ISBN-10:
0023493313
ISBN-13:
9780023493317
Pub. Date:
12/30/1996
Publisher:
Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications / Edition 1

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications / Edition 1

by Allan R. Hambley

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780023493317
Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
Publication date: 12/30/1996
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 816
Product dimensions: 8.26(w) x 9.57(h) x 1.44(d)

Read an Excerpt

As in the first edition, my guiding philosophy in writing this book has three elements. The first element is my belief that in the long run students are best served by learning basic concepts in a general setting. Second, I believe that students need to be motivated by seeing how the principles apply to specific and interesting problems in their own fields. The third element of my philosophy is to take every opportunity to make learning free of frustration for the student.

This book covers circuit analysis, digital systems, electronics, and electromechanics at a level appropriate for either electrical-engineering students in an introductory course or nonmajors in a survey course. The only essential prerequisites are basic physics and single-variable calculus. Teaching a course using this book offers opportunities to develop theoretical and experimental skills and experiences in the following areas:

  • Basic circuit analysis and measurement
  • First- and second-order transients
  • Steady-state ac circuits
  • Resonance and frequency response
  • Digital logic circuits
  • Microcontrollers (68HC11)
  • Computer-based instrumentation, including LabVIEW
  • Diode circuits
  • Electronic amplifiers
  • Field-effect and bipolar junction transistors
  • Operational amplifiers
  • Transformers
  • Ac and dc motors
  • Computer-aided circuit analysis (PSpice)

While the emphasis of this book is on basic concepts, a key feature is the inclusion of short articles scattered throughout showing how electrical-engineering concepts are applied in other fields. The subjects of these articlesinclude anti-knock signal processing for internal combustion engines, a cardiac pacemaker, active noise control, and the use of the Global Positioning System in surveying, among others.

I welcome comments from users of this book. Information on how the book could be improved is especially valuable and will be taken to heart in future revisions. My e-mail address is arhamble@mtu.edu

SOFTWARE

Two CDs are included with this book. One contains the evaluation version of LabVIEW 6I which is briefly discussed in Section 9.4. LabVIEW has become the industry standard software package for engineering instrumentation and testing. The intention is to make students aware of how LabVIEW coupled with a personal computer and a data acquisition board can be used to rapidly create special-purpose instrumentation and control systems. Later when they have the need to design such systems, they will have enough knowledge to establish a proper direction for further development of their computer-aided instrumentation skills.

The second CD contains Orcad Family Release 9.2 Lite Edition. This is a powerful suite of programs produced by Cadence Systems for circuit analysis and design. In Appendix D, we show how to use Capture for entering circuit diagrams and setting up analyses, PSpice for analyzing the circuit, and Probe for viewing results. A number of circuits selected from throughout the book, starting in Chapter 2, are taken as examples. Students find computer-aided analysis to be an effective method for extending their "feel" for circuits and for checking some of the answers obtained through traditional analysis.

Besides the evaluation programs, the virtual instruments (LabVIEW programs) and circuit files discussed in the book are included on the CDs. Furthermore, solutions to the in-chapter exercises, answers for selected end-of-chapter problems, and summaries of key equations for each chapter are included in pdf files on both CDs.

CHANGES AND NEW FEATURES IN THE SECOND EDITION

  • New chapter entitled Computer-Based Instrumentation Systems (Chapter 9)
  • Extensive revision of the chapter on microcontrollers now featuring the 68HCll (Chapter 8)
  • Earlier treatment of digital systems (Part II)
  • Extensive revision of the chapter on field-effect transistors to emphasize MOS devices (Chapter 12)
  • New section on digital signal processing (Section 6.9)
  • New section on stepper motors (Section 17.5)
  • Minor revisions of the remainder of the book
  • Approximately 20% more end-of-chapter problems
  • Revision and consolidation of the computer-aided circuit analysis material (Appendix D)
  • Inclusion of a CD containing the evaluation version of LabVIEW 6I and the virtual instruments discussed in the book
  • Inclusion of a second CD containing the evaluation version of Orcad Lite 9.2 and the circuit files discussed in the book
  • Complete solutions to the in-chapter exercises (in pdf files on both CDs)
  • Answers to selected end-of-chapter problems (in pdf files on both CDs)
  • Summaries of key equations for each chapter (in pdf files on both CDs)
  • Revision of the entire solutions manual
  • New web site http://www.prenhall.com/hambley that contains the pdf files mentioned above, updates, instructor resources, and links to interesting sites related to material discussed in the book

