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Emergency Care AHA Update / Edition 10
     

Emergency Care AHA Update / Edition 10

by Daniel Limmer, Harvey D. Grant, Michael F. O'Keefe, Bob Murray, Harvey Grant
 

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ISBN-10: 0131593625

ISBN-13: 9780131593626

Pub. Date: 12/29/2006

Publisher: Prentice Hall

Emergency Care, 10/E has prepared more students to pass state and/or the National Registry Exam than any other text on the market with well-organized, clearly presented content, thorough coverage of patient assessment, an accessible reading level, high quality artwork, and outstanding skill scans of equipment and procedures. Case studies and practical tips from

Overview

Emergency Care, 10/E has prepared more students to pass state and/or the National Registry Exam than any other text on the market with well-organized, clearly presented content, thorough coverage of patient assessment, an accessible reading level, high quality artwork, and outstanding skill scans of equipment and procedures. Case studies and practical tips from the field tie chapter concepts to real world applications. Each chapter sends students to the Companion Website where there are links to EMS-related sites. A new in-text CD provides extra information to help students master concepts.   Emergency Care AHA Update reflects the American Heart Association's 2005 CPR and ECC guidelines.

 

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780131593626
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Publication date:
12/29/2006
Series:
Emergency Care Ser.
Edition description:
With CD-ROM
Pages:
1200
Product dimensions:
8.50(w) x 10.80(h) x 1.64(d)

