Efficiency in Environmental Regulation: A Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Approaches

Efficiency in Environmental Regulation: A Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Approaches

by Ralph A. Luken

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1990)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789401068161
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Publication date: 09/27/2011
Series: Studies in Risk and Uncertainty , #1
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1990
Pages: 400
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction.- 2. Regulatory Approaches.- Elements of a Regulatory Program.- Developing Standards.- Issuing Permits.- Monitoring Compliance.- Enforcing Regulations.- The Clean Water Act.- Technology-Based Standards.- Technology-Based Toxics Standards.- Technology-Based Standards for Indirect Dischargers.- The Clean Air Act.- Ambient-Based Standards.- Benefits-Based Standards.- Technology-Based Hazardous Air Standards.- The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.- Hazardous Wastes.- 3. Technology Approach.- Pollution Control Costs And Effluents.- Inventory — 1973, 1984, and 1994.- Effluent Data.- Cost Modeling.- Estimated Costs and Effluents.- Cost Comparisons.- Water Quality Impacts.- Sample Sites.- Scenarios.- Water Quality Modeling.- Estimated Water Quality Improvements.- Validation of the RGDS Model.- Monetary Benefits.- Recreation Population.- Valuation of Recreation Benefits.- Estimated Benefits.- Possible Biases in the Benefit Calculations.- Findings.- Appendix 3-A. Costs for Indirect-Discharging Mills.- Appendix 3-B. Pulp and Paper Mills Evaluated in this Study.- Appendix 3-C. Water Pollution Control Cost Estimation.- Appendix 3-D. Water Pollution Control Cost Comparisons.- Appendix 3-E. Loadings Data.- Appendix 3-F. Water Quality Model.- Appendix 3-G. Model Validation.- Appendix 3-H. Visitation Estimates.- Appendix 3-I. Recreation Benefit Studies.- Appendix 3-J. Sensitivity Analysis for Benefit Calculations.- 4. Ambient Approach.- Pollution Control Costs and Emissions.- Inventory — 1973, 1984, and 1994.- Emissions Data.- Cost Modeling.- Estimated Costs and Emissions.- Cost Comparisons.- Air Quality Impacts.- Sample Sites.- Scenarios.- Air Quality Modeling.- Estimated Air Quality Improvements.- Validation of MCP Model.- Monetary Benefits.- Exposure.- Health and Welfare Effects.- Valuation of Benefits.- Estimated Benefits.- Possible Biases in the Benefit Calculations.- Findings.- Appendix 4-A SO2 Emissions and Costs.- Appendix 4-B. Pulp-Producing Mills Evaluated in this Study.- Appendix 4-C. Air Pollution Control Costs (TSP).- Appendix 4-D. Air Pollution Control Cost Comparisons.- Appendix 4-E. Loadings Data.- Appendix 4-F. Air Quality Model.- Appendix 4-G. Emissions Versus Concentrations.- Appendix 4-H. Model Validation.- Appendix 4-I Derivation of Concentration Response Functions for Health Effects.- 5. Benefits Approach.- Pollution Control Costs and Emissions.- Inventory — 1973, 1984, and 1994.- Emissions Data.- Cost Modeling.- Estimated Costs and Emissions.- Air Quality Impacts.- Sample Sites.- Scenarios.- Air Quality Modeling.- Estimated Air Quality Improvements.- Monetary Benefits.- Exposure.- Health and Welfare Effects.- Valuation of Effects.- Estimated Benefits.- Possible Biases in the Benefit Calculations.- Findings.- Appendix 5-A Kraft Pulp Mills Evaluated in this Study.- Appendix 5-B. Air Pollution Control Cost Estimation (TRS).- Appendix 5-C. TRS Emissions.- Appendix 5-D. The MPTER Model.- 6. Compliance.- Measuring Compliance.- Water.- Air.- Water Compliance.- Technology-Based Compliance.- Ambient-Based Compliance.- Benefits-Based Compliance.- Findings — Water.- Air Compliance.- Technology-Based Compliance.- Ambient-Based Compliance.- Benefits-Based Compliance.- Findings — Air.- Findings.- 7. Growth.- Conventional Water Pollutants.- Technology-Forcing Approach.- Antidegradation Approach.- Benefits Approach.- Findings — Water.- Criteria Air Pollutants - TSP.- Technology-Forcing Approach.- Nondegradation Approach.- Benefits Approach.- Findings — TSP.- Designated Air Pollutants - TRS.- Technology-Forcing Approach.- Ambient Approach.- Benefits Approach.- Findings — TRS.- Findings.- Appendix 7-A. 1984—1994 TRS Emission Reduction Policies.- 8. Toxic Pollutants.- Water Pollutants - Dioxin.- Effluents.- Health and Ecological Effects.- Ambient Concentrations.- Risks to Public Health.- Risks to Ecosystem.- Effluent Reduction Technology and Costs.- Dioxins.- Regulatory Approaches.- Findings - Dioxin.- Chloroform - Air Pollutant.- Emissions.- Health and Ecological Effects.- Risks to Public Health.- Emission Reduction Technology and Costs.- Regulatory Approaches.- Findings - Chloroform As A Hazardous Air Pollutant.- Chloroform - Hazardous Waste.- Pulp and Paper Wastes.- Risks To Public Health.- Effluent Reduction Technology and Costs.- Regulatory Approaches.- Findings - Chloroform as a Hazardous Waste.- Findings.- Appendix 8-A. Mills in the TOX Analysis.- Appendix 8-B. Critique of the Chloroform Risk Assessment.- Appendix 8-C. Process Modification Costs.- Appendix 8-D. Mill-Specific Costs for Hypochlorite Elimination.- Appendix 8-E. Mill-Specific Costs for Chloroform Reduction.- 9. Conclusions.- Regulatory Approaches.- Historical Analysis (1973–1984).- Projections of the Future (1984–1994).- Historical Perspective.- Future Direction.- Appendix A. The Pulp and Paper Industry.- Industry Profile.- Capacity.- Geographic Distribution.- Standard Manufacturing Processes.- Preparing Raw Material.- Pulping.- Bleaching of Wood Pulps.- Papermaking.- Converting.- Sources of Wastes.- Water Effluents.- Air Emissions.- Solid Wastes.- Estimated Generation of Wastes.- Appendix B. Mills Evaluated in the Study.- Appendix C. Inflation Indexes.- Appendix D. Glossary of Environmental Terms.- Author Index.

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