The aim of this book is to provide state-of-the-art information about cellulose to the readers. Depletion of fossil fuels and environmental awareness are the key reasons behind people turning towards biomaterials as an alternative source of energy, chemicals and materials. Among these, cellulose is emerging as an essential resource in the domain of bio-economy. Cellulose science is evolving at a rapid pace. It is available sufficiently in the nature and has distinct properties which make it ideal for biomass conversion. This book encompasses the basics of cellulose, its properties and intensive knowledge about cellulose science.