Table of Contents


Preparatory
Introduction to Emergency Medical Care     4
The Emergency Medical Services System     6
How It Began     6
EMS Today     7
Components of the EMS System     8
Accessing the EMS System     9
Levels of EMS Training     10
Roles and Responsibilities of the EMT-B     10
Traits of a Good EMT-B     11
Where Will You Become a Provider?     13
National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians     14
Quality Improvement     14
Medical Direction     15
Special Issues     16
Chapter Review     17
Street Scenes     18
The Well-Being of the EMT-Basic     20
Personal Protection     22
Body Substance Isolation (BSI) Precautions     22
Personal Protective Equipment     23
FYI: Diseases of Concern     25
Immunizations     30
Emotion and Stress     30
Physiologic Aspects of Stress     30
Types of Stress Reactions     31
Causes of Stress     33
Signs and Symptoms of Stress     33
Dealing with Stress     33
SceneSafety     35
Hazardous Materials Incidents     35
Rescue Operations     37
Violence     37
Chapter Review     41
Street Scenes     42
Medical/Legal and Ethical Issues     43
Scope of Practice     45
Patient Consent and Refusal     45
Consent     45
When a Patient Refuses Care     46
Do Not Resuscitate Orders     49
Other Legal Aspects     50
Negligence     50
Duty to Act     51
Good Samaritan Laws     51
Confidentiality     51
Special Situations     52
Crime Scenes     53
Special Crimes and Reporting     55
Chapter Review     56
Street Scenes     57
The Human Body     59
Anatomical Terms     61
Directional Terms     61
Positional Terms     63
Body Systems     65
Musculoskeletal System     65
Respiratory System     69
Cardiovascular System     71
Nervous System     76
Digestive System     78
Skin      79
Endocrine System     80
FYI: Locating Body Organs and Structures     81
Chapter Review     93
Street Scenes     97
Lifting and Moving Patients     99
Protecting Yourself: Body Mechanics     101
Protecting Your Patient: Emergency, Urgent, and Non-Urgent Moves     103
Emergency Moves     103
Urgent Moves     106
Non-Urgent Moves     107
Chapter Review     121
Street Scenes     122
Airway
Airway Management     126
Respiration     128
Adequate and Inadequate Breathing     129
Opening the Airway     133
Head-Tilt, Chin-Lift Maneuver     135
Jaw-Thrust Maneuver     136
Techniques of Artificial Ventilation     137
Mouth-to-Mask Ventilation     138
Bag-Valve Mask     140
Flow-Restricted, Oxygen-Powered Ventilation Device     144
Airway Adjuncts     144
Rules for Using Airway Adjuncts     146
Oropharyngeal Airways     146
Nasopharyngeal Airways     147
Suctioning     151
Suctioning Devices     151
Techniques of Suctioning     153
Oxygen Therapy     155
Importance of Supplemental Oxygen     155
Oxygen Therapy Equipment     156
Hazards of Oxygen Therapy     160
Administering Oxygen     161
Special Considerations     168
Chapter Review     170
Street Scenes     172
Patient Assessment
Scene Size-up     176
Scene Size-up     178
Scene Safety     178
Nature of the Call     184
Number of Patients and Adequacy of Resources     191
Chapter Review     192
Street Scenes     193
The Initial Assessment     194
The Initial Assessment     196
Form a General Impression     196
Cultural Considerations     197
Assess Mental Status     200
Assess the ABCs     200
Determine Priority     201
Patient Characteristics and Initial Assessment     203
Comparing the Initial Assessments     206
Chapter Review     208
Street Scenes     209
Vital Signs and Sample History     210
Gathering the Vital Signs and History     212
Vital Signs     212
Pulse     213
Respiration     215
Skin     216
Pupils     218
Blood Pressure     218
Oxygen Saturation     222
Sample History     224
Cultural Considerations     224
Chapter Review     226
Street Scenes     229
Assessment of the Trauma Patient     230
Focused History and Physical Exam for the Trauma Patient     232
Trauma Patient with No Significant Mechanism of Injury     233
Applying a Cervical Collar     236
Trauma Patient with a Significant Mechanism of Injury     237
Cultural Considerations     247
Some General Principles     253
Detailed Physical Exam     254
Trauma Patient with a Significant Mechanism of Injury     254
Trauma Patient with No Significant Mechanism of Injury     261
Comparing Assessments     261
Chapter Review     266
Street Scenes     268
Assessment of the Medical Patient     269
Focused History and Physical Exam for a Medical Patient     271
Responsive Medical Patient     271
Unresponsive Medical Patient      277
Comparing Assessments     280
Chapter Review     284
Street Scenes     285
Ongoing Assessment     2868
Ongoing Assessment     288
Components of the Ongoing Assessment     289
Observing Trends     290
Ongoing Assessment for Stable and Unstable Patients     291
Comparing Assessments     291
Chapter Review     294
Street Scenes     294
Communications     296
Communications Systems and Radio Communication     298
Communications Systems     298
Radio Communication     299
The Verbal Report     303
