Electrochemistry of Metal Chalcogenides / Edition 1

Electrochemistry of Metal Chalcogenides / Edition 1

by Mirtat Bouroushian
ISBN-10:
3642039669
ISBN-13:
9783642039669
Pub. Date:
05/06/2010
Publisher:
Springer Berlin Heidelberg

Hardcover

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Overview

Electrochemistry of Metal Chalcogenides / Edition 1

The author provides a unified account of the electrochemical material science of metal chalcogenide (MCh) compounds and alloys with regard to their synthesis, processing and applications. Starting with the chemical fundamentals of the chalcogens and their major compounds, the initial part of the book includes a systematic description of the MCh solids on the basis of the Periodic Table in terms of their structures and key properties. This is followed by a general discussion on the electrochemistry of chalcogen species, and the principles underlying the electrochemical formation of inorganic compounds/alloys. The core of the book offers an insight into available experimental results and inferences regarding the electrochemical preparation and microstructural control of conventional and novel MCh structures. It also aims to survey their photoelectrochemistry, both from a material-oriented point of view and as connected to specific processes such as photocatalysis and solar energy conversion. Finally, the book illustrates the relevance of MCh materials to various applications of electrochemical interest such as (electro) catalysis in fuel cells, energy storage with intercalation electrodes, and ion sensing.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642039669
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 05/06/2010
Series: Monographs in Electrochemistry
Edition description: 2010
Pages: 358
Product dimensions: 6.30(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