PREREQUISITES

The essential prerequisites for a course from this book are basic physics and single-variable calculus. A prior differential equations course would be helpful but is not essential. Differential equations are encountered in Chapter 4 on transient analysis, but the skills needed are developed from basic calculus.

PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES

The book includes various pedagogical features designed with the goal of stimulating student interest, eliminating frustration, and engendering an awareness of the relevance of the material to their chosen profession. These features are:

  • Statement of learning objectives open each chapter
  • Comments in the margins emphasize and summarize important points or indicate common pitfalls that students need to avoid
  • Short boxed articles demonstrate how electrical-engineering principles are applied in other fields of engineering. For example, see the articles on active noise cancellation (page 253) and electronic pacemakers (starting on page 348).
  • Step-by-step problem solving procedures. For example, see the step-by-step summary of node-voltage analysis (on pages 70-71) or the summary of Théevenin equivalents (on page 86).
  • Complete solutions to the in-chapter exercises included as pdf files on both of the CDs provide students with help
  • Answers to approximately one-third of the end-of-chapter problems, provided as pdf files on both CDs, build student confidence and indicate where additional study is needed
  • Summaries of important points at the end of each chapter provide references for students
  • Key equations highlighted in the book and provided as pdf files on both CDs provide quick and convenient references for students

MEETING ABET-DIRECTED OUTCOMES

Courses based on this book provide excellent opportunities to meet many of the directed outcomes for accreditation. The Criteria for Accrediting Engineering Programs (for evaluations during the 2001-2002 accreditation cycle) require that graduates of accredited programs have "an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering" and "an ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems." This book, in its entirety, is aimed at developing these abilities.

Also, graduates must have "an ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as analyze and interpret data." Chapter 9, Computer-Based Instrumentation Systems, helps to develop this ability. If the course includes a laboratory, this ability can be developed even further.

Furthermore, the criteria require "an ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams" and "an ability to communicate effectively." Courses based on this book contribute to these abilities by giving nonmajors the knowledge and vocabulary to communicate effectively with electrical engineers. The book also helps to inform electrical engineers about applications in other fields of engineering. To aid in communication skills, end-of-chapter problems that ask students to explain electrical-engineering concepts in their own words have been added in this edition.

The LabVIEW and Orcad PSpice software packages distributed with this book contribute to developing "an ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice."

SOLUTIONS MANUAL AND WEB SITE

Students can find solutions for the in-chapter exercises and answers (without solutions) for selected end-of-chapter problems on both of the CDs included with the book and on the web site. The web site also contains many links to interesting sites related to topics covered in the book.

Any corrections that may be needed for the book or solutions manual will be posted on the web site as they are found. The home page for this book is located at http://www.prenhall.com/hambley

INSTRUCTOR RESOURCES

The web site also contains resources for instructors including:

  • PowerPoint slides of key figures from the book
  • Syllabus Builder
  • Instructor's Manual

Furthermore, a complete solutions manual is available from the publisher to instructors who have adopted the book.

CONTENT AND ORGANIZATION

Part I Circuits

Chapter 1 defines current, voltage, power, and energy. Kirchhoff's laws are introduced. Voltage sources, current sources, and resistance are defined.

Chapter 2 treats resistive circuits. Analysis by network reduction, node voltages, and mesh currents is covered. Thévenin equivalents, superposition, and the heatstone bridge are treated.