Interpersonal Communication     303
Chapter Review     306
Street Scenes     307
Documentation     308
Prehospital Care Report     310
Functions of the Prehospital Care Report     310
Elements of the Prehospital Care Report     314
Cultural Considerations     317
Special Documentation Issues     318
Legal Issues     318
Special Situations     322
Chapter Review     326
Street Scenes      327
Medical Emergencies
General Pharmacology     330
Medications EMT-Basics Can Administer     332
Medications on the Ambulance     332
Prescribed Medications     333
General Information About Medications     335
Drug Names     335
What You Need to Know When Giving a Medication     336
FYI: Medications Patients Often Take     337
Chapter Review     339
Street Scenes     340
Respiratory Emergencies     342
Respiration     344
Respiratory Anatomy and Physiology     344
Adequate Breathing     345
Inadequate Breathing     345
Adequate and Inadequate Artificial Ventilation     348
Breathing Difficulty     349
FYI: Respiratory Assessment and Conditions     351
The Prescribed Inhaler     354
FYI: Small-Volume Nebulizer     356
Chapter Review     360
Street Scenes     361
Cultural Considerations     363
Cardiac Emergencies     364
Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology     367
Cardiac Compromise     367
Cultural Considerations     369
Management of Cardiac Compromise     369
FYI: Causes of Cardiac Compromise     375
Cardiac Arrest     378
Chain of Survival     378
FYI: Controlled Hypothermia     381
Management of Cardiac Arrest     381
Automated External Defibrillator (AED)     381
Special Considerations for AED Use     391
FYI: Implants and Surgeries     395
Chapter Review     401
Street Scenes     402
Acute Abdominal Emergencies     405
Abdominal Anatomy and Physiology     406
Abdominal Pain and Distress     408
Assessment and Care of Abdominal Distress     408
Cultural Considerations     411
General Abdominal Distress     415
FYI: Abdominal Conditions     415
Chapter Review     417
Street Scenes     418
Diabetic Emergencies and Altered Mental Status     420
Diabetes     422
Diabetic Emergencies     422
Blood Glucose Meters     425
Cultural Considerations     426
FYI: Additional Information on Diabetes     429
Other Causes of Altered Mental Status     430
Seizure Disorders      430
FYI: Types of Seizures     432
Stroke     433
Dizziness and Syncope     436
Chapter Review     440
Street Scenes     441
Allergic Reactions     443
Allergic Reactions     445
Distinguishing Anaphylaxis from Mild Allergic Reaction     447
Self-Administered Epinephrine     451
Chapter Review     454
Street Scenes     455
Poisoning and Overdose Emergencies     457
Poisoning     459
Ingested Poisons     460
FYI: Food Poisoning     461
FYI: Antidotes     464
Inhaled Poisons     465
FYI: Smoke Inhalation     468
Absorbed Poisons     468
Injected Poisons     469
Alcohol and Substance Abuse     469
Alcohol Abuse     469
FYI: Poison Control Centers     471
Substance Abuse     473
Chapter Review     478
Street Scenes     479
Environmental Emergencies     481
Exposure to Cold     483
How the Body Loses Heat     483
Generalized Hypothermia     484
Localized Cold Injuries      488
Exposure to Heat     490
Effects of Heat on the Body     490
Patient with Moist, Pale, Normal-to-Cool Skin     491
Patient with Hot, Dry or Moist Skin     492
Water-Related Emergencies     493
Water-Related Accidents     493
Drowning and Near-Drowning     494
Diving Accidents     498
FYI: Scuba Diving Accidents     498
FYI: Water Rescues; Ice Rescues     500
Bites and Stings     500
Insect Bites and Stings     500
Snakebites     503
Poisoning from Marine Life     505
Chapter Review     507
Street Scenes     508
Behavioral Emergencies     510
Behavioral Emergencies     512
What Is a Behavioral Emergency?     512
Physical Causes of Altered Behavior     512
Situational Stress Reactions     513
Emergency Care for Behavioral Emergencies     514
Psychiatric Emergencies     514
Suicide     515
Aggressive or Hostile Patients     517
Reasonable Force and Restraint     517
Transport to an Appropriate Facility     518
Medical/Legal Considerations     520
Chapter Review     521
Street Scenes     522
Obstetrics and Gynecological Emergencies     524
Anatomy and Physiology of Childbirth     526
Pregnancy and Delivery     526
Labor     527
Labor Pains     528
Normal Childbirth     529
Role of the EMT-Basic     529
Normal Delivery     530
Cultural Considerations     535
The Newborn     535
Assessing the Newborn     535
Caring for the Mother     538
Childbirth Complications     540
Complications of Delivery     540
Emergencies in Pregnancy     545
FYI: Childbirth and Death; Stillbirths; Accidental Death of a Pregnant Woman     549
Gynecological Emergencies     549
Chapter Review     551
Street Scenes     553
Putting It All Together for the Medical Patient     555
Multiple Medical Complaints     556
Managing the Patient with Multiple Medical Complaints     556
Typical Calls     556
Cultural Consisderations     557
Analysis of the Calls     560
