Electoral Management Design

Electoral Management Design

by International IDEA


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Building trust and professionalism in the management of electoral processes remains a major global challenge, and this comparative study shares the best practices and know-how from around the world on financing, structuring, and evaluating Electoral Management Bodies (EMB). Sections include case studies, a color-coded map of EMB models around the world, classifications of more than 200 EMBs, and comparative descriptions and analysis of various models.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789185391653
Publisher: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistan
Publication date: 04/01/2007
Series: International IDEA Handbooks Series
Pages: 344
Product dimensions: 7.00(w) x 10.00(h) x 0.86(d)

About the Author

International IDEA is an intergovernmental organization that works to support electoral processes and strengthen democracy. They have produced other publications on the topic of electoral policy including Electoral System Design.

Table of Contents

Foreword     I
Preface     III
Acronyms and Abbreviations     XII
Introduction     1
Who Organizes Elections?     5
What Is an EMB?     5
Three Models of Electoral Management     6
The Independent Model of Electoral Management     7
The Governmental Model of Electoral Management     7
The Mixed Model of Electoral Management     8
What Can Be Expected of EMBs under the Different Electoral Management Models?     11
Attributes of EMBs under the Three Broad Models of Electoral Management     11
Permanent and Temporary EMBs     16
Centralized or Decentralized EMBs     17
EMBs in Federal Countries     18
Transitional International EMBs and National EMBs     19
Representation of the EMB before Cabinet and the Legislature     20
Some Guiding Principles for All EMBs     22
Independence     22
Impartiality     23
Integrity     24
Transparency     24
Efficiency     24
Professionalism     25
Service-mindedness     25
The Legal Framework: The Context for an EMB's Role and Powers     43
How Legal Instruments Define Electoral Processes     43
International Treaties and Agreements     44
The Constitution     45
Electoral Laws: Acts and Ordinances     47
EMB Rules, Regulations and Proclamations     50
The Powers, Functions and Responsibilities of an EMB     61
Powers and Functions     61
Extent of Powers and Functions     62
Direct Democracy Instruments     63
Functional Divisions between Electoral Institutions     64
Boundary Delimitation     65
Voter Registration     65
Registration and Funding of Political Parties     66
Election Campaigns     66
Voter Education and Information     67
Validation of Election Results     67
Supervision of Political Party Candidate Selection     68
Electoral Observation     68
International Activities     68
Community Responsibilities of EMBs     69
Avoidance of Conflicts of Interest     69
Gender Balance     70
Ethnicity     71
Equality and Equity     71
Broadly-based Access     72
Codes of Conduct     73
The Composition, Roles and Functioning of an EMB     85
EMB Membership     85
Status of EMB Members     86
The EMB Chair: A Special Role?     87
EMB Members: Respected Experts or Watchdogs on Each Other?     88
Multiparty-based EMBs     88
Expert-based EMBs     89
EMBs with Both Expert and Multiparty Membership     90
Full-time or Part-time EMB Members?     90
How Many EMB Members?     92
Term of Office of Members of Permanent EMBs     93
Recruitment and Appointment of EMB Members     94
Recruitment through Open Advertisement     94
Nomination of Candidates for EMB Membership by the Head of State and Confirmation by or in Consultation with the Legislature     95
Unilateral Appointments of EMB Members by One Branch of Government     96
Involvement of Other Actors in EMB Appointment     96
Qualifications for Appointment     97
Conditions of Service and Security of Tenure for EMB Members     99
Oath/pledge-taking or Affirmation     100
Internal Regulations     100
EMB Decision-making Processes     101
Meetings of EMB Members     102
Closed or Open EMB Meetings     102
EMB Member Committees     102
EMB Members' Relationships with the EMB Secretariat     103
Planning and Implementing EMB Activities     119
The EMB Secretariat     119
The EMB Secretariat and the Public Service     120
Structuring the Secretariat     122
Organizational Structure Charts     122
How to Develop an Organizational Chart     123
Model Secretariat Structures     124
