Electoral Systems and Political Context illustrates how political and social context conditions the effects of electoral rules. The book examines electoral behavior and outcomes in countries that use 'mixed-member' electoral systems – where voters cast one ballot for a party list under proportional representation (PR) and one for a candidate in a single member district (SMD). Based on comparisons of outcomes under the two different rules used in mixed-member systems, the book highlights how electoral systems' effects – especially strategic voting, the number of parties and women's representation – tend to be different in new democracies from what one usually sees in established democracies. Moreover, electoral systems such as SMDs are usually presumed to constrain the number of parties irrespective of the level of social diversity, but this book demonstrates that social diversity frequently shapes party fragmentation even under such restrictive rules.
|Publisher:||Cambridge University Press|
|Sold by:||Barnes & Noble|
|File size:||5 MB|
About the Author
Ethan Scheiner is Professor of Political Science at the University of California, Davis. He is the author of Democracy without Competition in Japan. His articles have appeared in the American Political Science Review, the Annual Review of Political Science, the British Journal of Political Science, Comparative Political Studies, Electoral Studies, the Japanese Journal of Political Science, the Journal of Japanese Studies and Legislative Studies Quarterly.
Table of Contents1. Introduction: why don't electoral rules have the same effects in all countries?; 2. When do the effects of electoral systems diverge from our expectations?; 3. Mixed-member electoral systems: how they work and how they work for scholars; 4. How democratic experience and party system development condition the effects of electoral rules on disproportionality and the number of parties: theory, measurement, and expectations; 5. How democratic experience and party system development condition the effects of electoral rules on disproportionality and the number of parties: what we actually see; 6. Political context, electoral rules, and their effects on strategic and personal voting; 7. How democratic experience and party system development condition the effect of electoral rules on strategic defection; 8. Social diversity, electoral rules, and the number of parties; 9. How political context shapes the effect of electoral rules on women's representation; 10. Conclusion: why and how political context matters for electoral system effects.