Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications / Edition 1 available in Hardcover
- Pub. Date:
- Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
|Publisher:||Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference|
|Edition description:||Older Edition|
|Product dimensions:||8.26(w) x 9.57(h) x 1.44(d)|
Read an Excerpt
As in the first edition, my guiding philosophy in writing this book has three elements. The first element is my belief that in the long run students are best served by learning basic concepts in a general setting. Second, I believe that students need to be motivated by seeing how the principles apply to specific and interesting problems in their own fields. The third element of my philosophy is to take every opportunity to make learning free of frustration for the student.
This book covers circuit analysis, digital systems, electronics, and electromechanics at a level appropriate for either electrical-engineering students in an introductory course or nonmajors in a survey course. The only essential prerequisites are basic physics and single-variable calculus. Teaching a course using this book offers opportunities to develop theoretical and experimental skills and experiences in the following areas:
- Basic circuit analysis and measurement
- First- and second-order transients
- Steady-state ac circuits
- Resonance and frequency response
- Digital logic circuits
- Microcontrollers (68HC11)
- Computer-based instrumentation, including LabVIEW
- Diode circuits
- Electronic amplifiers
- Field-effect and bipolar junction transistors
- Operational amplifiers
- Ac and dc motors
- Computer-aided circuit analysis (PSpice)
While the emphasis of this book is on basic concepts, a key feature is the inclusion of short articles scattered throughout showing how electrical-engineering concepts are applied in other fields. The subjects of these articlesinclude anti-knock signal processing for internal combustion engines, a cardiac pacemaker, active noise control, and the use of the Global Positioning System in surveying, among others.
I welcome comments from users of this book. Information on how the book could be improved is especially valuable and will be taken to heart in future revisions. My e-mail address is firstname.lastname@example.org
Two CDs are included with this book. One contains the evaluation version of LabVIEW 6I which is briefly discussed in Section 9.4. LabVIEW has become the industry standard software package for engineering instrumentation and testing. The intention is to make students aware of how LabVIEW coupled with a personal computer and a data acquisition board can be used to rapidly create special-purpose instrumentation and control systems. Later when they have the need to design such systems, they will have enough knowledge to establish a proper direction for further development of their computer-aided instrumentation skills.
The second CD contains Orcad Family Release 9.2 Lite Edition. This is a powerful suite of programs produced by Cadence Systems for circuit analysis and design. In Appendix D, we show how to use Capture for entering circuit diagrams and setting up analyses, PSpice for analyzing the circuit, and Probe for viewing results. A number of circuits selected from throughout the book, starting in Chapter 2, are taken as examples. Students find computer-aided analysis to be an effective method for extending their "feel" for circuits and for checking some of the answers obtained through traditional analysis.
Besides the evaluation programs, the virtual instruments (LabVIEW programs) and circuit files discussed in the book are included on the CDs. Furthermore, solutions to the in-chapter exercises, answers for selected end-of-chapter problems, and summaries of key equations for each chapter are included in pdf files on both CDs.
CHANGES AND NEW FEATURES IN THE SECOND EDITION
- New chapter entitled Computer-Based Instrumentation Systems (Chapter 9)
- Extensive revision of the chapter on microcontrollers now featuring the 68HCll (Chapter 8)
- Earlier treatment of digital systems (Part II)
- Extensive revision of the chapter on field-effect transistors to emphasize MOS devices (Chapter 12)
- New section on digital signal processing (Section 6.9)
- New section on stepper motors (Section 17.5)
- Minor revisions of the remainder of the book
- Approximately 20% more end-of-chapter problems
- Revision and consolidation of the computer-aided circuit analysis material (Appendix D)
- Inclusion of a CD containing the evaluation version of LabVIEW 6I and the virtual instruments discussed in the book
- Inclusion of a second CD containing the evaluation version of Orcad Lite 9.2 and the circuit files discussed in the book
- Complete solutions to the in-chapter exercises (in pdf files on both CDs)
- Answers to selected end-of-chapter problems (in pdf files on both CDs)
- Summaries of key equations for each chapter (in pdf files on both CDs)
- Revision of the entire solutions manual
- New web site http://www.prenhall.com/hambley that contains the pdf files mentioned above, updates, instructor resources, and links to interesting sites related to material discussed in the book
The essential prerequisites for a course from this book are basic physics and single-variable calculus. A prior differential equations course would be helpful but is not essential. Differential equations are encountered in Chapter 4 on transient analysis, but the skills needed are developed from basic calculus.