Capacitance, inductance, and mutual inductance are treated in Chapter 3.

Transients in electrical circuits are discussed in Chapter 4. First-order RL and RC circuits and time constants are covered followed by a discussion of second-order circuits.

Chapter 5 considers sinusoidal steady-state circuit behavior. (A review of complex arithmetic is included in Appendix A.,) Power calculations, ac Thévenin and Norton equivalents, and balanced three-phase circuits are treated.

Chapter 6 covers frequency response, Bode plots, resonance, and filters. The basic concept of Fourier theory (that signals are composed of sinusoidal components having various amplitudes, phases, and frequencies) is qualitatively discussed. A section on digital signal processing has been added in this edition.

Part II Digital Systems

Chapter 7 introduces logic gates and the representation of numerical data in binary form. It then proceeds to discuss combinatorial and sequential logic. Boolean algebra, De Morgan's laws, truth tables, Karnaugh maps, coders, decoders, flip flops, and registers are discussed.

Chapter 8 treats microcomputers with emphasis on embedded systems using the Motorola 68HCll as the primary example. Computer organization and memory types are discussed. Digital process control using microcontrollers is described in general terms. Finally, selected instructions and addressing modes for the 68HCll are described. Assembly language programming is treated very briefly.

Chapter 9, which is new in the second edition, discusses computer-based instrumentation systems including measurement concepts, sensors, signal conditioning, and analog-to-digital conversion. The chapter ends with a discussion of LabVIEW including an example virtual instrument that students can duplicate using the evaluation version on their own computers.

Part III Electronics

Chapter 10 presents the diode, its various models, load-line analysis, and diode circuits such as rectifiers, Zener-diode regulators, and wave-shapers.

In Chapter 11, the specifications and imperfections of amplifiers that need to be considered in applications are discussed from a users perspective. These include gain, input impedance, output impedance, loading effects, frequency response, pulse response, nonlinear distortion, common-mode rejection, and dc offsets.

Chapter 12 contains a totally revised treatment of the MOS field-effect transistor, its characteristic curves, load-line analysis, large-signal and small-signal models, bias circuits, the common-source amplifier, and the source follower.

Chapter 13 gives a similar treatment for bipolar transistors. If desired, the order of Chapters 12 and 13 can be reversed. Another possibility is to skip most of both chapters so more time can be devoted to other topics.

Chapter 14 treats the operational amplifier and many of its applications. Non-majors can learn enough from this chapter to design and use op-amp circuits for instrumentation applications in their own fields.

Part IV Electromechanics

Chapter 15 reviews basic magnetic field theory, analyzes magnetic circuits, and presents transformers.

Dc machines and ac machines are treated in Chapters 16 and 17, respectively. The emphasis is on motors rather than generators because the nonelectrical engineer applies motors much more often than generators. In Chapter 16, an overall view of motors in general is presented before considering do motors, their equivalent circuits, and performance calculations. The universal motor and its applications are discussed.

Chapter 17 deals with ac motors starting with the three-phase induction motor. Synchronous motors and their advantages with respect to power-factor correction are analyzed. Small motors including single-phase induction motors are also discussed. A section on stepper motors has been added.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I especially want to thank Michigan Technological University President Curt Tompkins and the Chair of my department, Dr. Tim Schulz, for their support. I also wish to thank my colleagues, past and present, in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Michigan Technological University, all of whom have given me help and encouragement at one time or another in writing this book and in my other projects.

