Stress is a phenomenon that affects us all. While many books have been written on the subject, the Encyclopedia of Stress is the first of its type. Comprised of nearly 400 entries by leading experts in the field, the Encyclopedia of Stress covers almost every conceivable aspect and ramification of stress. It has something for everyone - practitioners of orthodox or alternative medicine, politicians, social policy makers and social scientists, counselors, psychiatrists, physicians, surgeons, and molecular biologists. It even appeals to readers just interested in getting a feel for what stress is all about. In addition to an introduction that will be understood by many readers, the subjects are covered at a depth that make the entries valuable as an a update or background reading for graduate students, post-doctoral scientists, and specialists in the field. This, together with the fact that stress straddles several major disciplines, makes the Encyclopedia of Stress a compelling addition to the laboratory, library or office. Reference libraries that serve the biomedical and social sciences are likely to find the Encyclopedia a popular and frequently used handbook.
|Publisher:||Elsevier Science & Technology Books|
|Product dimensions:||10.13(w) x 12.53(h) x 6.57(d)|
About the Author
Table of ContentsContents by Subject Area.
Guide to the Encyclopedia.
Acute Stress Disorder and Postraumatic Stress Disorder.
Acute Stress Response: Experimental.
Acute Trauma Response.
Adenylyl Cyclases and Stress Response.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH).
Aerobics in Stress Reduction.
Aging and Psychological Stress.
Aging and Stress, Biology of.
Alarm Phase and General Adaptation Syndrome.
Alcohol, Alcoholism and Stress: A Psychobiological Perspective.
Alcohol and Stress: Social and Psychological Aspects.
Allostasis and Allostatic Load.
Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring.
Animal Models (Nonprimate) for Human Stress.
Antidepressant Actions on Glucocorticoid Receptors.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Stress and.
Autonomic Nervous System.
Blacks, Stress in.
Borderline Personality Disorder.
Brain and Brain Regions.
Calcium, Role of.
Captivity, Adaptation to.
Captivity, Recovery from.
Cardiovascular System and Stress.
Caregivers, Stress and.
Central Stress Neurocircuits.
Cerebral Metabolism, Brain Imaging.
Chernobyl, Stress Effects of.
Child Sexual Abuse.
Cholesterol and Lipoproteins.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
Circadian Rhythms, Effects of Prenatal Stress in Rodents: An Animal Model for Human Depression.
Circadian Rhythms, Genetics of.
Cognition and Stress.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.
Combat, Acute Reactions to.
Combat Reaction, Chronic.
Combat Stress Reaction.
Comparative Anatomy and Physiology.
Complementary Medicine in North America.
Concentration Camp Survivors.
Conservation of Resources Theory.
Control and Stress.
Coping, Stress and.
Corticosteroids and Stress.
Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF).
Corticotropin Releasing Factor-Binding Protein.
Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptors.
Critical Thermal Limits.
Cushing's Syndrome, Medical Aspects.
Cushing's Syndrome, Neuropsychiatric Aspects.
Cytokines, Stress, and Depression: A Mechanism Involving Corticotropin-Releasing Factor.
Depression and Manic-Depressive Illness.
Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST).
Diabetes, Type I.
Diet and Stress, Non-Psychiatric.
Disasters, Public, Effects of.
Disease, Stress Induced, Overview.
Divorce, Children of.
Drosophila Genes and Anoxia.
Drug Use and Abuse.
Earthquakes, Stress Effects of.
Eating Disorders and Stress.
Educational Levels and Stress.
Emergency Personnel, Stress in.
Emotions: Structure and Adaptive Functions.
Environmental Stress, Effects on Human Performance.
Ethanol and Endogenous Opiods.
Evolutionary Origins and Functions of the Stress Response.
Excitatory Amino Acids.
Familial Patterns of Stress.
Fatigue and Stress.
Fibrinogen and Clotting Factors.
Firefighters, Stress in.
Fish, Stress in.
Floods, Stress Effects of.
Food Intake and Stress, Human.
Food Intake and Stress, Non-Human.
Food Shift Effect.
GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid).
Gender and Stress.
Genetic Factors and Stress.
Genetic Predispositions to Stressful Conditions.
Glia or Neuroglia.
Glucocorticoid Negative Feedback.
Glucocorticoids, Effects of Stress on.