The book includes various pedagogical features designed with the goal of stimulating student interest, eliminating frustration, and engendering an awareness of the relevance of the material to their chosen profession. These features are:
- Statement of learning objectives open each chapter
- Comments in the margins emphasize and summarize important points or indicate common pitfalls that students need to avoid
- Short boxed articles demonstrate how electrical-engineering principles are applied in other fields of engineering. For example, see the articles on active noise cancellation (page 253) and electronic pacemakers (starting on page 348).
- Step-by-step problem solving procedures. For example, see the step-by-step summary of node-voltage analysis (on pages 70-71) or the summary of Théevenin equivalents (on page 86).
- Complete solutions to the in-chapter exercises included as pdf files on both of the CDs provide students with help
- Answers to approximately one-third of the end-of-chapter problems, provided as pdf files on both CDs, build student confidence and indicate where additional study is needed
- Summaries of important points at the end of each chapter provide references for students
- Key equations highlighted in the book and provided as pdf files on both CDs provide quick and convenient references for students
MEETING ABET-DIRECTED OUTCOMES
Courses based on this book provide excellent opportunities to meet many of the directed outcomes for accreditation. The Criteria for Accrediting Engineering Programs (for evaluations during the 2001-2002 accreditation cycle) require that graduates of accredited programs have "an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering" and "an ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems." This book, in its entirety, is aimed at developing these abilities.
Also, graduates must have "an ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as analyze and interpret data." Chapter 9, Computer-Based Instrumentation Systems, helps to develop this ability. If the course includes a laboratory, this ability can be developed even further.
Furthermore, the criteria require "an ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams" and "an ability to communicate effectively." Courses based on this book contribute to these abilities by giving nonmajors the knowledge and vocabulary to communicate effectively with electrical engineers. The book also helps to inform electrical engineers about applications in other fields of engineering. To aid in communication skills, end-of-chapter problems that ask students to explain electrical-engineering concepts in their own words have been added in this edition.
The LabVIEW and Orcad PSpice software packages distributed with this book contribute to developing "an ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice."
SOLUTIONS MANUAL AND WEB SITE
Students can find solutions for the in-chapter exercises and answers (without solutions) for selected end-of-chapter problems on both of the CDs included with the book and on the web site. The web site also contains many links to interesting sites related to topics covered in the book.
Any corrections that may be needed for the book or solutions manual will be posted on the web site as they are found. The home page for this book is located at http://www.prenhall.com/hambley
The web site also contains resources for instructors including:
- PowerPoint slides of key figures from the book
- Syllabus Builder
- Instructor's Manual
Furthermore, a complete solutions manual is available from the publisher to instructors who have adopted the book.
CONTENT AND ORGANIZATION
Part I Circuits
Chapter 1 defines current, voltage, power, and energy. Kirchhoff's laws are introduced. Voltage sources, current sources, and resistance are defined.
Chapter 2 treats resistive circuits. Analysis by network reduction, node voltages, and mesh currents is covered. Thévenin equivalents, superposition, and the heatstone bridge are treated.
Capacitance, inductance, and mutual inductance are treated in Chapter 3.
Transients in electrical circuits are discussed in Chapter 4. First-order RL and RC circuits and time constants are covered followed by a discussion of second-order circuits.
Chapter 5 considers sinusoidal steady-state circuit behavior. (A review of complex arithmetic is included in Appendix A.,) Power calculations, ac Thévenin and Norton equivalents, and balanced three-phase circuits are treated.
Chapter 6 covers frequency response, Bode plots, resonance, and filters. The basic concept of Fourier theory (that signals are composed of sinusoidal components having various amplitudes, phases, and frequencies) is qualitatively discussed. A section on digital signal processing has been added in this edition.
Part II Digital Systems
Chapter 7 introduces logic gates and the representation of numerical data in binary form. It then proceeds to discuss combinatorial and sequential logic. Boolean algebra, De Morgan's laws, truth tables, Karnaugh maps, coders, decoders, flip flops, and registers are discussed.
Chapter 8 treats microcomputers with emphasis on embedded systems using the Motorola 68HCll as the primary example. Computer organization and memory types are discussed. Digital process control using microcontrollers is described in general terms. Finally, selected instructions and addressing modes for the 68HCll are described. Assembly language programming is treated very briefly.
