Pulsed electric fields have been applied to living systems in vitro for a host of delivery applications since the early 1980s. It has been established that the primary effect that electrical treatment has on cells is an induced increase in the permeability of membranes to exogenous molecules. This state of increased permeability was noted to be temporary and could be induced with little or no effect on cell viability. This physical phenomenon was termed electroporation. Numerous published studies have shown that electroporation can be applied to any cell type. These studies also exploited the phenomenon to deliver drugs, DNA, antibodies, proteins, and fluorescent molecules. The use of electricity to mediate delivery of these molecule types in vitro has proven to be an invaluable research tool for biological and biomedical scientists. Many of the in vitro applications for electrically mediated delivery have tremendous potential for the treatment of human disease. For example, the ef- cient delivery of drugs and plasmid DNA has strong implications for improving standard therapies, as well as gene therapies. This potential was realized about 12 years ago when electric pulses were used to deliver drugs to tumor cells in vivo. Since then, the utility of in vivo electroporation for the delivery of m- ecules has been demonstrated through new applications that have been developed with increasing frequency each year. Electrochemotherapy, Electrogenetherapy, and Transdermal Drug Delivery: Electrically Mediated Delivery of Molecules to Cells provides review and protocol chapters that completely cover this relatively new scientific discipline.
Table of ContentsReviews. Principles of Membrane Electroporation and Transport of Macromolecules, Eberhard Neumann, Sergej Kakorin, and Katja Toensing. Instrumentation and Electrodes for In Vivo Electroporation, Gunter A. Hofmann. Numerical Modeling for In Vivo Electroporation, Dejan Semrov and Damijan Miklavcic. In Vitro Delivery of Drugs and Other Molecules to Cells, Marie-Pierre Rols, Muriel Golzio, Christine Delteil, and Justin Teissié. The Basis of Electrochemotherapy, Lluis M. Mir and Stéphane Orlowski. Electrochemotherapy: Animal Model Work Review, Gregor Sersa. Clinical Trials for Solid Tumors Using Electrochemotherapy, Richard Heller, Richard Gilbert, and Mark J. Jaroszeski. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Gene Delivery to Cells by Electroporation, Sek Wen Hui and Lin Hong Li. Delivery of Genes In Vivo Using Pulsed Electric Fields, Mark J. Jaroszeski, Richard Gilbert, Claude Nicolau, and Richard Heller. Mechanism of Transdermal Drug Delivery by Electroporation, Timothy E. Vaughan and James C. Weaver. Mechanistic Studies of Skin Electroporation Using Biophysical Methods, Mark R. Prausnitz, Uwe Pliquett, and Rita Vanbever. Electrochemotherapy Protocols. Treatment of Murine Transplanted Subcutaneous Tumors Using Systemic Drug Administration, Stéphane Orlowski and Lluis M. Mir. Electrochemotherapy of Murine Melanoma Using Intratumor Drug Administration, Richard Heller, Richard Gilbert, and Mark J. Jaroszeski. Treatment of a Tumor Model with ECT Using 4+4 Electrode Configuration, Maja Cemazar. Treatment of Multiple Spontaneous Breast Tumors in Mice Using Electrochemotherapy, Stéphane Orlowski and Lluis M. Mir. Electroporation of Muscle Tissue In Vivo, Julie Gehl and Lluis M. Mir. Treatment of Human Pancreatic Tumors Xenografted in Nude Mice by Chemotherapy Combined with Pulsed Electric Fields, Sukhendu B. Dev, Gunter A. Hofmann, and Gurvinder S. Nanda. Distribution of Bleomycin in a Rat Model, Per Engström, Leif G. Salford, and Bertil R. R. Persson. Treatment of Rat Bladder Cancerwith Electrochemotherapy In Vivo, Yoko Kubota, Teruhiro Nakada, and Isoji Sasagawa. Electrochemotherapy for the Treatment of Soft Tissue Sarcoma in a Rat Mode, Richard Gilbert, Mark J. Jaroszeski, and Richard Heller. Treatment of Spontaneous Soft Tissue Sarcomas in Cat, Stéphane Orlowski and Lluis M. Mir. Treatment of Rat Glioma with Electrochemotherapy, Leif G. Salford, Per Engström, and Bertil R. R. Persson. Treatment of Liver Malignancies with Electrochemotherapy in a Rat Model, Mark J. Jaroszeski, Richard Gilbert, and Richard Heller. Treatment of Liver Tumors in Rabbit, Stéphane Orlowski and Lluis M. Mir. Electrogenetherapy Protocols. Electrically Mediated Reporter Gene Transfer into Normal Rat Liver Tissue, Mark J. Jaroszeski, Richard Gilbert, Claude Nicolau, and Richard Heller. Reporter/Functional Gene Transfer in Rat Brain, Toru Nishi, Kimio Yoshizato, Tomoaki Goto, Hideo Takeshima, Shigeo Yamashiro, Jun-ichi Kuratsu, Hideyuki Saya, and Yukitaka Ushio. In Vivo Gene Electroporation in the Mouse Testis, Tatsuo Muramatsu. Ex Vivo Stromal Cell Electroporation of Factor IX cDNA for Treatment of Hemophilia B, Armand Keating, Edward Nolan, Robin Filshie, and Sukhendu B. Dev. In Ovo Gene Electroporation into Early Chicken Embryos, Tatsuo Muramatsu. Transdermal Delivery Protocols. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Rapid and Noninvasive Analysis of Skin Electroporation, Uwe Pliquett and Mark R. Prausnitz. An In Vitro System for Measuring the Transdermal Voltage and Molecular Flux Across the Skin in Real Time, Tani Chen, Robert Langer, and James C. Weaver. Using Surface Electrodes to Monitor the Electric-Pulse-Induced Permeabilization of Porcine Skin, Stephen A. Gallo, Patricia G. Johnson, and Sek Wen Hui. Transdermal Delivery Using Surface Electrodes in Porcine Skin, Patricia G. Johnson, Stephen A. Gallo, and Sek Wen Hui. Transdermal Drug Delivery by Skin Electroporation in the Rat, Rita Vanbever and Véronique Préat. In Vivo Skin-Targeted Gene Delivery by