Patient Conditions Not Covered in the EMT-B Course     560
Chapter Review     562
Street Scenes     562
Trauma
Bleeding and Shock     566
Circulatory System     568
Main Components     568
FYI: Functions of the Blood     569
Bleeding     569
External Bleeding     569
Internal Bleeding     578
Shock (Hypoperfusion)     580
Causes of Shock     580
FYI: Types of Shock     581
Severity of Shock     581
Cultural Considerations     582
Emergency Care     583
Chapter Review     588
Street Scenes     589
Soft-Tissue Injuries     591
Soft Tissues     593
Closed Wounds     594
Types of Closed Wounds     594
Open Wounds     596
Types of Open Wounds     596
Emergency Care for Open Wounds     600
Treating Specific Types of Open Wounds     601
Treating Abrasions and Lacerations     601
Treating Puncture Wounds     601
Treating Impaled Objects     602
Treating Avulsions     605
Treating Amputations      605
Wounds to the Neck     605
Chest Injuries     606
FYI: Chest Injury Complications     610
Abdominal Injuries     611
Burns     613
Classifying Burns by Agent and Source     613
Classifying Burns by Depth     615
Determining the Severity of Burns     616
Classifying Burns by Severity     618
Treating Specific Types of Burns and Electrical Injuries     619
Electrical Injuries     622
FYI: Specific Chemical Burns     623
Dressing and Bandaging     625
Chapter Review     629
Street Scenes     631
Musculoskeletal Injuries     633
Musculoskeletal System     635
Anatomy of Bone     636
Self-Healing Nature of Bone     638
Muscles, Cartilage, Ligaments, and Tendons     639
General Guidelines for Emergency Care     640
Mechanisms of Musculoskeletal Injury     640
Painful, Swollen, or Deformed Extremity     640
Assessment of Musculoskeletal Injuries     643
Splinting     644
Emergency Care of Specific Injuries     652
Upper Extremity Injuries      653
Lower Extremity Injuries     653
Chapter Review     679
Street Scenes     680
Injuries to the Head and Spine     682
Nervous and Skeletal Systems     684
Nervous System     684
Anatomy of the Head     685
Anatomy of the Spine     686
Injuries to the Skull and Brain     686
Scalp Injuries     686
Skull Injuries     686
Brain Injuries     687
FYI: Types of Brain Injuries     688
FYI: Glasgow Coma Scale     690
Cranial Injuries with Impaled Objects     692
Injuries to the Face and Jaw     692
Nontraumatic Brain Injuries     693
Injuries to the Spine     693
Mechanisms of Injury     693
Immobilization Issues     698
Tips for Applying a Cervical Collar     698
Tips for Immobilizing a Seated Patient     698
Tips for Applying a Long Backboard     703
Tips for Dealing with a Standing Patient     708
Patient Found Wearing a Helmet     712
FYI: Selective Spine Immobilization     718
Chapter Review     720
Street Scenes      721
Putting It All Together for the Trauma Patient     723
Multiple Trauma     724
Cultural Considerations     724
Managing the Multiple-Trauma Patient     725
A Typical Call     725
Analysis of the Call     727
General Principles of Multiple-Trauma Management     728
FYI: Trauma Scoring     729
Chapter Review     731
Street Scenes     731
Younger and Older Patients
Infants and Children     736
Developmental Characteristics of Infants and Children     738
Psychological and Personality Characteristics     741
Anatomical and Physiological Differences     741
Interacting with the Pediatric Patient     743
The Adolescent Patient     744
Supporting the Parents or Other Care Providers     745
Assessing the Pediatric Patient     746
Pediatric Assessment Triangle (PAT)     746
Scene Size-up and Safety-Pediatric     747
Initial Assessment-Pediatric     747
Focused History and Physical Exam-Pediatric     749
Detailed Physical Exam-Pediatric     750
Ongoing Assessment-Pediatric     755
Comparing Assessments      755
Special Concerns in Pediatric Care     757
Maintaining an Open Airway     757
Clearing an Airway Obstruction     759
Infant and Child BCLS Review     762
Providing Supplemental Oxygen and Ventilations     762
Caring for Shock (Hypoperfusion)     764
Protecting Against Hypothermia     765
Medical Emergencies     766
Respiratory Disorders     766
Respiratory Distress     766
FYI: Respiratory Diseases     767
FYI: Meningitis     769
Fever     770
Diarrhea and Vomiting     771
Seizures     771
Altered Mental Status     772
Poisoning     773
Near-Drowning     773
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome     774
Trauma     775
Injury Patterns     775
Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garments     777
Burns     777
Child Abuse and Neglect     778
Physical and Sexual Abuse     778
Role of the EMT-B in Cases of Suspected Abuse or Neglect     781
Cultural Considerations     781
Infants and Children with Special Needs     782
Tracheostomy Tubes      782
Home Artificial Ventilators     783
Central Intravenous Lines     783
Gastrostomy Tubes and Gastric Feeding     783
Shunts     784
The EMT-B and Pediatric Emergencies     784
Chapter Review     785
Street Scenes     786
Geriatric Patients     788
The Geriatric Patient     789