Chapter 9, which is new in the second edition, discusses computer-based instrumentation systems including measurement concepts, sensors, signal conditioning, and analog-to-digital conversion. The chapter ends with a discussion of LabVIEW including an example virtual instrument that students can duplicate using the evaluation version on their own computers.
Part III Electronics
Chapter 10 presents the diode, its various models, load-line analysis, and diode circuits such as rectifiers, Zener-diode regulators, and wave-shapers.
In Chapter 11, the specifications and imperfections of amplifiers that need to be considered in applications are discussed from a users perspective. These include gain, input impedance, output impedance, loading effects, frequency response, pulse response, nonlinear distortion, common-mode rejection, and dc offsets.
Chapter 12 contains a totally revised treatment of the MOS field-effect transistor, its characteristic curves, load-line analysis, large-signal and small-signal models, bias circuits, the common-source amplifier, and the source follower.
Chapter 13 gives a similar treatment for bipolar transistors. If desired, the order of Chapters 12 and 13 can be reversed. Another possibility is to skip most of both chapters so more time can be devoted to other topics.
Chapter 14 treats the operational amplifier and many of its applications. Non-majors can learn enough from this chapter to design and use op-amp circuits for instrumentation applications in their own fields.
Part IV Electromechanics
Chapter 15 reviews basic magnetic field theory, analyzes magnetic circuits, and presents transformers.
Dc machines and ac machines are treated in Chapters 16 and 17, respectively. The emphasis is on motors rather than generators because the nonelectrical engineer applies motors much more often than generators. In Chapter 16, an overall view of motors in general is presented before considering do motors, their equivalent circuits, and performance calculations. The universal motor and its applications are discussed.
Chapter 17 deals with ac motors starting with the three-phase induction motor. Synchronous motors and their advantages with respect to power-factor correction are analyzed. Small motors including single-phase induction motors are also discussed. A section on stepper motors has been added.
I especially want to thank Michigan Technological University President Curt Tompkins and the Chair of my department, Dr. Tim Schulz, for their support. I also wish to thank my colleagues, past and present, in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Michigan Technological University, all of whom have given me help and encouragement at one time or another in writing this book and in my other projects.
I have received much excellent advice from professors at other institutions who reviewed the manuscript in various stages. This advice has improved the final result a great deal, and I am grateful for their help. The reviewers for the first edition were:
Edwin L. Gerber, Drexel University;
Belinda B. Wang, University of Toronto;
Edgar A. O'Hair, Texas Tech University;
Phil Noe, Texas A & M University;
Joseph A. Coppola, Syracuse University;
Rodger E. Ziemer, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs;
Len Trombetta, University of Houston;
Carl Wells, Washington State University;
Zoran Gajic, Rutgers University;
Richard S. Marleau, University of Wisconsin;
Robert Collin, Case Western University;
W.T. Easter, North Carolina State University;
John Pavlat, Iowa State University;
Edward Yang, Columbia University;
Ibrahim Abdel-Motaled, Northwestern University;
Clifford Pollock, Cornell University;
Victor Gerez, Montana State University;
William Sayle II, Georgia Institute of Technology;
Michael Reed, Carnegie Mellon University;
D. B. Brumm, Michigan Technological University;
Sunanda Mitra, Texas Tech University;
Elmer Grubbs, New Mexico Highlands University.
I also thank Professor A1 Wicks of Virginia Tech who reviewed the manuscript for the second edition and supplied excellent suggestions for improvement.
Over the years, many students and faculty using my books at Michigan Technological University and elsewhere have made many excellent suggestions for improving the books and correcting errors. I thank them very much.
I am indebted to Tom Robbins, my editor at Prentice Hall, for keeping me pointed in the right direction and for many excellent suggestions that have improved my books a great deal.
Also, I want to thank Tony for his continuing encouragement and valuable insights. I thank Judy for many good things too extensive to list.
