Encyclopedia of Stress (Three-Volume Set)

Encyclopedia of Stress (Three-Volume Set)


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Encyclopedia of Stress (Three-Volume Set) by George Fink, Tom Cox, Bruce S. McEwen, E. Ron De Kloet

Stress is a phenomenon that affects us all. While many books have been written on the subject, the Encyclopedia of Stress is the first of its type. Comprised of nearly 400 entries by leading experts in the field, the Encyclopedia of Stress covers almost every conceivable aspect and ramification of stress. It has something for everyone - practitioners of orthodox or alternative medicine, politicians, social policy makers and social scientists, counselors, psychiatrists, physicians, surgeons, and molecular biologists. It even appeals to readers just interested in getting a feel for what stress is all about. In addition to an introduction that will be understood by many readers, the subjects are covered at a depth that make the entries valuable as an a update or background reading for graduate students, post-doctoral scientists, and specialists in the field. This, together with the fact that stress straddles several major disciplines, makes the Encyclopedia of Stress a compelling addition to the laboratory, library or office. Reference libraries that serve the biomedical and social sciences are likely to find the Encyclopedia a popular and frequently used handbook.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780122267352
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date: 04/01/2000
Edition description: 1ST
Pages: 2328
Product dimensions: 10.13(w) x 12.53(h) x 6.57(d)

About the Author

George Fink is a Neuroendocrinologist and Neuropharmacologist who has had a major interest in stress since the start of his career. He was recently appointed Vice President and Director of Research of the Pharmos Corporation in Israel and the United States, and is the former Director of the Medical Research Council's Brain Metabolism Unit and honorary professor in the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. Dr. Fink has published over 340 neuroendocrine papers and several authoritative books, and is past president of the European Neuroendocrine Association.

