Emphasis Art: A Qualitative Art Program for Elementary and Middle Schools

Emphasis Art: A Qualitative Art Program for Elementary and Middle Schools

by Frank Wachowiak, Robert D. Clements

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780065006032
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers, Inc.
Publication date: 01/28/1993
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 301

Table of Contents

I. INTRODUCTION TO ART.

1. Art in Society and the Schools.

A Qualitative Approach to Teaching Art.

For Further Reading.

Web Resources.

2. Art as Art: The Design Fundamentals.

Elements of Art.

Line.

Shape.

Value.

Color.

Space.

Texture and Pattern.

Principles of Art.

   Balance and Symmetry.

Variety, Repetition, Emphasis, and Domination-Subordination.

Formalist, Contextualist, and Media Approaches to Teaching Art.

For Further Reading.

Web Resources.

II.   TEACHERS AND TEACHING.

3. The Teacher’s Role: Strategies and Management.

The Teacher’s Role: Guiding Students to Create and Appreciate.

   The Teacher’s Positive Personality, Rapport and Respect.

Getting Off to a Good Start.

Strategies for Teaching Art.

   Teach Non-Verbally.

   Plan the Distribution, Collection, and Organization of Materials.

   Begin the Lesson: Get Their Attention.

   Keep the Motivation Brief.

   Get the Design Off to a Good Start.

   Prevent Bad Starts.

   Nurture Creativity During the Work Period.

   Foster Perseverance.

   Combat Lagging Interest, Stimulate Extra Effort.

   Clean Up and Evaluate.

Manage the Class By Your Presence.

   Discipline and Redirect.

4. Motivating Learning.

Using Personal Experience as Motivation.

   Recalled Experience.

Using Who? What? Where? When? And Why? To Help Children Recall.

Direct Perception.

Combining RecalledExperience and Direct Perception.

   Using Still-Life Materials as Motivation.

   Using Bulletin Boards as Motivation.

   Using Art Media as Motivation.

   Using Exhibitions as Motivation.

   Group Displays.

In the Community: Displaying Student Art.

   Timing and Pacing Motivation.

5. Creating Objectives and Evaluation Criteria.

The Need for Open Objectives and Evaluation Criteria.

In the Classroom: Giving Appropriate Feedback.

The Need for Defined Objectives and Evaluation Criteria.

Goals, Objectives, and Outcomes.

Art Objectives and Assessment.

   Objectives and Evaluation of Art Production.

   Objectives and Assessment of Artistic Perception.

In the Classroom: Assessing Artistic Perception.

   Objectives and Assessment of Art Criticism.

In the Classroom: Encouraging Critical Skills.

In the Classroom: Debating Art.

   Objectives and Assessment in Aesthetics.

   Objectives and Assessment in Art History Learning.

Reporting Art Progress to Parents.

In the Classroom: A Sample Progress Report.

School Exhibitions as Assessment Tools.

Formative and Summative Evaluation.

   Evaluating Our Year in Art.

Self-Assessment.

III: INTEGRATING ART INTO THE CLASSROOM.

6. Integration in the Three Domains: Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor.

The Cognitive Domain.

The Psychomotor Domain and Multisensory Area.

Objectives and Evaluation of Affective Goals.

7. Art and Literacy: Reading and Language Arts.

The Vocabulary of Art.

   Line.

   Shape.

   Texture and Pattern.

In the Classroom: Writing and Art.

Speech, Thought, and Art.

Thinking Critically about and through Art.

The Art of Language: Commonalities between Design Structures in Language and Art.

8. Art and Mathematics.

Math Skills.

   Measuring.

   Estimating.

Math Concepts.

   Scale and Ratio.

   Proportion.

   Symmetry.

   Perspective.

   Using Computers to Learn about Symmetry, Scale and Proportion.

Learning about Shapes and Solids: Studying Geometry through Art.

   Shapes.

Working in Three Dimensions.

   Solids.

In the Classroom: A Museum of Math, Nature and Art.

9. Art and Social Studies.

General Strategies for Art and Social Studies Integration.

   Personalized Responses.

   Hands-On Art Activities.

   Drawing Still-Life Arrangements about a Culture.

   Using Models and Speakers.

   Sketching Trips.

   Using Art Reproductions.

A Danger in Social Studies/ Art Integration.

The Social Studies Disciplines.

   Anthropology.

   Economics.

   Geography.

   History.

   Political Science and Law-Related Education.

   Psychology.

   Sociology.

Multicultural Understanding through Art.

   Multiculturalism in the Postmodern Art World.

   Multiculturalism through a Thematic Approach.

   Multiculturalism through Contestable Issues.

10. Art and Science.

Draw and See and Think.

