ISBN-10:
0821366882
ISBN-13:
2900821366881
Pub. Date:
06/20/2006
Publisher:
World Bank Publications
Efficient Learning for the Poor: Insights from the Frontier of Cognitive Neuroscience

Efficient Learning for the Poor: Insights from the Frontier of Cognitive Neuroscience

by World Bank

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900821366881
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Publication date: 06/20/2006
Series: Directions in Development
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 300
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

Table of Contents

Acknowledgementsvii
Overviewviii
Acronymsxiv
Part ICognitive Reesearch on Basic Skills
1The Pedagogy of Poverty3
Neurocognitive Research: The Key to the Black Box8
2Health, Nutrition, and Cognitive Processing11
Health and Nutritional Obstacles to Learning12
Developmental Delays and the Importance of Preschool15
Policy Implications18
3Nervous System Linkages with School Performance21
Policy Implications23
4Memory and Basic Skills Acquisition24
Knowledge Intake: Attention Span and Prospects for Improving It25
The Peculiarities of Memory: Eternal as Well as Fleeting25
Working Memory: A Concept Critical for Effective Education27
Why Is Working Memory So Important for School Work?28
How Information Learned in School Is Consolidated30
Policy Implications35
Research Needs35
5Literacy Acquisition and the Biology of Reading36
Reading Benchmarks and Norms41
Reading Issues Affecting the Poor42
Phonics Versus "Whole Word" Methods44
Policy Implications47
Research Needs49
6Why Mother-Tongue Instruction Improves Achievement50
The Benefits of Bilingual Education53
Policy Implications57
Research Needs57
7The Development and Teaching of Numeracy58
The Effects of Language Switching in Math60
Policy Implications61
Research Needs61
8The Cognitive Effects of Classroom Events62
"Chalk and Talk" Lecturing (Very Effective for Brief Periods)64
Practice, Questions, Feedback, Discussion (Very Effective)65
Individual Seatwork (Limited Effectiveness)66
Projects (Limited Effectiveness for Basic Skills)67
Noninstructional Activities (Ineffective)67
Policy Implications70
Research Needs70
Part IIResources for Effective Instruction
9Which Instructional Methods Are Most Efficient?73
The Pros and Cons of Constructivism and Discovery Learning75
The Pros and Cons of "Direct Instruction"77
Policy Implications79
10Use and Wastage of Instructional Time80
Schools Open fewer than the Official Number of Days80
Teacher Absenteeism82
Student Absenteeism84
Wastage of Class Time84
Policy Implications87
Research Needs88
11A Textbook for Every Student to Take Home89
Policy Implications92
12Improving Instructional Support93
Classroom "Climate" and Student Achievement93
The Case of the Missing Homework94
Curricular Effects on Student Achievement95
Effects and Interpretation Difficulties of Achievement Tests97
Effects of School Facilities on Achievement and Attendance99
Policy Implications101
13Student Grouping and Class Size Effects102
Formation of Student Groups: Learning Potential and Issues104
Student Performance in Multigrade Classes108
Policy Implications111
Part IIIPerformance of Teachers and Educational Systems
14Teacher Incentives and Motivation115
Motivation and Incentives-Extrinsic and Intrinsic115
Self-Efficacy and the Challenge of Never-Ending Tasks119
Increasing Accountability120
Policy Implications122
15Performance and Training of Educators123
Social Status and Attitudes toward Students123
Attitudes toward Teaching124
Teacher Training Institutions May Not Teach Effectively126
Improving the Effectiveness of Teaching Behaviors127
Improving the Effectiveness of Training Events128
Policy Implications130
16The Seven Pillars of Basic Skills for All132
Benchmarks and Monitoring Indicators134
Invest More in the Lower Grades136
Efficient Access Goal137
Disseminating Lessons from Research137
AnnexCognitive Neuroscience Basics for Education141
INeuropsychology Essentials141
ANeural Development in Young Organisms141
BNerve Wiring and Survival of the Fittest Memories143
CBrain Architecture and Learning Functions145
DMemory Systems150
ENature, Culture, and Circumstances152
FCultural Differences in Students' Cognition155
GGender-Related Issues in Cognition157
IIThe Lens of Cognitive Science159
AAttention159
BStorage of Information in Cognitive Networks161
CThe Uses and Abuses of Memorization182
DCopying From the Blackboard and Note-Taking185
ETransfer of Learning to Other Skills186
FHow, What, and Why Learners Forget187
GHigher Cognitive Functions189
HLearning Styles: Do They Exist?190
IExpertise and Its Implications190
JAbility to Act on "Lessons Learned" by Donors and Governments192
KAge-Related Memory Changes and Their Implications for Learners193
LTraining Implications for Middle-Aged Educators194
Notes203
References237
Index282
Boxes
1.1The "Education for All" Goals4
2.1Health and School Attendance12
2.2Full-Time Schools: Special Attention for Low-Income Students19
4.1How Much Attention Do Students Pay in Class?26
4.2Chewing Gum Increases Recall of Words32
4.3Poor Students Forget More During End-of-Year Vacations34
5.1Sixty Words per Minute for All47
5.2With Efficient Instruction, Children Can Learn Multiple Scripts48
6.1How Many Years Are Needed to Teach Sufficient Language?56
8.1Activities and Achievement in Jamaican Schools68
9.1Constructivist Curricula, Illiterate Artists?76
12.1Youth Orchestras for the Poor in Venezuela97
13.1"Hole-in-the-Wall Experiment"109
14.1Extrinsic Teacher Incentives and "Cramming" for Exams116
14.2How Do Teachers Use School Grants?118
16.1An "Indicative Framework" for Educational Quality135
16.2How Well Do Schools in Niger Improve Human Capital?140
A-1The Sociology of Competition166
A-2Levels of Processing176
A-3The Brief Window of Opportunity for Learning179
A-4Useful Knowledge Tends to Be Remembered183
A-5Visualizing Tasks Could Improve Training Outcomes195
Figures
1.1Burkina Faso, a Poor Country with Large Enrollment Increases5
1.2Fulani-Speaking Girls in Rural Niger8
2.1Cumulative Number of Words Addressed to Children16
2.2Biological Needs for Learning20

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