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Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches / Edition 5
     

Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches / Edition 5

by R. Burke Johnson, Larry B. Christensen
 

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ISBN-10: 1452244405

ISBN-13: 9781452244402

Pub. Date: 11/19/2013

Publisher: SAGE Publications

Assuming no prior knowledge, Educational Research offers a comprehensive, easily digestible introductory research methods textbook for undergraduate and graduate students. Readers will develop an understanding of the multiple research methods and strategies used in education and related fields; how to read and critically evaluate published research

Overview

Assuming no prior knowledge, Educational Research offers a comprehensive, easily digestible introductory research methods textbook for undergraduate and graduate students. Readers will develop an understanding of the multiple research methods and strategies used in education and related fields; how to read and critically evaluate published research; and the ability to write a proposal, construct a questionnaire, and conduct an empirical research study on their own. Students rave about the clarity of this best seller and its usefulness for their studies, enabling them to become critical consumers and users of research.

Key Features

  • Attention-grabbing, current event chapter opening vignettes and examples throughout the book engage student interest.
  • While many texts only offer one method, this book gives a balanced coverage of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research as well as their strengths and appropriateness, showing each has merit when employed properly.
  • A conversational and accessible writing style makes the book fun and easy to read.
  • Review question checkpoints are strategically placed to bolster student comprehension of key topics.

    Separate practical chapters are included on, “How to Construct a Questionnaire”, “How to Write a Research Proposal,” and "How to Write an APA Style Report."


Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781452244402
Publisher:
SAGE Publications
Publication date:
11/19/2013
Edition description:
Fifth Edition
Pages:
744
Sales rank:
58,111
Product dimensions:
8.00(w) x 10.00(h) x (d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments
Part I: Introduction
1 Introduction to Educational Research
Why Study Educational Research?
Areas of Educational Research
Examples of Educational Research
General Kinds of Research
Basic and Applied Research
Evaluation Research
Action Research
Orientational Research
Sources of Knowledge
Experience
Reasoning
The Scientific Approach to Knowledge Generation
Dynamics of Science
Basic Assumptions of Science
Scientific Methods
Theory
The Principle of Evidence
Objectives of Educational Research
Overview of This Book
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
2 Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
Characteristics of the Three Research Paradigms
Quantitative Research Methods: Experimental and Nonexperimental Research
Variables
Experimental Research
Nonexperimental Research
Qualitative Research Methods
Phenomenology
Ethnography
Narrative Inquiry
Case Study Research
Grounded Theory
Mixed Research (or Mixed Methods Research)
The Advantages of Mixed Research
Our Research Typology
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
3 Action Research for Lifelong Learning
Defining Action Research
Origins of Action Research
Basic Scientific Research Versus Action Research
Types of Action Research
The Cycle of Action Research
Strengths and Weaknesses of Action Research
Action Research Journaling
Action Research in the Remaining Chapters of This Book
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Note
Part II: Planning the Research Study
4 How to Review the Literature and Develop Research Questions
Sources of Research Ideas
Everyday Life
Practical Issues
Past Research
Theory
Ideas That Can’t Be Resolved Through Empirical Research
Review of the Literature
Literature Review for Quantitative Research Studies
Literature Review for Qualitative Research Studies
Literature Review for Mixed Research Studies
Sources of Information
Feasibility of the Study
Statement of the Research Problem
Stating a Quantitative Research Problem
Stating a Qualitative Research Problem
Stating a Mixed Research Problem
Statement of the Purpose of the Study
Statement of Purpose in a Quantitative Study
Statement of Purpose in a Qualitative Study
Statement of Purpose in a Mixed Methods Study
Statement of Research Questions
Statement of a Quantitative Research Question
Statement of a Qualitative Research Question
Statement of Research Questions in Mixed Research
Formulating Hypotheses
Consumer Use of the Literature
Action Research Reflection
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Proposal Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
5 How to Write a Research Proposal
Framework of the Research Proposal
Strategies for Writing Each Section of the Research Proposal
Introduction
Method
Research Participants
Design
Apparatus and/or Instruments
Procedure
Data Analysis
Abstract
Action Research Reflection
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Proposal Exercise
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
6 Research Ethics
What Are Research Ethics?
Ethical Concerns
Relationship Between Society and Science
Professional Issues
Treatment of Research Participants
Ethical Guidelines for Research With Humans
Informed Consent
Informed Consent and Minors as Research Participants
Passive Versus Active Consent
Additional Consent
Deception
Freedom to Withdraw
Protection From Mental and Physical Harm
Confidentiality, Anonymity, and the Concept of Privacy
Institutional Review Board
Ethical Issues in Electronic Research
Informed Consent and Internet Research
Privacy and Internet Research
Debriefing and Internet Research
Ethical Issues in Preparing the Research Report
Authorship
Writing the Research Report
Action Research Reflection
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Proposal Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Part III: Foundations of Research
7 Standardized Measurement and Assessment
Defining Measurement
Scales of Measurement
Nominal Scale
Ordinal Scale
Interval Scale
Ratio Scale
Assumptions Underlying Testing and Assessment
Identifying a Good Test or Assessment Procedure
Overview of Reliability and Validity
Reliability
Validity
Using Reliability and Validity Information in Your Research
Educational and Psychological Tests
Intelligence Tests
Personality Tests
Educational Assessment Tests
Sources of Information About Tests
Action Research Reflection
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Proposal Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Notes
8 How to Construct a Questionnaire
What Is a Questionnaire?
Principles of Questionnaire Construction
Principle 1. Make sure the questionnaire items match your research objectives.
Principle 2. Understand your research participants.
Principle 3. Use natural and familiar language.
Principle 4. Write items that are clear, precise, and relatively short.
Principle 5. Do not use “leading” or “loaded” questions.
Principle 6. Avoid double-barreled questions.
Principle 7. Avoid double negatives.
Principle 8. Determine whether an open-ended or a closed-ended question is needed.
Principle 9. Use mutually exclusive and exhaustive response categories for closed-ended questions.
Principle 10. Consider the different types of response categories available for closed-ended questionnaire items.
Principle 11. Use multiple items to measure abstract constructs.
Principle 12. Consider using multiple methods when measuring abstract constructs.
Principle 13. Use caution if you reverse the wording in some of the items to prevent response sets in multi-item scales.
Principle 14. Develop a questionnaire that is properly organized and easy for the participant to use.
Principle 15. Always pilot test your questionnaire.
Putting It All Together
Action Research Reflection
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Proposal Exercise
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Notes
9 Methods of Data Collection
Tests
Technology and Tests
Questionnaires
Technology and Questionnaires
Interviews
Technology and Interviews
Quantitative Interviews
Qualitative Interviews
Focus Groups
Technology and Focus Groups
Observation
Quantitative Observation
Qualitative Observation
Visual Data
Constructed and Secondary or Existing Data
Action Research Reflection
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
10 Sampling in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
Terminology Used in Sampling
Random Sampling Techniques
Simple Random Sampling
Systematic Sampling
Stratified Random Sampling
Cluster Random Sampling
Nonrandom Sampling Techniques
Convenience Sampling
Quota Sampling
Purposive Sampling
Snowball Sampling
Random Selection and Random Assignment
Determining the Sample Size When Random Sampling Is Used
Sampling in Qualitative Research
Sampling in Mixed Research
Action Research Reflection
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Proposal Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Notes
11 Validity of Research Results in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
Validity Issues in the Design of Quantitative Research
Internal Validity (i.e., Causal Validity)
Two Major Types of Causal Relationships
Criteria for Inferring Causation
Threats to Internal Validity in Single-Group Designs
Threats to Internal Validity in Multigroup Designs
External Validity (i.e., Generalizing Validity)
Population Validity
Ecological Validity
Temporal Validity
Treatment Variation Validity
Outcome Validity
Construct Validity
Treatment Diffusion
Statistical Conclusion Validity