Teaching Science through Art.

   Animal Life.

In the Classroom: Learning Science through Art.

   Astronomy and the Solar System.

   Climate.

   Food and Nutrition.

   Geology.

   The Human Body, Anatomy and Growth.

   Light and Perception.

In the Classroom: Understanding Light.

   Magnetism.

   Molecular Structure.

   Plants and Botany.

   Simple Machines.

   Technology and Energy.

In the Classroom: Flying Machines.

   Water.

   Weather, Wind and Air.

11. Art and the Performing Arts.

In the Classroom: “Stormy Weather.”

   Developing Multi-Art Creations.

   Music.

   Dance.

In the Classroom: Science, Dance, and Art

   Drama.

In the Community: After the Performance.

   Planning for Integration.

12. Teaching Art to Children with Special Needs.

Inclusion.

Principles of Teaching Children with Special Needs.

   People-First Language.

   Normalization.

   Age-Appropriateness.

   Partial Participation.

   Empowerment.

   Human Worth.

General Teaching Strategies.

Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities or Hyperactivity.

Teaching Students with Vision Deficiencies.

Teaching Students with Neurological and Orthopedic Disabilities.

Teaching Students with Hearing and Speech Disabilities.

Teaching Students with Mental Impairment.

Teaching Students with Behavioral Disorders.

   Using Art for Community and School Integration.

In the Classroom: Experiences and Objects That May Appeal to Students with Physical or Cognitive Disabilities.

13. Teaching Art to Students Who Are Gifted.

Creativity.

Characteristics of Students Who Are Gifted in Art.

Teaching Strategies.

Extending Into the School, Home, and Community.

IV: CREATING AN ART CURRICULUM.

14. Cognitive and Psychological Factors in Children’s Learning and Creative Development.

Constructivism.

Role of the Social Context.

Role of the Emotions: The Intuitive and the Nonrational.

   Transformation.

Children’s Similarities and Variability.

15. A Sequential Curriculum for Kindergarten.

Artistic Development.

Teaching Art.

   Teaching Drawing.

   Teaching Painting.

   Teaching Cutting, Pasting and Collage.

   Teaching Fingerpainting.

   Teaching with Chalk.

   Teaching Three-Dimensional Art.

Art Criticism, Art History and Aesthetics.

   Art Criticism.

   Art History.

In the Classroom: Teaching Kindergartners.

16. A Sequential Curriculum for Grades 1 and 2.

Artistic Development.

   Shapes.

   Size.

   Color.

   Space.

   Objects.

   The Human Figure.

Teaching Art.

   Teaching Drawing and Painting.

   Teaching Cutting, Pasting and Collage.

   Teaching Print-Making.

   Teaching Ceramics.

Art Criticism, Art History, and Aesthetics.

In the Classroom: Suggested Subjects and Themes for First and Second Graders.

17. A Sequential Curriculum for Grades 3 and 4.

Art Development.

   Shapes.

   Color.

   Space.

   Objects.

   The Human Figure.

Teaching Art.

   Teaching Drawing, Designing, and Painting.

   Teaching Color Awareness.

   Teaching Collage.

   Teaching Print-Making.

   Teaching Ceramics.

Art Criticism, Art History, and Aesthetics.

In the Classroom: Suggested Subjects or Themes for Third and Fourth Graders.

18. A Sequential Curriculum for Grades 5 and 6.

Art Development.

   Teaching Drawing, Designing, and Painting.

   Teaching Collage.

   Teaching Print-Making.

   Teaching Ceramics and Crafts.

Art Criticism.

Art History and Aesthetics.

In the Classroom: Suggested Subjects or Themes for Fifth and Sixth Graders.

19. A Sequential Curriculum for Grades 7 and 8.

Emotional Vulnerability.

Art Development.

Teaching Art.

   Teaching Drawing, Designing and Painting.

   Teaching Print-Making.

   Teaching Ceramics and Sculpture.

   Teaching Crafts.

   Teaching Collage, Photography, and Computer Art.

Art Criticism.

Art History and Aesthetics.

In the Classroom: Suggested Subjects or Themes for Seventh and Eighth Graders.

V: APPRECIATING ART: ART HISTORY, CRITICISM, AND AESTHETICS.

20. Teaching art Appreciation: From Pictures Study to Discipline-Based Art Education.

General Methods for Art Discussions.

   Questioning.

   Arranging the Room for Art Discussions.

   Leading Discussions.

   Focusing Discussions.

   Keeping Discussions Concise.

   Relating to Students’ Conceptual Stage.

Choosing Topics That Relate to Children’s Developmental Preferences.

   Promoting Confidence in Thinking and Talking About Art.

