ISBN-10:
047075009X
ISBN-13:
9780470750094
Pub. Date:
11/24/2009
Publisher:
Wiley
Electrical Characterization of Organic Electronic Materials and Devices / Edition 1

Electrical Characterization of Organic Electronic Materials and Devices / Edition 1

by Peter Stallinga

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780470750094
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 11/24/2009
Pages: 316
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

Peter Stallinga is a professor at the Universidade do Algarve (Portugal) in the Department of Electronic Engineering and Informatica. He obtained his PhD in Physics at the University of Amsterdam (The Netherlands). From 1994 to 1995, Professor Stallinga was a postdoctoral researcher at the University of California at Berkeley (USA). He then moved to Denmark, where he worked as a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Aarhus. From 1997 to 1999, he was a postdoctoral researcher at the Universidade do Algarve. His main area of scientific research is the physics of electronic materials and other areas of interest include informatics, electronics, and biotechnology. He is an experienced lecturer and parts of the material in this book have been given as lectures at the summer school of a European network on organic electronics (SELOA and MONA-LISA).

Table of Contents

Preface ix

1 General concepts 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Conduction mechanism 6

1.3 Chemistry and the energy diagram 10

1.3.1 Energy diagram of crystalline materials 17

1.3.2 Energy diagram of amorphous materials 24

1.4 Disordered materials and the Meyer-Neldel Rule 27

1.5 Devices 28

1.5.1 Resistor 29

1.5.2 Schottky diode 31

1.5.3 MIS diode and MIS tunnel diode 35

1.5.4 Thin-film transistor 35

1.6 Optoelectronics/photovoltaics 38

2 Two-terminal devices: DC current 45

2.1 Conductance 45

2.1.1 Ohmic conduction 48

2.1.2 Poole-Frenkel 48

2.1.3 Tunneling 52

2.1.4 Space-charge-limited current 53

2.1.5 Granular materials; grain boundaries 57

2.2 DC current of a Schottky barrier 58

2.2.1 High-current regime 60

2.2.2 Displacement current 60

2.3 DC measurements 62

2.3.1 van der Pauw 62

2.3.2 Hall effect 64

3 Two-terminal devices: Admittance spectroscopy 65

3.1 Admittance spectroscopy 65

3.1.1 Low-frequency RCL bridge 71

3.1.2 DC admittance 73

3.2 Geometrical capacitance 74

3.3 Equivalent circuits 74

3.4 Resistor; SCLC 79

3.5 Schottky diodes 80

3.5.1 Schottky diode; nonuniform doping 84

3.5.2 Schottky diode; adding an abundant deep acceptor level 84

3.5.3 Schottky diode; minority levels 88

3.5.4 Schottky barrier; temperature dependence 90

3.6 MIS diodes 91

3.6.1 MIS of doped semiconductors 92

3.6.2 MIS with interface states 99

3.6.3 MIS of low-mobility semiconductors 108

3.7 MIS tunnel diode 115

3.8 Noise measurements 117

4 Two-terminal devices: Transient techniques 119

4.1 Kinetics: Emission and capture of carriers 120

4.1.1 Emission and capture in organic materials 125

4.2 Current transient spectroscopy 126

4.2.1 Example of an emission experiment 126

4.2.2 Example of a capture experiment 130

4.3 Thermally stimulated current 133

4.4 Capacitance transient spectroscopy 138

4.4.1 Case study: Example of a capacitance transient measurement 145

4.5 Deep-level transient spectroscopy 148

4.6 Q-DLTS 151

5 Time-of-flight 153

5.1 Introduction 153

5.2 Drift transient 155

5.3 Diffusive transient 162

5.4 Violating Einstein's Relation 168

5.5 Multi-trap-and-release 169

5.6 Anomalous transients 174

5.7 High current (space charge) transients 180

5.8 Summary of the ToF technique 184

6 Thin-film transistors 189

6.1 Field-effect transistors 189

6.2 MOS-FET 191

6.2.1 MOS-FET threshold voltage 194

6.2.2 MOS-FET current 196

6.2.3 Exact solution 196

6.2.4 MOS-FET subthreshold current and subthreshold swing 199

6.3 Introducing TFTs 200

6.4 Basic model 202

6.4.1 Threshold voltage and subthreshold current 206

6.5 Justification for the two-dimensional approach 208

6.6 Ambipolar materials and devices 211

6.7 Contact effects and other simple nonidealities 215

6.7.1 Insulator leakage 217

6.7.2 Contact resistance 221

6.7.3 Contact barriers 223

6.7.4 Grain boundaries 228

6.7.5 Parallel conductance 229

6.8 Metallic contacts in TFTs 230

6.9 Normally-on TFTs 236

6.9.1 Narrow gap semiconductors 239

6.9.2 Thick TFTs 242

6.9.3 Doped semiconductors and inversion-channel TFT 244

6.9.4 Metal-insulator-metal TFT 246

6.10 Effects of traps 248

6.10.1 Traps and threshold voltage 249

6.10.2 Traps and output curves 250

6.10.3 Traps and transfer curves 253

6.10.4 Traps and 'stressing' (threshold-voltage shift) 264

6.10.5 Traps and transients 267

6.10.6 The origin of the traps 269

6.10.7 Summary of the effects of traps on the TFT characteristics 271

6.11 Admittance spectroscopy for the determination of the mobility in TFTs 272

6.12 Summary of TFT measurements 275

6.13 Diffusion transistor 275

Appendix A Derivation of Equations (2.21), (2.25), (6.95) and (6.101) 281

Bibliography 285

Index 299

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