I have received much excellent advice from professors at other institutions who reviewed the manuscript in various stages. This advice has improved the final result a great deal, and I am grateful for their help. The reviewers for the first edition were:

– Edwin L. Gerber, Drexel University;
– Belinda B. Wang, University of Toronto;
– Edgar A. O'Hair, Texas Tech University;
– Phil Noe, Texas A & M University;
– Joseph A. Coppola, Syracuse University;
– Rodger E. Ziemer, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs;
– Len Trombetta, University of Houston;
– Carl Wells, Washington State University;
– Zoran Gajic, Rutgers University;
– Richard S. Marleau, University of Wisconsin;
– Robert Collin, Case Western University;
– W.T. Easter, North Carolina State University;
– John Pavlat, Iowa State University;
– Edward Yang, Columbia University;
– Ibrahim Abdel-Motaled, Northwestern University;
– Clifford Pollock, Cornell University;
– Victor Gerez, Montana State University;
– William Sayle II, Georgia Institute of Technology;
– Michael Reed, Carnegie Mellon University;
– D. B. Brumm, Michigan Technological University;
– Sunanda Mitra, Texas Tech University;
– Elmer Grubbs, New Mexico Highlands University.

I also thank Professor A1 Wicks of Virginia Tech who reviewed the manuscript for the second edition and supplied excellent suggestions for improvement.

Over the years, many students and faculty using my books at Michigan Technological University and elsewhere have made many excellent suggestions for improving the books and correcting errors. I thank them very much.

I am indebted to Tom Robbins, my editor at Prentice Hall, for keeping me pointed in the right direction and for many excellent suggestions that have improved my books a great deal.

Also, I want to thank Tony for his continuing encouragement and valuable insights. I thank Judy for many good things too extensive to list.