Glucocorticoids, Neuroendangerment and Neurotoxicity.
Glucocorticoids, Role in Stress.
Glycobiology of Stress.
Gonadotropin Secretion, Effects of Stress on.
Gulf War Syndrome, Psychological and Chemical Stressors.
Health and Socioeconomic Status.
Health Behavior and Stress.
Heat Shock Genes, Human.
Heat Shock Proteins: HSP60 Family Genes.
Heat Shock Response, Overview.
Hippocampus, Corticosteroid Effects on.
Holocaust, Stress Effects of.
Holocaust Survivors, Experiences of.
Homosexuality, Stress and.
11 beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases.
Hypotension, Hypovolemia, and Septic Shock.
Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Anatomy of.
Immune Cell Distribution, Effects of Stress on.
Immune Function, Stress-Induced Enhancement of.
Immune System, Aging.
Impotence, Stress and.
Interactions between Stress and Drugs of Abuse.
Korean Conflict, Stress Effects of.
Learning and Memory, Effects of Stress on.
Left Ventricular Mass.
Life Events Scale.
Lockerbie Air Crash, Stress Effects of.
Macrophage Antimycobacterial Activity, Effects of Stress on.
Major Depressive Disorder.
Male Partner Violence.
Marital Status and Health Problems.
Medical Profession and Stress.
Membrane Glucocorticoid Receptors.
Memory and Stress.
Menopause and Stress.
Menstrual Cycles and Stress.
Mental Stress Testing.
Metabolic Syndrome and Stress.
Metyrapone: Basic and Clinical Studies.
Minorities and Stress.
Motor Vehicle Accidents, Stress Effects of.
Mucosal Immunity, Stress and.
Multiple Personality Disorder.
Musculoskeletal Problems and Stress.
Natural Killer (NK) Cells.
Northern Ireland, Studies of Stress in.
Nuclear Warfare, Threat of.
Obesity, Stress and.
Oklahoma City Bombing, Stress Effects of.
Oxidative Stress and Acidosis, Molecular Responses to.
Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia.
Persian Gulf Ware, Stress Effects of.
Pharmacological Treatments of Stress.
Pituitary Regulation, Role of.
Police, Stress in.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Delayed.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Neurobiology of.
Pressures, Effects of Extreme High and Low.
Primate Hierarchies and Personality.
Primate Models, Behavioral-Immunological Interactions.
Primate Models, Cardiovascular Disease.
Primate Models, Overview.
Prisoners of War.
Problem-Solving Skills Training.
Psychological Stressors, Overview.
Psychosocial Factors and Stress.
Refugees, Stress in.
Regional Blood Flow, Stress Effects.
Religion and Stress.
Renal and Adrenocortical Actions of Dopamine.
Reproduction, Effects of Social Stress on.
Reproductive Dysfunction in Primates, Behaviorally Induced.
School Stress and School Refusal Behavior.
Seasonal Changes in Stress Responses.
Self-Esteem, Stress and Emotion.
Sex Differences in Human Stress Response.
Sex Steroids, Response to Stress and Susceptibility to Depression.
Sickle Cell Disease and Stress.
Sleep Loss, Jet Lag, and Shift Work.
Sleep, Sleep Disorders, and Stress.
Smoking and Stress.
Social Status and Stress.
Social Stress, Animal Models of.
Steroid Hormone Receptors.
Stress, Definitions and Concepts of.
Stress Effects, Overview.
Stress Generation in the Context of Depressive Disorders.
Stress Hyporesponsive Period.
Stress Management and Cardiovascular Disease.
Stress Management, CAM Approach.
Suicide, Biology of.
Suicide, Psychology of.
Suicide, Sociology of.
Surgery and Stress.
Sympathetic Nervous System.
Teaching and Stress.
Thermotolerance, Thermoresistance, and Thermosensitivity.
Three Mile Island, Stress Effects of.
Trauma and Memory.
Type A Behavior.
Type A Personality, Type B Personality.
Vietnam Veterans, Postwar Experiences of.
War-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Treatment of.
War Stress in the former Yugoslavia.
