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Encyclopedia of Special Education, 4 Volume Set / Edition 4

Encyclopedia of Special Education, 4 Volume Set / Edition 4


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780470642160
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 01/28/2014
Pages: 3000
Product dimensions: 8.95(w) x 11.30(h) x 6.78(d)

About the Author

Cecil R. Reynolds, PhD, is Emeritus Professor of Educational Psychology, Professor of Neuroscience, and a Distinguished Research Scholar at Texas A&M University. He is the author or editor of more than three hundred books and articles, including the Handbook of School Psychology. He has also developed a number of psychological assessment instruments, including the RIAS (published by PAR) and the BASC (published by Pearson Clinical Assessments).

Kimberly J. Vannest, PhD, is Associate Professor of Educational Psychology, a Regents Fellow, and Center for Teaching Excellence Teaching Scholar and a Yates fellow at Texas A&M University. She has written or developed more than 80 scholarly products on intervention, progress monitoring, and single case design including peer-reviewed articles, books, and book chapter publications, software, free statistical calculators, and manuals. She has received the numerous awards for her research, teaching, and service.

Elaine Fletcher-Janzen, Ed.D., ABPdN, is Professor of School Psychology at The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, and has been a school psychologist in the public schools and neuropsychiatric inpatient settings for the past twenty-nine years. She has coedited and authored more than fifteen books and reference works.

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Note: Some of the Figures and/or Tables mentioned in this sample chapter do not appear on the Web.


The American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD) was founded in 1876 to support and promote the general welfare of people who are mentally retarded through professional programs, dissemination of research and program advances, and development of standards for services and facilities. The organization is comprised of approximately 10,000 professionals from many different disciplines who are concerned with the prevention and treatment of mental retardation. The association publishes two research journals, Mental Retardation and American Journal of Mental Deficiency. A national conference, along with many regional and state conferences, is held each year to give professionals the opportunity to share significant information regarding the education and welfare of children and adults with mental retardation.

The first diagnostic and classification system was published in 1921. It was reviewed and revised in 1933, 1941, 1957, 1959, 1973, 1977, and 1983. In each case, the manual was revised based on new developments in philosophy and knowledge of the field. To make the revisions and clarify important issues, input is culled from presentations at national and regional meetings of the AAMD, national and local hearings, and discussions with representatives of many professional, social, and political action groups. All revisions are made by the AAMD's Terminology and Classification Committee after a careful examination of the present classification system and the new data. Major revisions over the years have centered around the presentation of a dual classification system, medical and behavioral; clarification of the definitions of adaptive and measured intelligence; the addition of an extensive glossary; an illustration of levels of adaptive behavior; and procedures for diagnosing mental retardation in the behavioral system. With this last example, it is important that clinicians understand, in diagnosing mental retardation, the concept of standard error of measurement and its use in making a clinical determination of retardation and level of functioning.

The 1983 AAMD classification system developed by the AAMD's Terminology and Classification Committee has been written to reflect current thinking in the field. This latest edition has three distinct purposes. First, the 1983 edition was an attempt to provide an acceptable system to be used worldwide. It was developed in coordination with the International Classification of Diseases-9 (ICD-9) of the World Health Organization, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-III (DSM-III), and the American Association on Mental Deficiency's Classification in Mental Retardation.

The second purpose was to improve opportunities to gather and disseminate information regarding diagnosis, treatment, and research activities. The third purpose of this classification system was to provide opportunities for the identification of causes of mental retardation with implications for prevention.

The definition of mental retardation accepted by most authorities is the one used by the American Association on Mental Deficiency. The definition was presented first by Heber in 1961 and later revised by Grossman in 1973 to read: "Mental retardation refers to significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning resulting in or associated with concurrent impairments in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period." Based on the definition, to be classified mentally retarded, the person must be below average in both measured intelligence and adaptive behavior.

The AAMD classification of the retarded has been useful to professionals as well because it is based on the severity of retardation. The terms used by the AAMD are mild, moderate, severe, and profound.

The AAMD causal classification scheme centers around nine general groupings for mental retardation. These groups include infections and intoxication, trauma or physical agent, metabolism or nutrition, gross brain disease, unknown prenatal influence, chromosomal anomalies, other conditions originating in the perinatal period following psychiatric disorder, and environmental influences.

Table of Contents

Editorial Staff, xxi

Contributors, xxiii

Preface to the Fourth Edition, xlv


A - Z 1 - 2832

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