Elementary Algebra for College Students / Edition 6 available in Hardcover
About the Author
Allen R. Angel received his AAS in Electrical Technology from New York City Community College. He then received his BS in Physics and his MS in Mathematics from SUNY at New Paltz, and he took additional graduate work at Rutgers University. He is Professor Emeritus at Monroe Community College in Rochester, New York where he served for many years as the chair of the Mathematics Department. He also served as the Assistant Director of the National Science Foundation Summer Institutes at Rutgers University from 1967–73. He served as the President of the New York State Mathematics Association of Two Year Colleges (NYSMATYC) and the Northeast Vice President of the American Mathematics Association of Two Year Colleges (AMATYC). He is the recipient of many awards including a number of NISOD Excellence in Teaching Awards, NYSMATYC's Outstanding Contributions to Mathematics Education Award, and AMATYC's President Award. Allen enjoy tennis, worldwide travel, and visiting with his children and granddaughter.
Dennis Runde received his BS and MS in mathematics from the University of Wisconsin—Platteville and Milwaukee, respectively. He has a PhD in Mathematics Education from the University of South Florida. He has been teaching for twenty years at State College of Florida, Manatee, and Sarasota Counties and for ten years at Saint Stephen's Episcopal School. Besides coaching little league baseball, his other interests include history, politics, fishing, canoeing, and cooking. He and his wife Kristin stay busy keeping up with their three sons–Alex, Nick, and Max.
Table of Contents1. Real Numbers.
2. Solving Linear Equations and Inequalities.
3. Formulas and Applications of Algebra.
4. Exponents and Polynomials.
6. Rational Expressions and Equations.
7. Graphing Linear Equations.
8. Systems of Linear Equations.
9. Roots and Radicals.
10. Quadratic Equations.
Appendix A. Review of Decimals and Percents.
Appendix B. Finding the Greatest Common Factor and Least Common Denominator.
Appendix C. Geometry.
This book was written for college students and other adults who have never been exposed to algebra or those who have been exposed but need a refresher course. My primary goal was to write a book that students can read, understand, and enjoy. To achieve this goal I have used short sentences, clear explanations, and many detailed, worked-out examples. I have tried to make the book relevant to college students by using practical applications of algebra throughout the text.
Features of the Text
Full-Color Format. Color is used pedagogically in the following ways:
- Important definitions and procedures are color screened.
- Color screening or color type is used to make other important items stand out.
- Artwork is enhanced and clarified with use of multiple colors.
- The full-color format allows for easy identification of important features by students.
- The full-color format makes the text more appealing and interesting to students.
Readability. One of the most important features of the text is its readability. The book is very readable, even for those with .weak reading skills. Short, clear sentences are used and more easily recognized, and easy-to-understand language is used whenever possible.
Accuracy. Accuracy in a mathematics text is essential. To ensure accuracy in this book, mathematicians from around the country have read the pages carefully for typographical errors and have checked all the answers.
Connections. Many of our students do not thoroughly grasp new concepts the first time they are presented. In this text we encourage students to make connections.That is, we introduce a concept, then later in the text briefly reintroduce it and build upon it. Often an important concept is used in many sections of the text. Students are reminded where the material was seen before, or where it will be used again. This also serves to emphasize the importance of the concept. Important concepts are also reinforced throughout the text in the Cumulative Review Exercises and Cumulative Review Tests.
Chapter Opening Application. Each chapter begins with a real-life application related to the material covered in the chapter. By the time students complete the chapter, they should have the knowledge to work the problem.
A Look Ahead. This feature at the beginning of each chapter gives students a preview of the chapter and also indicates where this material will be used again in other chapters of the book. This material helps students see the connections between various topics in the book and the connection to realworld situations.
The Use of Icons. At the beginning of each chapter and of each section, a variety of icons are illustrated. These icons are provided to tell students where they may be able to get extra help if needed. There are icons for the Student's Solution Manual; the Student's Study Guide); CDs and videotapes; Math Pro the Prentice Hall Tutor Center; and the Angel Website. Each of these items will be discussed shortly.
Keyed Section Objectives. Each section opens with a list of skills that the student should learn in that section. The objectives are then keyed to the appropriate portions of the sections with red numbers such as 1.
Problem Solving. Polya's five-step problem-solving procedure is discussed in Section 1.2. Throughout the book problem solving and Polya's problem-solving procedure are emphasized.
Practical Applications. Practical applications of algebra are stressed throughout the text. Students need to learn how to translate application problems into algebraic symbols. The problem-solving approach used throughout this text gives students ample practice in setting up and solving application problems. The use of practical applications motivates students.
