This book begins by describing what an individual organism is, comparing preconceptions of the individual to non-standard ways of thinking about individuals. Variation in what individuals are is described, using giant fungi, clonal trees and honey bee hives as examples. Individuals are thus shown to be emergent properties. Other emergent properties of individuals are also described. Classic experiments that elucidated the source of emotions in humans and other mammals are described. Emotions arise from the actions of the nervous and endocrine system and often include a variety of signals given to other individuals of the same or different species. In particular, this book focuses on fear and anger, two emotions that are closely related and often confused, but that have been well studied. In one final example of emergent properties of individuals, cooperative behavior is analyzed. The behaviors displayed by individuals that facilitate cooperation among individuals and why those individuals may actually cooperate instead of compete when acquiring resources or defending against predators are discussed.