Research Validity (or “Trustworthiness”) in Qualitative Research Descriptive Validity
Interpretive or Emic Validity
Theoretical Validity
Internal Validity
External Validity
Research Validity (or “Legitimation”) in Mixed Research
Action Research Reflection
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Notes
Part IV: Selecting a Research Method
Section A: Quantitative Research Methods: Five Major Approaches
12 Experimental Research: Weak and Strong Designs
The Experiment
Experimental Research Settings
Field Experiment
Laboratory Experiment
Internet Experiment
Independent Variable Manipulation
Ways to Manipulate an Independent Variable
Control of Confounding Variables
Random Assignment
Matching
Holding the Extraneous Variable Constant
Building the Extraneous Variable Into the Research Design
Analysis of Covariance
Counterbalancing
Experimental Research Designs
Weak Experimental Research Designs
Strong Experimental Research Designs
Factorial Designs
Repeated-Measures Designs
Factorial Designs Based on a Mixed Model
Action Research Reflection
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Notes
13 Experimental Research: Quasi and Single-Case Designs
Quasi-Experimental Research Designs
Nonequivalent Comparison-Group Design
Interrupted Time-Series Design
Regression-Discontinuity Design
Single-Case Experimental Designs
A-B-A and A-B-A-B Designs
Multiple-Baseline Design
Changing-Criterion Design
Methodological Considerations in Using Single-Case Designs
Action Research Reflection
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Note
14 Nonexperimental Quantitative Research
Steps in Nonexperimental Research
Independent Variables in Nonexperimental Research
Simple Cases of Nonexperimental Quantitative Research
Three Required Conditions for Cause-and-Effect Relationships
Applying the Three Required Conditions for Causation in Nonexperimental Research
Techniques of Control in Nonexperimental Research (i.e., How to Design Strong Nonexperimental Research)
Matching
Holding the Extraneous Variable Constant
Statistical Control
Interlude (The Study of Causal Relationships in Epidemiology)
Classifying Nonexperimental Research by Time and Research Objective
The Time Dimension in Nonexperimental Research
Cross-Sectional Research
Longitudinal Research
Retrospective Research
The Research Objective Dimension in Nonexperimental Research
Descriptive Nonexperimental Research
Predictive Nonexperimental Research
Explanatory Nonexperimental Research
Action Research Reflection
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Proposal Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Notes
Section B: Qualitative Research Methods: Five Major Approaches
15 Narrative Inquiry and Case Study Research
Narrative Inquiry
I. Introduction: The Importance of Coming to Terms and Definitions
II. Designing a Narrative Study
III. Narrative Inquiry: So Much More Than Telling Stories
Case Study Research
What Is a Case?
Types of Case Study Research Designs
Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing
Action Research Reflection
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Proposal Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Note
16 Phenomenology, Ethnography, and Grounded Theory
Phenomenology
Examples of Phenomenology
Types of Phenomenology
Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing
Ethnography
The Idea of Culture
Examples of Ethnographic Research
Types of Ethnographic Research
Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing
Grounded Theory
Characteristics of a Grounded Theory
Example of a Grounded Theory
Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing
Action Research Reflection
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Proposal Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Note
Section C: Mixed Methods Research: Many Approaches
17 Mixed Research
The Research Continuum
Types of Mixed Research Designs
Examples of Qualitatively Driven, Quantitatively Driven, and Equal-Status or Interactive Studies
Stages of the Mixed Research Process
Step 1. Determine Whether a Mixed Design Is Appropriate
Step 2. Determine the Rationale for Using a Mixed Design
Step 3. Select or Construct the Mixed Research Design and Mixed Sampling Design
Step 4. Collect Data
Step 5. Analyze the Data
Step 6. Continually Validate the Data
Step 7. Continually Interpret the Data and Findings
Step 8. Write the Research Report
Limitations of Mixed Research
Action Research Reflection
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Proposal Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Part V: Analyzing the Data
18 Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive Statistics
Frequency Distributions
Graphic Representations of Data
Bar Graphs
Histograms
Line Graphs
Scatter Plots
Measures of Central Tendency
Mode
Median
Mean
A Comparison of the Mean, Median, and Mode
Measures of Variability
Range
Variance and Standard Deviation
Standard Deviation and the Normal Distribution
Measures of Relative Standing
Percentile Ranks z Scores
Examining Relationships Among Variables
Contingency Tables
Regression Analysis
Action Research Reflection
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Proposal Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Notes
19 Inferential Statistics
Sampling Distributions
Sampling Distribution of the Mean
Estimation
Point Estimation
Interval Estimation
Hypothesis Testing
Null and Alternative Hypotheses
Directional Alternative Hypotheses
Examining the Probability Value and Making a Decision
The Hypothesis-Testing Decision Matrix
Controlling the Risk of Errors
Hypothesis Testing in Practice t Test for Independent Samples
One-Way Analysis of Variance
Post Hoc Tests in Analysis of Variance t Test for Correlation Coefficients t Test for Regression Coefficients
Chi-Square Test for Contingency Tables
Other Significance Tests
Action Research Reflection
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Proposal Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Notes
20 Data Analysis in Qualitative and Mixed Research
Interim Analysis
Memoing
Analysis of Visual Data
Data Entry and Storage
Segmenting, Coding, and Developing Category Systems
Inductive and A Priori Codes
Co-Occurring and Facesheet Codes
First-Stage and Second-Stage Coding
Enumeration
“Themeing the Data” and Creating Hierarchical Category Systems
Identifying Relationships Among Categories
Drawing Diagrams
Corroborating and Validating Results
Computer Programs for Qualitative Data Analysis
Data Analysis in Mixed Research
Mixed Analysis Matrix
Analytical Procedures in Mixed Data Analysis
Constructing Joint Displays in Mixed Data Analysis
Action Research Reflection
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Research Exercise
Proposal Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Notes
Chapter 20 Appendix: Additional Types of Codes for Qualitative Research
Part VI: Writing the Research Report
21 How to Prepare a Research Report and Use APA Style Guidelines
General Principles Related to Writing the Research Report (I)
Language (I.1)
Editorial Style (I.2)
Reference List (I.3)
Typing (I.4)
Writing an APA-Style Quantitative Research Report (II)
Title Page (II.1)
Abstract (II.2)
Introduction (II.3)
Method (II.4)
Results (II.5)
Discussion (II.6)
References (II.7)
Footnotes (II.8)
Tables (II.9)
Figures (II.10)
Example of an APA-Style Manuscript
Writing Qualitative Research Reports
Writing Mixed Research Reports
Action Research Reflection
Summary
Key Term
Discussion Questions
Research Exercises
Proposal Exercises
Relevant Internet Sites
Recommended Reading
Appendix: Citations for Journal Articles Noted in the Margins
Glossary
References
Author Index
Subject Index
About the Authors

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