Detailed. Worked-Out Examples. A wealth of examples have been worked out in a step-by-step, detailed manner. Important steps are highlighted in color, and no steps are omitted until after the student has seen a sufficient number of similar examples.
Now Try Exercise. In each section, students are asked to work exercises that parallel the examples given in the text. These Now Try Exercises make the students active, rather than passive, learners and they reinforce the concepts as students work the exercises. Through these exercises students have the opportunity to immediately apply what they have learned. Now Try Exercises are indicated in green type such as 35, in the exercise sets.
Study Skills Section. Many students taking this course have poor study skills in mathematics. Section 1.1, the first section of this text, discusses the study skills needed to be successful in mathematics. This section should be very beneficial for your students and should help them to achieve success in mathematics.
Helpful Hints. The Helpful Hint boxes offer useful suggestions for problem solving and other varied topics. They are set off in a special manner so that students will be sure to read them.
Helpful HintsStudy Tips. This is a new feature. These Helpful Hint-Study Tips boxes offer valuable information on items related to studying and learning the material.
Avoiding Common Errors. Errors that students often make are illustrated. The reasons why certain procedures are wrong are explained, and the correct procedure for working the problem is illustrated. These Avoiding Common Errors boxes will help prevent your students from making those errors we see so often.
Mathematics in Action. This new feature stresses the need for and the uses of mathematics in real-life situations. Examples of the use of mathematics in many professions, and how we use mathematics daily without ever giving it much thought, are given. This can be a motivational feature for your students and can give them a better appreciation of mathematics.
Using Your Calculator. The Using Your Calculator boxes, placed at appropriate locations in the text, are written to reinforce the algebraic topics presented in the section and to give the student pertinent information on using a scientific calculator to solve algebraic problems.
Using Your Graphing Calculator. Using Your Graphing Calculator boxes are placed at appropriate locations throughout the text. They reinforce the algebraic topics taught and sometimes offer alternate methods of working problems. This book is designed to give the instructor the option of using or not using a graphing calculator in his or her course. Some of the Using Your Graphing Calculator boxes contain graphing calculator exercises, whose answers appear in the answer section of the book. The illustrations shown in the Using Your Graphing Calculator boxes are from a Texas Instruments 83 Plus calculator. The Using Your Graphing Calculator boxes are written assuming that the student has no prior graphing calculator experience.
The exercise sets are broken into three main categories: Concept/Writing Exercises, Practice the Skills, and Problem Solving. Many exercise sets also contain Challenge Problems and/or Group Activities. Each exercise set is graded in difficulty. The early problems help develop the student's confidence, and then students are eased gradually into the more difficult problems. A sufficient number and variety of examples are given in each section for the student to successfully complete even the more difficult exercises. The number of exercises in each section is more than ample for student assignments and practice.
Concept/Writing Exercises. Most exercise sets include exercises that require students to write out the answers in words. These exercises improve students' understanding and comprehension of the material. Many of these exercises involve problem solving and conceptualization and help develop better reasoning and critical thinking skills. Writing exercises are indicated by a symbol.
Problem Solving Exercises. These exercises have been added to help students become better thinkers and problem solvers. Many of these exercises involve real-life applications of algebra. It is important for students to be able to apply what they learn to real-life situations. Many problem solving exercises help with this.
Challenge Problems. These exercises, which are part of many exercise sets, provide a variety of problems. Many were written to stimulate student thinking. Others provide additional applications of algebra or present material from future sections of the book so that students can see and learn the material on their own before it is covered in class. Others are more challenging than those in the regular exercise set.
Video Icon Exercises. The exercises that are worked out in detail on the videotapes are marked with the video icon. This will prove helpful for your students.
Cumulative Review Exercises. All exercise sets (after the first two) contain questions from previous sections in the chapter and from previous chapters. These cumulative review exercises will reinforce topics that were previously covered and help students retain the earlier material, while they are learning the new material. For the students' benefit the Cumulative Review Exercises are keyed to the section where the material is covered, using brackets, such as 3.4.
Group Activities. Many exercise sets have group activity exercises that lead to interesting group discussions. Many students learn well in a cooperative learning atmosphere, and these exercises will get students talking mathematics to one another.
Chapter Summary. At the end of each chapter is a chapter summary that includes a glossary and important chapter facts.
Chapter Review Exercises. At the end of each chapter are review exercises that cover all types of exercises presented in the chapter. The review exercises are keyed, using color numbers and brackets, to the sections where the material was first introduced.
Chapter Practice Tests. The comprehensive end-of-chapter practice test will enable the students to see how well they are prepared for the actual class test. The Instructor's Test Manual includes several forms of each chapter test that are similar to the student's practice test. Multiple choice tests are also included in the Instructor's Test Manual.
