texas, San Antonio; Mary Lou Koran, University of Florida; Victoria Fleming, Miami University of Ohio; Jennifer Mistretta Hampston, Youngstown State University; Pamela Manners, Troy State University; Bruce E Mortenson, Louisiana State University; Joe Olmi, The University of Southern Mississippi; Helen Osana, University of Missouri, Columbia; Gregory Schraw, University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Dale H. Schunk, Purdue University; Bruce Torg Hofstra University; Ann Turnbull, University of Kansas; Glenn E. Snelbecker, Temple University (ancillary material to text); and Karen Zabrucky, Georgia State University.

Last but certainly not least, I must thank my husband and children, who have been ever so patient as I have spent countless hours either buried in my books and journals or else glued to my computer. Without their continuing support and patience, this book would never have seen the light of day.

J. E. O.

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Educational Psychology: Developing Learners 2.4 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 7 reviews.
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missaNC More than 1 year ago
Average book for educational psychology. If you have to have it for a class buy it.
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