1 Chalcogens and Metal Chalcogenides 1

1.1 The Chalcogens 1

1.1.1 History and Occurrence 2

1.1.2 Production and Uses 4

1.1.3 Allotropy - States of Matter 7

1.1.4 Chemical Properties and Compounds 10

1.1.4.1 Hydrides 12

1.1.4.2 Oxides and Oxoacids 12

1.1.4.3 Thio- and Seleno-sulfates 14

1.1.4.4 Polychalcogenide Ions 15

1.2 The Metal Chalcogenides 16

1.2.1 Solids, Complexes, and Clusters 16

1.2.2 Common Solid Structures 19

1.2.3 Ternary Compounds and Alloys 22

1.2.4 Intercalation Phases 24

1.2.5 Chalcogenide Glasses 24

1.2.6 Materials Synthesis 25

1.2.7 An Account of the Periodic Table 28

1.2.7.1 Group IA (1). Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium 28

1.2.7.2 Group IIA (2). Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium 29

1.2.7.3 Group IIIA (3). Scandium, Yttrium, Lanthanoids, Actinoids 29

1.2.7.4 Group IVA (4). Titanium, Zirconium, Hafnium 32

1.2.7.5 Group VA (5). Vanadium, Niobium, Tantalum 33

1.2.7.6 Group VIA (6). Chromium, Molybdenum, Tungsten 35

1.2.7.7 Group VIIA (7). Manganese, Technetium, Rhenium 37

1.2.7.8 Group VIII (8-10). Iron, Cobalt, Nickel 38

1.2.7.9 Group VIII (8-10). Platinum Group Metals (Ru, Os, Rh, Ir, Pd, Pt) 40

1.2.7.10 Group IB (11). Copper, Silver, Gold 41

1.2.7.11 Group IIB (12). Zinc, Cadmium, Mercury 45

1.2.7.12 Group IIIB (13). Boron, Aluminum, Gallium, Indium, Thallium 48

1.2.7.13 Group IVB (14). Germanium, Tin, Lead 49

1.2.7.14 Group VB (15). Antimony, Bismuth 51

General References 52

References 52

2 Electrochemistry of the Chalcogens 57

2.1 General References 57

2.1.1 Tables of Aqueous Standard and Formal Potentials 59

2.1.2 Pourbaix Diagram for Sulfur-Water 62

2.1.3 Pourbaix Diagram for Selenium-Water 64

2.1.4 Pourbaix Diagram for Tellurium-Water 65

2.2 General Discussion 67

2.2.1 Sulfur 67

2.2.2 Selenium 69

2.2.3 Tellurium 71

References 73

3 Electrochemical Preparations I (Conventional Coatings and Structures) 77

3.1 Basic Principles and Illustrations 77

3.1.1 Cathodic Electrodeposition 78

3.1.2 Anodization and Other Techniques 84

3.1.3 Pourbaix Diagrams 85

3.1.4 Nucleation and Growth 86

3.2 Binary Compounds and Related Ternaries 88

3.2.1 Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) 88

3.2.2 Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) 94

3.2.3 Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) 98

3.2.4 Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) 103

3.2.5 Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) 104

3.2.6 Zinc Telluride (ZnTe) 105

3.2.7 Mercury Chalcogenides 106

3.2.8 Pseudobinary II-VIx-VI1-x and II1-x-IIx-VI Phases 106

3.2.9 Molybdenum and Tungsten Chalcogenides 110

3.2.10 Copper Chalcogenides 112

3.2.11 Silver Chalcogenides 113

3.2.12 Indium Chalcogenides 114

3.2.13 Copper-Indium Dichalcogenides 115

3.2.14 Manganese and Rhenium Chalcogenides 119

3.2.15 Iron Chalcogenides 120

3.2.16 Tin Chalcogenides 121

3.2.17 Lead Chalcogenides 124

3.2.18 Bismuth and Antimony Chalcogenides 128

3.2.19 Rare Earth Chalcogenides 131

3.3 Addendum 132

3.3.1 Chemical Bath Deposition 132

3.3.2 Electrodeposited CdTe Solar Cells 137

References 139

4 Electrochemical Preparations II (Non-conventional) 153

4.1 General 153

4.2 Epitaxial Films and Superstructures 154

4.2.1 Single-Step Epitaxy on Semiconductor Substrates 155

4.2.2 Electrochemical Atomic Layer Epitaxy 162

4.2.3 Superstructures-Multilayers 169

4.3 Atomic Layer Epitaxy and UPD Revisited 172

4.4 Electrodeposition of Nanostructures: Size-Quantized Films on Metal Substrates 182

4.5 Directed Electrosynthests 187

4.5.1 Porous Templates 189

4.5.2 Templated and Free-Standing Nanowires and other Forms 191

4.5.3 Electrochemical Step Edge Decoration 196

References 198

5 Photoelectrochemistry and Applications 207

5.1 General 207

5.2 Photoelectrochemical Properties 209

5.2.1 Redox and Surface Chemistry vs. Electrode Decomposition 210

5.2.2 Energetic Considerations 213

5.2.3 Cadmium Chalcogenides 216

5.2.3.1 Single-Crystal Photoelectrodes - PEC Fabrication and Properties 216

5.2.3.2 Single-Crystal Photoelectrodes - A Closer Look into Interfacial Electrochemistry 223

5.2.3.3 Polycrystalline Photoelectrodes 229

5.2.4 A Note on Multilayer Structures 233

5.2.5 Zinc Chalcogenides 235

5.2.6 Layered Transition Metal Chalcogenides 238

5.2.6.1 Surface Anisotropy Effect 247

5.2.7 Iron Sulfides 248

5.2.8 Chalcopyrites 251

5.2.9 Some Chalcogenides of p-Block Metals 255

5.2.9.1 Gallium and Indium Chalcogenides 256

5.2.9.2 Tin Sulfides 259

5.2.9.3 Lead Chalcogenides 261

5.2.9.4 Bismuth Sulfide 262

5.3 Semiconductor Photocatalysis 263

5.3.1 Colloidal Systems 265

5.3.2 Solar Detoxification - CO2 Photoreduction 268

5.3.3 Photocatalytic Decomposition of Water 270

5.3.3.1 Cadmium Sulfide and Related Photocatalysts 275

5.3.3.2 Transition Metal Dichalcogenides and Related Photocatalysts 279

5.4 Sensitized Solar Cells 283

References 292

6 Electrochemical Processes and Technology 309

6.1 Oxygen Reduction Reaction - ORR 309

6.1.1 General 309

6.1.2 Pt-Free Chalcogenide Catalysts 311

6.1.3 Methanol Oxidation 317

6.1.4 ODP Applications (Oxygen-Depolarized Electrolysis of HC1) 320

6.2 Electrochemical Energy Storage 322

6.2.1 Intercalation in Chalcogenides 322

6.2.2 Principles of the (Thin Film) Rechargeable Lithium Battery 324

6.2.3 Chalcogenide Cathodes for Rechargeable Lithium Cells 326

6.2.4 Mg-Ion Intercalation 329

6.2.5 High-Power Batteries and Related Types 330

6.2.5.1 Sulfur-based Cathode 330

6.2.5.2 Se- and Te-based Cathodes 334

6.2.5.3 Thermal Batteries 335

6.3 Ion-Selective Electrodes 335

6.3.1 Chalcogenide Glass Sensors 337

6.3.2 Biosensors 339

References 342

About the Editor 351

About the Author 353

Index 355

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