Allan R. Hambley
Table of Contents
|Practical Applications of Electrical Engineering Principles||vi|
|1.1||Overview of Electrical Engineering||3|
|1.2||Circuits, Currents, and Voltages||7|
|1.3||Power and Energy||15|
|1.4||Kirchhoff's Current Law||18|
|1.5||Kirchhoff's Voltage Law||21|
|1.6||Introduction to Circuit Elements||24|
|1.7||Introduction to Circuits||33|
|2.1||Resistances in Series and Parallel||44|
|2.2||Network Analysis by Using Series and Parallel Equivalents||48|
|2.3||Voltage-Divider and Current-Divider Circuits||52|
|2.6||Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits||80|
|3||Inductance and Capacitance||109|
|3.2||Capacitances in Series and Parallel||119|
|3.3||Physical Characteristics of Capacitors||120|
|3.5||Inductances in Series and Parallel||130|
|4.1||First-Order RC Circuits||143|
|4.2||DC Steady State||147|
|4.4||RC and RL Circuits with General Sources||154|
|5||Steady-State Sinusoidal Analysis||181|
|5.1||Sinusoidal Currents and Voltages||182|
|5.4||Circuit Analysis with Phasors and Complex Impedances||198|
|5.5||Power in AC Circuits||204|
|5.6||Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits||217|
|5.7||Balanced Three-Phase Circuits||223|
|6||Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance||244|
|6.1||Fourier Analysis, Filters, and Transfer Functions||245|
|6.2||First-Order Lowpass Filters||254|
|6.3||Decibels, the Cascade Connection, and Logarithmic Frequency Scales||259|
|6.5||First-Order Highpass Filters||267|
|6.8||Ideal and Second-Order Filters||280|
|6.9||Digital Signal Processing||286|
|Part 2||Digital Systems||307|
|7.1||Basic Logic Circuit Concepts||309|
|7.2||Representation of Numerical Data in Binary Form||312|
|7.3||Combinatorial Logic Circuits||320|
|7.4||Synthesis of Logic Circuits||329|
|7.5||Minimization of Logic Circuits||336|
|7.6||Sequential Logic Circuits||339|
|8.3||Digital Process Control||363|
|8.4||The Motorola 68HC11/12||366|
|8.5||The Instruction Set and Addressing Modes for the 68HC11||372|
|9||Computer-Based Instrumentation Systems||390|
|9.1||Measurement Concepts and Sensors||391|
|10.1||Basic Diode Concepts||423|
|10.2||Load-Line Analysis of Diode Circuits||427|
|10.3||Zener-Diode Voltage-Regulator Circuits||429|
|10.5||Piecewise-Linear Diode Models||436|
|10.8||Linear Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits||450|
|11||Amplifiers: Specifications and External Characteristics||465|
|11.1||Basic Amplifier Concepts||466|
|11.3||Power Supplies and Efficiency||475|
|11.4||Additional Amplifier Models||478|
|11.5||Importance of Amplifier Impedances in Various Applications||482|
|11.8||Linear Waveform Distortion||491|
|11.10||Transfer Characteristics and Nonlinear Distortion||499|
|11.12||Offset Voltage, Bias Current, and Offset Current||506|
|12.1||NMOS and PMOS Transistors||522|
|12.2||Load-Line Analysis of a Simple NMOS Amplifier||530|
|12.4||Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits||536|
|12.7||CMOS Logic Gates||550|
|13||Bipolar Junction Transistors||559|
|13.1||Current and Voltage Relationships||560|
|13.3||Load-Line Analysis of a Common-Emitter Amplifier||565|
|13.4||pnp Bipolar Junction Transistors||572|
|13.5||Large-Signal DC Circuit Models||574|
|13.6||Large-Signal DC Analysis of BJT Circuits||577|
|13.7||Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits||584|
|14.1||Ideal Operational Amplifiers||608|
|14.5||Design of Simple Amplifiers||620|
|14.6||Op-Amp Imperfections in the Linear Range of Operation||626|
|14.9||Differential and Instrumentation Amplifiers||640|
|14.10||Integrators and Differentiators||642|
|15||Magnetic Circuits and Transformers||662|
|15.3||Inductance and Mutual Inductance||679|
|16.1||Overview of Motors||709|
|16.2||Principles of DC Machines||718|
|16.3||Rotating DC Machines||724|
|16.4||Shunt-Connected and Separately Excited DC Motors||731|
|16.5||Series-Connected DC Motors||736|
|16.6||Speed Control of DC Motors||740|
|17.1||Three-Phase Induction Motors||754|
|17.2||Equivalent-Circuit and Performance Calculations for Induction Motors||762|
|B||Nominal Values and the Color Code for Resistors||806|
|C||Preparing for the Fundamentals of Engineering Exam||808|
|D||Computer-Aided Circuit Analysis||814|
|D.1||Analysis of DC Circuits||814|