Communicating with the Geriatric Patient     790
Assessing the Geriatric Patient     791
Cultural Considerations     792
Reasons the Elderly Encounter EMS     795
Chapter Review     800
Street Scenes     800
Operations
Ambulance Operations     804
Preparing for the Ambulance Call     806
Ambulance Supplies and Equipment     807
Ensuring Ambulance Readiness for Service     811
Receiving and Responding to a Call     814
Role of the Emergency Medical Dispatcher     814
Operating the Ambulance     816
Transferring the Patient to the Ambulance     822
Transporting the Patient to the Hospital     823
Preparing the Patient for Transport     823
Caring for the Patient en Route      825
Transferring the Patient to the Emergency Department Staff     826
Terminating the Call     826
At the Hospital     828
En Route to Quarters     830
In Quarters     831
Air Rescue     834
When to Call for Air Rescue     834
How to Call for Air Rescue     835
How to Set Up a Landing Zone     835
How to Approach a Helicopter     836
Chapter Review     837
Street Scenes     838
Gaining Access and Rescue Operations     840
Vehicle Rescue     842
Preparing for the Rescue     842
Sizing Up the Situation     843
Recognizing and Managing Hazards     844
Stabilizing a Vehicle     853
Gaining Access     856
Chapter Review     861
Street Scenes     862
Special Operations     864
Hazardous Materials     866
Training Required by Law     866
Responsibilities of the EMT-B     868
Establish a Treatment Sector     872
Multiple-Casualty Incidents     877
Multiple-Casualty Incident Operations     877
Incident Command System      878
Scene Management     882
Transportation and Staging Logistics     887
FYI: Psychological Aspects of MCIs     890
Chapter Review     891
Street Scenes     892
EMS Response to Terrorism     894
Defining Terrorism     895
Domestic Terrorism     895
International Terrorism     895
Types of Terrorism Incidents     896
Terrorism and EMS     896
First Responders as Targets     896
Identify the Threat Posed by the Event     896
Cultural Considerations     898
Recognize the Harms Posed by the Threat     899
Time/Distance/Shielding     900
Responses to Terrorism     900
Responses to a Chemical Incident     900
Responses to a Biological Incident     901
Responses to a Radiological/Nuclear Incident     903
Responses to an Explosive Incident     904
Dissemination and Weaponization     905
The Respiratory Route     905
Other Routes     905
Weaponization     906
Characteristics of CBRNE Agents     906
Chemical Agents     906
Biological Agents      907
Radioactive/Nuclear Devices     916
Incendiary Devices     917
Strategy and Tactics     917
Isolation     918
Notification     919
Identification     919
Protection     920
Chapter Review     921
Street Scenes     922
Study Guide: Self-Protection in a Terrorist Incident     924
Advanced Airway Management
Advanced Airway Management     928
Anatomy and Physiology     930
Anatomy     930
Physiology     931
Pediatric Airway     932
Management of the Airway     933
Oropharyngeal Suctioning     933
Orotracheal Intubation     933
Nasogastric Intubation of an Infant or Child     948
Orotracheal Suctioning     950
Multilumen Airways     950
Laryngeal Mask Airway     954
Automatic Transport Ventilators     955
Chapter Review     956
Street Scenes     957
ALS-Assist Skills     A-1
Assisting with Endotracheal Intubation     A-1
Preparing the Patient for Intubation     A-1
Ventilating the Tubed Patient      A-2
Assisting with a Trauma Intubation     A-3
Applying ECG Electrodes     A-4
Assisting in IV Therapy     A-5
Setting Up an IV Fluid Administration Set     A-5
Maintaining an IV     A-7
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) and Bi-level Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP)     A-7
Assisting with CPAP Devices     A-8
National Registry Skill Sheets     A-9
Basic Cardiac Life Support Review     A-22
Before Beginning Resuscitation     A-22
Assessing the Patient     A-22
Activating EMS     A-23
Positioning the Patient     A-24
Opening the Airway     A-24
Initial Ventilations and Pulse Check     A-26
Rescue Breathing     A-26
Mouth-to-Mask Ventilation     A-28
Gastric Distention     A-28
Recovery Position     A-28
CPR     A-28
Checking for Circulation     A-28
How to Perform CPR     A-29
One-Rescuer and Two-Rescuer CPR     A-29
CPR Techniques for Children and Infants     A-32
Special Considerations in CPR     A-32
When Not to Begin or to Terminate CPR      A-34
Clearing Airway Obstructions     A-34
Partial Airway Obstruction     A-35
Complete Airway Obstruction     A-35
Reference Section     R-1
Anatomy and Physiology Illustrations     R-2
Musculoskeletal System     R-2
Nervous System     R-4
Cardiovascular System     R-6
Circulatory System     R-7
Respiratory System     R-8
Digestive System     R-9
Urinary System     R-10
Reproductive System     R-11
Integumentary System     R-12
Senses     R-13
Atlas of Injuries     R-14
Medical Terminology     R-18
Glossary     G-1
Index     I-1

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