Gamelike Educational Activities.

21. Teaching Art History.

Integrating Art History and Social Studies.

   Presentations on an Artist’s Life.

   Quizzes.

   Correlating Art History, Social Studies, and Studio Projects.

22. Teaching Art Criticism and Aesthetics.

Discussing Art Criticism.

An Approach to Art Criticism.

In the Classroom: An “Observing” Game.

Two Perspectives on Art Criticism: Formalism and Contextualism.

Discussing Aesthetics: The Role of Wonder.

   Aesthetics in Ordinary Discourse.

   How to Start Discussions of Aesthetics.

Art Criticism and Aesthetics at Home.

VI: TEACHING ART PRODUCTION.

23. Drawing.

Three Kinds of Drawing.

   Patterns and Design.

   Maps and Diagrams.

In the Classroom: Using Maps and Diagrams for Content Learning.

Figure Drawing.

   Warming Up.

   Head and Body Size.

   Contours and Contour Lines.

   Details.

   Drawing from Photos and Cartoons.

In the Classroom: Drawing from Life.

   Introducing New Techniques.

Portrait and Self-Portrait Drawing.

Drawing the Landscape or Cityscape.

In the Community: Drawing What’s There.

   Sketching Field Trips: Walking to the Site.

Drawing the Still Life.

   Arranging the Still Life.

   Beginning the Still Life.

Drawing Animals.

In the Classroom: Learning about Animals Through Art.

Drawing Media: Markers, Chalk, Pencil, and Other Resources.

   Drawing with Markers.

24. Crayon and Oil Pastels.

Crayon.

   Crayons’ Merits.

   With Colored Paper.

   Crayon Resist.

   Crayon Engraving.

   Crayon Encaustic.

Oil Pastel.

   Oil-Pastel Resist.

25. Painting.

Painting with Watercolors.

Painting with Tempera.

   Tempera Resist.

Mural Making.

In the Classroom: Constructivist Education in Action.

26. Paper Projects in Two Dimensions.

Collage.

   Tissue-Paper Collage.

Mosaics.

In the Classroom/In the Community: Subjects for Mosaics.

27. Printmaking.

Printmaking with Found Objects.

Glue Line-Relief Prints.

Collographs.

Linoleum Prints and Styrofoam® Prints.

In the Classroom: Subjects for Linoleum and Styrofoam® Prints.

Proofing, Inking and Printing.

Aluminum-Foil Reliefs.

28. Visual Technology: Computer Art, Photography, and Video.

Computer Art.

In the Classroom: Using Computers.

   The Computer as a Design Tool.

   Implementing a Computer-Art Program.

Photography.

In the Classroom: Photography and Content-Area Learning.

Video.

In the Classroom: Using Videos for Content-Area Learning.

Art Resources on the Web.

29. Three-Dimensional Design: Additive and Subtractive Sculpture.

Box Sculpture and Constructions in Space.

In the Classroom: Three-Dimensional Design.

Masks.

In the Classroom: Studying Culture through Masks.

Totem Poles.

In the Classroom: Studying Culture through Totem Poles.

Subtractive Sculpture in Plaster.

In the Classroom: Studying Culture through Sculpture.

30. Architecture.

In the Community: Modeling Community Buildings.

   Building Citizens.

31. Crafts.

In the Classroom: Integrating Crafts with Content-Area Learning.

Weaving.

Starch-Resist Batik.

In the Classroom: Teaching Culture through Fibercrafts.

32. Clay Modeling.

Clay in the Primary Grades.

In the Classroom: Animals and Science.

Clay Alternatives.

Clay in the Upper Grades.

In the Classroom: Clay and Dinosaurs.

Construction Techniques.

   Hand-building.

   Clay-Slab Construction.

   Spherical Pinch-Pot Sculpture.

Drying, Firing, Glazing, and Staining.

Clay Plaster Reliefs.

In the Classroom: Subjects for Plaster Reliefs.

Appendix A: Safety Concerns, Art Materials, Modeling Formulas, and Recycling Materials.

Safety Concerns: Toxic Materials and Inhalants.

Materials and Supplies.

Expendable Materials.

Nonexpendable Supplies and Equipment.

Generous-Budget Supplies and Equipment.

Practical Suggestions for All Art Classrooms.

Formulas for Modeling Mixtures.

Recycling Materials.

Special Materials and Tools.

For Further Reading.

Appendix B: Addresses of Professional Associations, Art Materials Suppliers, and Audiovisual Sources.

Professional Art Education Associations.

Art and Craft Materials Suppliers.

Sources for Audiovisuals: Reproductions, Slides, Videodiscs.

Web Resources.

Glossary.

Photo Credits.

Index.

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