Strategic Planning     131
Operational Planning     132
The Electoral Calendar     135
The Development of Professional Electoral Management     151
What Is a Professional Electoral Administrator?     151
Use of Public Service Staff for EMB Secretariats     152
Permanent and Temporary Staff     153
Conditions of Employment: EMB-specific or Public Service Staff     154
Staff Pensions     154
Career Patterns of Professional Electoral Officers     155
Procedures for Recruitment of EMB Staff     155
Procedures for the Appointment of EMB Secretariat Staff     156
Staff Training and Development     157
EMB Organizational and Staff Development for Permanent Staff     157
Using International Experience      158
Mentoring     159
Education and Development Courses for EMB Staff     159
Operational Training     160
Training Methods     160
Cascade Training     161
Training by Mobile Teams     161
Simultaneous Training     161
Training Materials     162
Instructions     162
Training Manuals     162
Simulations and Videos     162
Factors Which May Inhibit EMB Professionalism     163
The Financing of EMBs     175
Common EMB Financing Issues     175
What Electoral Costs Need to be Financed?     176
Who Finances EMBs and How?     178
State or Public Funding     178
Method of Disbursing State Funding     178
Approval of EMB Budget Proposals     178
Integrated or Distributed Electoral Budgets     179
Donor Funding     179
Other Sources of EMB Funding     181
Budget Formulation Methods for EMBs     182
The Process for Budget Formulation and Approval     183
Availability of Budget Funds     184
Control of EMB Funding     184
EMB Procurement Policies and Procedures      185
EMB Financial Control Measures     186
Asset Management     187
Records Management     188
Principles for EMB Financial Management     188
Transparency     188
Efficiency and Effectiveness     189
Integrity     189
Stakeholder Relationships     201
Who Are the Stakeholders and What Is Their Role in the Electoral Process?     201
Primary Stakeholders     201
Political Parties and Candidates     201
EMB Staff     202
The Executive Branch of Government     203
The Legislature     204
Electoral Dispute Resolution Bodies     205
Judicial Bodies     205
Election Monitors and Domestic and International Election Observers     205
The Media     206
The Electorate     207
Civil Society Organizations     208
The Donor Community and Electoral Assistance Agencies     208
Secondary Stakeholders     208
EMB Suppliers     208
The Public at Large     209
Regional and International Networks     209
Maintaining Relationships with Stakeholders     210
How to Deal with Difficult Stakeholders     211
Assessing EMB Performance     223
Why is EMB Accountability Important?     223
Principles and Best Practices for EMB Accountability     223
Stakeholder Accountability     224
Consultation and Communication     224
Performance Accountability     224
Internal Performance Accountability     224
External Performance Accountability     225
Financial Accountability     226
Internal Financial Accountability     226
External Financial Accountability     227
Accountability for the Use of Technology-based Systems     227
EMB Assessment Mechanisms     228
Internal Quality Controls     229
Auditing EMBs     229
Performance Audits     230
Methodology and Scope of a Performance Audit     230
Performance Audit Outputs     232
Financial Audits     233
Programme Evaluation by EMBs     233
Post-election Reviews     234
Peer Reviews     237
External Oversight Issues     237
The Sustainability of EMBs     257
What is Sustainability?     257
Why is EMB Sustainability Important?      258
Needs Assessment     258
Electoral Sustainability and Donor Support     259
Practices Favouring Sustainability     261
Staffing for Sustainability     262
Electoral Materials     262
Structural and Technological Implications of Sustainability     264
Electoral Systems     264
Electoral Boundary Delimitation     264
Voter Registration     265
The Polling Process     265
Automated Voting and Counting Processes     266
EMB Networks     279
What Are Electoral Networks and Why Do they Matter?     279
National Electoral Networks     279
Regional EMB Networks     280
Global Electoral Networks     282
Electoral Support Networks     283
Reforming Electoral Processes     295
What Is Electoral Reform?     295
Failing EMBs     297
The EMB's Role in Electoral Reforms     297
The Scope of Electoral Reform     298
Managing Electoral Change     302

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