Allan R. Hambley

Table of Contents

Practical Applications of Electrical Engineering Principlesvi
Contentsvii
Prefacexi
Part 1Circuits1
1Introduction2
1.1Overview of Electrical Engineering3
1.2Circuits, Currents, and Voltages7
1.3Power and Energy15
1.4Kirchhoff's Current Law18
1.5Kirchhoff's Voltage Law21
1.6Introduction to Circuit Elements24
1.7Introduction to Circuits33
Summary36
Problems37
2Resistive Circuits43
2.1Resistances in Series and Parallel44
2.2Network Analysis by Using Series and Parallel Equivalents48
2.3Voltage-Divider and Current-Divider Circuits52
2.4Node-Voltage Analysis57
2.5Mesh-Current Analysis72
2.6Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits80
2.7Superposition Principle93
2.8Wheatstone Bridge96
Summary99
Problems100
3Inductance and Capacitance109
3.1Capacitance110
3.2Capacitances in Series and Parallel119
3.3Physical Characteristics of Capacitors120
3.4Inductance124
3.5Inductances in Series and Parallel130
3.6Practical Inductors131
3.7Mutual Inductance133
Summary135
Problems136
4Transients142
4.1First-Order RC Circuits143
4.2DC Steady State147
4.3RL Circuits149
4.4RC and RL Circuits with General Sources154
4.5Second-Order Circuits161
Summary175
Problems176
5Steady-State Sinusoidal Analysis181
5.1Sinusoidal Currents and Voltages182
5.2Phasors187
5.3Complex Impedances193
5.4Circuit Analysis with Phasors and Complex Impedances198
5.5Power in AC Circuits204
5.6Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits217
5.7Balanced Three-Phase Circuits223
Summary235
Problems237
6Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance244
6.1Fourier Analysis, Filters, and Transfer Functions245
6.2First-Order Lowpass Filters254
6.3Decibels, the Cascade Connection, and Logarithmic Frequency Scales259
6.4Bode Plots264
6.5First-Order Highpass Filters267
6.6Series Resonance271
6.7Parallel Resonance277
6.8Ideal and Second-Order Filters280
6.9Digital Signal Processing286
Summary297
Problems298
Part 2Digital Systems307
7Logic Circuits308
7.1Basic Logic Circuit Concepts309
7.2Representation of Numerical Data in Binary Form312
7.3Combinatorial Logic Circuits320
7.4Synthesis of Logic Circuits329
7.5Minimization of Logic Circuits336
7.6Sequential Logic Circuits339
Conclusions351
Summary351
Problems352
8Microcomputers356
8.1Computer Organization357
8.2Memory Types360
8.3Digital Process Control363
8.4The Motorola 68HC11/12366
8.5The Instruction Set and Addressing Modes for the 68HC11372
8.6Assembly-Language Programming381
Summary386
Problems387
9Computer-Based Instrumentation Systems390
9.1Measurement Concepts and Sensors391
9.2Signal Conditioning396
9.3Analog-to-Digital Conversion402
9.4LabVIEW405
Summary417
Problems418
Part 3Electronics421
10Diodes422
10.1Basic Diode Concepts423
10.2Load-Line Analysis of Diode Circuits427
10.3Zener-Diode Voltage-Regulator Circuits429
10.4Ideal-Diode Model434
10.5Piecewise-Linear Diode Models436
10.6Rectifier Circuits440
10.7Wave-Shaping Circuits444
10.8Linear Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits450
Summary456
Problems457
11Amplifiers: Specifications and External Characteristics465
11.1Basic Amplifier Concepts466
11.2Cascaded Amplifiers472
11.3Power Supplies and Efficiency475
11.4Additional Amplifier Models478
11.5Importance of Amplifier Impedances in Various Applications482
11.6Ideal Amplifiers484
11.7Frequency Response486
11.8Linear Waveform Distortion491
11.9Pulse Response495
11.10Transfer Characteristics and Nonlinear Distortion499
11.11Differential Amplifiers502
11.12Offset Voltage, Bias Current, and Offset Current506
Summary512
Problems512
12Field-Effect Transistors521
12.1NMOS and PMOS Transistors522
12.2Load-Line Analysis of a Simple NMOS Amplifier530
12.3Bias Circuits533
12.4Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits536
12.5Common-Source Amplifiers541
12.6Source Followers545
12.7CMOS Logic Gates550
Summary554
Problems554
13Bipolar Junction Transistors559
13.1Current and Voltage Relationships560
13.2Common-Emitter Characteristics563
13.3Load-Line Analysis of a Common-Emitter Amplifier565
13.4pnp Bipolar Junction Transistors572
13.5Large-Signal DC Circuit Models574
13.6Large-Signal DC Analysis of BJT Circuits577
13.7Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits584
13.8Common-Emitter Amplifiers588
13.9Emitter Followers593
Summary599
Problems599
14Operational Amplifiers607
14.1Ideal Operational Amplifiers608
14.2Summing-Point Constraint610
14.3Inverting Amplifiers610
14.4Noninverting Amplifiers617
14.5Design of Simple Amplifiers620
14.6Op-Amp Imperfections in the Linear Range of Operation626
14.7Nonlinear Limitations630
14.8DC Imperfections635
14.9Differential and Instrumentation Amplifiers640
14.10Integrators and Differentiators642
14.11Active Filters645
Summary650
Problems651
Part 4Electromechanics661
15Magnetic Circuits and Transformers662
15.1Magnetic Fields663
15.2Magnetic Circuits673
15.3Inductance and Mutual Inductance679
15.4Magnetic Materials683
15.5Ideal Transformers686
15.6Real Transformers695
Summary699
Problems700
16DC Machines708
16.1Overview of Motors709
16.2Principles of DC Machines718
16.3Rotating DC Machines724
16.4Shunt-Connected and Separately Excited DC Motors731
16.5Series-Connected DC Motors736
16.6Speed Control of DC Motors740
Summary746
Problems747
17AC Machines753
17.1Three-Phase Induction Motors754
17.2Equivalent-Circuit and Performance Calculations for Induction Motors762
17.3Synchronous Machines772
17.4Single-Phase Motors785
17.5Stepper Motors789
Summary790
Problems791
AComplex Numbers797
Summary805
Problems805
BNominal Values and the Color Code for Resistors806
CPreparing for the Fundamentals of Engineering Exam808
DComputer-Aided Circuit Analysis814
D.1Analysis of DC Circuits814
D.2Transient Analysis823
D.3Frequency Response827
D.4Other Examples830
ESoftware Installation833
Index835

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