Dr. Boris Medovar, a member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, is a promi nent member of the E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute in Kiev, one of the pre-eminent institutes of the USSR. The Paton Institute, internationally famous for its entrepreneurial efforts in electrical welding processes, is also famous for its application of electrically based processes in melting and remelting of high alloy and high-temperature materials. These include the ESR (electroslag re melting) process, the ESC (electroslag casting) process, skull remelting based on electron-beam processes, plasma arc processes, and electric arc processes. Along with the ESR process for ingot production is the commercial plasma arc remelt process for specialty steels, particularly where high nitrogen contents may be desired, as in austenitic stainless steels. Major industrial centers are now scattered throughout the USSR and are a major factor in high-alloy, high strength, low- and high-temperature materials. The ESR process was developed in response to the Western development of the VAR (vacuum arc remelting) process for producing very highly alloyed materials during the growth period of the jet engine age. The V AR and ESR processes utilize different purification and refinement processes that are extremely critical in very highly, complexly alloyed superalloys and high-speed tool steels. In water-cooled remelt systems, they also achieve relatively rapid (directional) solidification, minimizing segregation and coarse phase separation of undesir able impurity elements or elements that tend to form coarse brittle phases.
Table of Contents1 Electroslag Technology in the Soviet Union.- 1 Contemporary Electroslag Crucible Melting and Casting Its Future Outlook.- 2 Electroslag Technology as a Means of Improving the Design and Properties of Parts Used in Corrosive Environments.- 3 Electroslag Remelting as an Efficient Way To Increase the Quality of Alloy for the Production of Wheels and Bearings.- 4 Electroslag Remelting in the Development of New Steels for Fabricating Parts and Bearings.- 5 Electroslag Remelting of Steel Slabs for the Fabrication of Thin Strips.- 6 Computer Automatization of Electroslag Remelting Furnaces.- 7 Electroslag Remelting for the Production of Tool Steels.- 8 Electroslag Remelting of Worn-Out Machine Tools.- 9 Electroslag Casting of Preforms for Forging Dies.- 10 Electroslag Technology at the “Izhstal” Manufacturing Association.- 11 Electroslag Remelting of Manganese.- 12 Electroslag Remelting of Aluminum Bronzes Exhibiting the Memory Effect.- 13 Thirty Years of Electroslag Remelting Steel Production at the “Dneprospetsstal” Plant.- 14 Electroslag Remelting at the “Elektrostal” Plant.- 15 New Developments in Electroslag Remelting at the Zlatoust Metallurgical Plant.- 16 The Fabrication of Small Preforms for Machine Components by Permanent Mold Electroslag Casting in Factories of the Ukrainian Light Industry.- 17 Sectional Strip Mill Rolls with Electroslag-Cast Outer Linings Having a Variable Chemical Composition Across the Width of the Roll.- 18 The Introduction of Electroslag Technology at the Manufacturing Association “Novokramatorsk Manufacturing Plant”.- 19 Electroslag Casting at the Manufacturing Association “Cheboksar Commercial Tractor Plant”.- 20 Applications of the Electroslag Process for Producing Cutting Tools from Scrap Tool Steel at Factories of the Ministry of Machine Tools of the USSR.- 21 Electroslag Technology at the Manufacturing Association “Kolomensk Heavy Machinery Plant”.- 22 Electroslag Equipment at the “Sibelektroterm” Manufacturing Association.- 23 The Use of Electroslag Technology in the Production of Electric Furnaces.- 24 Research at the Georgian Polytechnical Institute in the Field of Electroslag Technology.- 25 Developments in Electroslag Technology at the Manufacturing Research Association “NIIPTmash”.- 26 Production of Large Ingots by Proportional Electroslag Casting.- 27 Large Hollow Castings of Quasi-Monolithic Reinforced Steel.- 28 A New High-Strength Quasi-Monolithic Reinforced Steel for High-Tonnage BELAZ Dump Truck Beds Used in Mining.- 29 Quasi-Monolithic Reinforced Spring Steel.- 30 Economic Aspects of the Use of Electroslag Castings To Produce Machine Parts at Kiev Factories.- 2 Electroslag Technology Abroad.- 31 Modern Electroslag Remelting Technology and Its Future Development.- 32 Electroslag Remelting of High-Speed Steel in Hungary.- 33 Electroslag Remelting of Specialized High-Alloy Steels.- 34 Research in the Field of Electroslag Remelting at the University of British Columbia.- 35 A 200-Ton Electroslag Furnace in the People’s Republic of China.- 36 The Development of Electroslag Technology in Bulgaria.- 37 The Development of Electroslag Remelting at the “Huta Batory” Steel Mill from 1960 to 1985.- 38 The Experience of the “Huta Beldon” Steel Mill in Electroslag Remelting.- 39 The Development of Electroslag Remelting at the “Zhelezarna Ravne” Metallurgical Plant in Yugoslavia.- 40 Electroslag Remelting of Heat-Resistant Alloys: Thermal Balance of Melting and Alloy Chemical Homogeneity.- 41 Twenty-Five Years’ Experience in Electroslag Remelting Development.- 42 Parameters Influencing the Quality of Electroslag Ingots and Process Efficiency.- 43 Electroslag Remelting in Czechoslovakia and Its Future Development.- 44 The Production of Large Electroslag Ingots with Low Oxygen and Aluminum Concentration from Steel Containing 12% Cr.- 45 New Electroslag Furnaces Abroad.