Cumulative Review Tests. These tests, which appear at the end of each chapter after the first, test the students' knowledge of material from the beginning of the book to the end of that chapter. Students can use these tests for review, as well as for preparation for the final exam. These exams, like the cumulative review exercises, will serve to reinforce topics taught earlier. The answers to the Cumulative Review Test questions directly follow the test so that students can quickly check their work. After each answer the section and objective numbers where that material was covered are given using brackets, such as See 4.2, obj. 5.
Answers. The odd answers are provided for the exercise sets. All answers are provided for the Using Your Graphing Calculator Exercises, Cumulative Review Exercises, Review Exercises, Practice Tests, and Cumulative Review Tests. Answers are not provided for the Group Activity exercises since we want students to reach agreement by themselves on the answers to these exercises.
Recommendations of the Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics, prepared by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), and Crossroads in Mathematics: Standards for Introductory College Mathematics Before Calculus, prepared by the American Mathematical Association of Two Year Colleges (AMATYC), are incorporated into this edition.
This text assumes no prior knowledge of algebra. However, a working knowledge of arithmetic skills is important. Fractions are reviewed early in the text, and decimals are reviewed in Appendix A.
Modes of Instruction
The format and readability of this book lends itself to many different modes of instruction. The constant reinforcement of concepts will result in greater understanding and retention of the material by your students.
The features of the text and the large variety of supplements available make this text suitable for many types of instructional modes including:
- distance learning
- self-paced instruction
- modified lecture
- cooperative or group study
- learning laboratory
Changes in the Sixth Edition
When I wrote the sixth edition I considered many letters and reviews I got from students and faculty alike. I would like to thank all of you who made suggestions for improving the sixth edition. I would also like to thank the many instructors and students who wrote to inform me of how much they enjoyed, appreciated, and learned from the text. Some of the changes made in the sixth edition of the text include:
- Chapter 3, Formulas and Applications of Algebra, has been rewritten. Many of the exercises have been shortened and additional explanations have been added where necessary. Section 3.5 has been reorganized for greater clarity. The real-life application problems have been updated.
- Addition and subtraction of fractions in Chapter 1 have been greatly enhanced.
- Solving equations containing fractions is now introduced in Chapter 2. Many examples and exercises containing fractions were added.
- There is expanded coverage of order of operations with nested parentheses.
- The identity properties and inverse properties have been added to this edition.
- The Pythagorean Theorem has been moved earlier, to Chapter 5, at the request of many instructors.
- Direct and Inverse Variation has been added as the last section in Chapter 6.
- There is now an entire section dedicated to Applications of Quadratic Equations.
- A greater variety of exercises has been added to exercise sets throughout the book. In general, the exercise sets have been greatly enhanced.
- There is more emphasis on geometry than in the previous edition. More sections have examples and exercises that relate to geometry.
- In selected sections, more difficult exercises have been added at the end of exercise sets.
- Rational numbers have been explained more completely.
- A brief introduction to complex numbers has been added to Chapter 10 for those instructors who wish to introduce this topic to their students.
- The book has a new design with the purpose of making the exercise sets flow more smoothly so that exercises will be easy to spot and identify.
- The Cumulative Review Tests now have the answers directly following the test so that students can get immediate feedback. In addition, the section and objective numbers where the material was discussed are given after the answer.
- A Look Ahead has replaced the Preview and Perspectives. The information provided gives students an overview of the chapter and how it relates to other material in the book and to real-life situations.
- A new feature called Mathematics in Action has been added. This feature stresses the need for and the importance of mathematics in real life. This may be motivational for your students.
- More and new Helpful Hints and Avoiding Common Errors have been added where appropriate.
- Helpful HintStudy Tips have been added. These reinforce and expand upon the Study Skills for Success in Mathematics covered in Section 1.1.
- Application problems throughout the book have been updated and made more interesting.
- Using Your Graphing Calculator boxes now show keystrokes and screens from a Texas Instruments 83 Plus calculator.
- A fraction raised to a negative exponent is covered more completely.
- The balance bars have been removed from the explanations in Chapter 2.
- When factoring by grouping, the common factor is now placed on the left for consistency with other factoring problems.
- Perpendicular lines are now introduced in the text rather than in the exercise set.
- Chapter 9, Roots and Radicals, has been rewritten and reorganized for greater clarity and understanding. The material also now flows more smoothly.
- Variables other than x and y are used more often in examples and exercises.
- More photos have been added to the text to make it more attractive and interesting for students.
- The basic colors used in the text have been softened to make the text easier to read.
- A brief introduction to metric units of measurement is now presented in the Scientific Notation section.