What People are Saying About This
Given the pervasive nature of stress in everyone's lives, it is amazing that no major reference work to date has previously focused on this subject. The three-volume Encyclopedia of Stress fills a large gap in the encyclopedic literature of psychology and physiology. The 14 subject areas and 394 articles cover every aspect of stress, from the emotional to the biochemical. Navigation through the volumes is logical and straightforward. ...It is well written and may easily hold the interest of someone who is merely casually browsing. Depth of content is appropriate for undergraduates and graduate students and the professional looking for comprehensive background information. This impressive work addresses an issue fundamental to the quality of life. It would be an excellent addition to the collection of academic, medical, psychological, and public libraries. (Lorraine Evans in American Reference Books Annual 2002)
This diversity of meanings was one impetus for creating the Encyclopedia of Stress, the aim being to derive a definition of stress from a variety of expert descriptions. The second impetus was the obvious need for an up-to-date compendium on one of the most important social, medical, and psychological phenomena of our age. We were fortunate in attracting stars for our Editorial Board and a set of most distinguished contributors for the 400 or so entries - indeed, the list of contributors is a Who's Who in stress research.
We anticipate that the diversity of our readers will equal the diversity of the topics covered. They will find that the coverage of the Encyclopedia extends well beyond the General Adaptation theory of Hans (Janos) Selye and the fight-or-flight response of Walter Cannon. Nonetheless, the general principles enunciated by these two great pioneers in the field still underpin our understanding of the biology of the stress phenomenon. That is, stress is a real or perceived challenge, either endogenous or exogenous, that perturbs body equilibrium or "homeostasis." The stressor may range from overcrowding, traffic congestion, violence, bereavement, redundancy or unemployment, to physical, chemical, biological, or psychological insults. Whether the person can adapt to or cope with the stress will depend on the nature and severity of the stressor and the person's physical and mental state, which is determined by genetic, experiential, social, and environmental factors. These issues are discussed in depth in the Encyclopedia, as are the mechanisms of coping and the impact of stress on health and predisposition to diseases such as cancer, infection, rheumatoid arthritis, heart disease, high blood pressure, and mental disorder.
Aggression remains a hallmark of human behavior, even as we move into the third millennium, and therefore the Encyclopedia covers several topical areas that have only recently been analyzed systematically. These include war and specific wars, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; formerly thought of vaguely as "shell shock"), rape, torture, marital discord and spousal abuse, and the Holocaust. In tackling these topics, we accept that our entries may not include all the nuances that are necessary for a full understanding of what these phenomena are all about and described so graphically and sensitively in Tolstoy's War and Peace or Pat Barker's monumental Regeneration trilogy on the horrific psychological traumas of the First World War. Nonetheless, an important start has been made in that we now accept that PTSD is not just lack of "bottle" (courage or "guts"), but rather a syndrome that needs to be, and can be, understood within the framework of Medicine and Psychology.
Biologically, the stress response reflects a set of integrated cascades in the nervous, endocrine and immune defense systems. As in most areas of biology, molecular genetics has made a significant difference in the precision with which we now understand the physiopathological processes of the stress response. And so the adage, formerly applied to diabetes mellitus, may now apply equally to stress: "understand stress and you will understand Medicine."
In summary, we hope that this first Encyclopedia of Stress will indeed define the term and at the same time provide a valuable source of information on a phenomenon that affects us all. In setting out on this adventure, we were aware that there is nothing new under the sun, and that "stress" has been around since the first biological particles, bacteria, or even viruses competed for the same mechanisms for replication. There is a tendency for each generation to imagine that stress and its untoward effects are uniquely harsh for them; but it is not this misconception that underlies this Work. Rather, the stress of "stress" itself - the massive accumulation of knowledge - made it seem propitious to bring the information together in a systematic manner that allows ready access to all who need or wish to understand the phenomenon.
The idea of producing this encyclopedia was conceived at an Academic Press reception in San Diego held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in 1996. I am deeply indebted to Erika Conner for enabling conversion of the idea to a concept and then a project, and Jennifer Wrenn, Christopher Morris, and Carolan Gladden, all of the Press, for their enthusiasm, encouragement and Herculean efforts which converted the concept into a reality. For giving generously of their intellect, expertise, sound advice, and unstinting work, I am greatly indebted to my friends and colleagues on the Editorial Board who made the project such a satisfying experience. To all our contributors go our profound thanks for taking time out from wall-to-wall schedules to produce their entries, which together have made this Encyclopedia.