Table of Contents

Contents by Subject Area.
Guide to the Encyclopedia.
Acute Stress Disorder and Postraumatic Stress Disorder.
Acute Stress Response: Experimental.
Acute Trauma Response.
Adenylyl Cyclases and Stress Response.
Adjustment Disorders.
Adrenal Cortex.
Adrenal Insufficiency.
Adrenal Medulla.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH).
Adrenogenital Syndrome.
Aerobics in Stress Reduction.
Affective Disorders.
Aggressive Behavior.
Aging and Psychological Stress.
Aging and Stress, Biology of.
Alarm Phase and General Adaptation Syndrome.
Alcohol, Alcoholism and Stress: A Psychobiological Perspective.
Alcohol and Stress: Social and Psychological Aspects.
Allostasis and Allostatic Load.
Alternative Therapies.
Alzheimer's Disease.
Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring.
Androgen Action.
Animal Models (Nonprimate) for Human Stress.
Antibody Response.
Antidepressant Actions on Glucocorticoid Receptors.
Antisocial Disorders.
Arterial Baroreflex.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Stress and.
Autonomic Nervous System.
Behavior, Overview.
Behavior Therapy.
Beta-Adrenergic Blockers.
Blacks, Stress in.
Blood Pressure.
Borderline Personality Disorder.
Brain and Brain Regions.
Brain Trauma.
Calcium-Dependent Neurotoxicity.
Calcium, Role of.
Cancer Treatment.
Captivity, Adaptation to.
Captivity, Recovery from.
Cardiovascular System and Stress.
Caregivers, Stress and.
Central Stress Neurocircuits.
Cerebral Metabolism, Brain Imaging.
Chaperone Proteins.
Chernobyl, Stress Effects of.
Child Abuse.
Childhood Stress.
Child Sexual Abuse.
Cholesterol and Lipoproteins.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
Circadian Rhythms, Effects of Prenatal Stress in Rodents: An Animal Model for Human Depression.
Circadian Rhythms, Genetics of.
Cognition and Stress.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.
Combat, Acute Reactions to.
Combat Reaction, Chronic.
Combat Stress Reaction.
Community Studies.
Comparative Anatomy and Physiology.
Complementary Medicine in North America.
Concentration Camp Survivors.
Conservation of Resources Theory.
Control and Stress.
Coping Skills.
Coping, Stress and.
Corticosteriod-Binding Globulin.
Corticosteroid Receptors.
Corticosteroids and Stress.
Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF).
Corticotropin Releasing Factor-Binding Protein.
Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptors.
Crime Victims.
Critical Thermal Limits.
Crowding Stress.
Cultural Factors.
Cultural Transition.
Cushing's Syndrome, Medical Aspects.
Cushing's Syndrome, Neuropsychiatric Aspects.
Cytokines, Stress, and Depression: A Mechanism Involving Corticotropin-Releasing Factor.
Cytotoxic Lymphocytes.
Death Anxiety.
Defensive Behaviors.
Dental Stress.
Depression and Manic-Depressive Illness.
Depression Models.
Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST).
Diabetes, Type I.
Diet and Stress, Non-Psychiatric.
Disasters, Public, Effects of.
Disaster Syndrome.
Disease, Stress Induced, Overview.
Divorce, Children of.
Domestic Violence.
Dopamine, Central.
Drosophila Genes and Anoxia.
Drosophila Studies.
Drug Use and Abuse.
Earthquakes, Stress Effects of.
Eating Disorders and Stress.
Educational Levels and Stress.
Elder Abuse.
Electrodermal Activity.
Emergency Personnel, Stress in.
Emotional Inhibition.
Emotions: Structure and Adaptive Functions.
Endocrine Systems.
Environmental Factors.
Environmental Stress, Effects on Human Performance.
Ethanol and Endogenous Opiods.
Evolutionary Origins and Functions of the Stress Response.
Excitatory Amino Acids.
Familial Patterns of Stress.
Fatigue and Stress.
Febrile Response.
Feedback Systems.
Fibrinogen and Clotting Factors.
Fight-or-Flight Response.
Firefighters, Stress in.
Fish, Stress in.
Floods, Stress Effects of.
Food Intake and Stress, Human.
Food Intake and Stress, Non-Human.
Food Shift Effect.
Freud, Sigmund.
GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid).
Gastrointestinal Effects.
Gender and Stress.
Genetic Factors and Stress.
Genetic Predispositions to Stressful Conditions.
Glia or Neuroglia.
Glucocorticoid Negative Feedback.
Glucocorticoids, Effects of Stress on.
Glucocorticoids, Neuroendangerment and Neurotoxicity.
Glucocorticoids, Overview.
Glucocorticoids, Role in Stress.
Glucose Transport.
Glycobiology of Stress.
Gonadotropin Secretion, Effects of Stress on.
Group Therapy.
Gulf War Syndrome, Psychological and Chemical Stressors.
Health and Socioeconomic Status.
Health Behavior and Stress.
Heart Disease/Attack.
Heart Rate.
Heat Resistance.
Heat Shock Genes, Human.
Heat Shock Proteins: HSP60 Family Genes.
Heat Shock Response, Overview.
Hippocampal Neurons.
Hippocampus, Corticosteroid Effects on.
Hippocampus, Overview.
HIV Infection/AIDS.
Holocaust, Stress Effects of.
Holocaust Survivors, Experiences of.
Homosexuality, Stress and.
11 beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases.
Hyperractivity (Cardiovascular).
Hypotension, Hypovolemia, and Septic Shock.
Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.
Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Anatomy of.
Immobilization Stress.
Immune Cell Distribution, Effects of Stress on.
Immune Function, Stress-Induced Enhancement of.
Immune Response.
Immune Suppression.
Immune System, Aging.
Impotence, Stress and.
Impulse Control.
Indigenous Societies.
Industrialized Societies.
Instinct Theory.
Insulin Resistance.
Interactions between Stress and Drugs of Abuse.
Korean Conflict, Stress Effects of.
Learned Helplessness.
Learning and Memory, Effects of Stress on.
Left Ventricular Mass.
Life Events Scale.
Lipocortin 1.
Lockerbie Air Crash, Stress Effects of.
Lymph Nodes.
Lymphocyte Trafficking.
Macrophage Antimycobacterial Activity, Effects of Stress on.
Major Depressive Disorder.
Male Partner Violence.
Marital Conflict.
Marital Status and Health Problems.
Maternal Deprivation.
Medical Profession and Stress.
Membrane Glucocorticoid Receptors.
Memory and Stress.
Memory Impairment.
Menopause and Stress.
Menstrual Cycles and Stress.
Mental Stress Testing.
Metabolic Syndrome and Stress.
Metyrapone: Basic and Clinical Studies.
Minorities and Stress.
Motor Vehicle Accidents, Stress Effects of.
Mucosal Immunity, Stress and.
Multiple Personality Disorder.
Multiple Sclerosis.
Musculoskeletal Problems and Stress.
Natural Killer (NK) Cells.
Negative Affect.
Nelson's Syndrome.
Neuroendocrine Systems.
Nitric Oxide.
Northern Ireland, Studies of Stress in.
Nuclear Warfare, Threat of.
Obesity, Stress and.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
Oklahoma City Bombing, Stress Effects of.
Oxidative Stress.
Oxidative Stress and Acidosis, Molecular Responses to.
Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia.
Paraventricular Nucleus.
Persian Gulf Ware, Stress Effects of.
Personality Processes.
Pharmacological Treatments of Stress.
Pituitary Regulation, Role of.
Police, Stress in.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Delayed.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Neurobiology of.
Posttraumatic Therapy.
Premenstrual Syndrome.
Pressures, Effects of Extreme High and Low.
Primate Hierarchies and Personality.
Primate Models, Behavioral-Immunological Interactions.
Primate Models, Cardiovascular Disease.
Primate Models, Overview.
Prisoners of War.
Problem-Solving Skills Training.
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).
Protein Synthesis.
Psychological Stressors, Overview.
Psychosocial Factors and Stress.
Psychosomatic Medicine.
Psychotic Disorders.
Reductive Stress.
Reenactment Techniques.
Refugees, Stress in.
Regional Blood Flow, Stress Effects.
Relaxation Techniques.
Religion and Stress.
Renal and Adrenocortical Actions of Dopamine.
Reproduction, Effects of Social Stress on.
Reproductive Dysfunction in Primates, Behaviorally Induced.
Restraint Stress.
Salivary Cortisol.
Salt Appetite.
School Stress and School Refusal Behavior.
Seasonal Changes in Stress Responses.
Self-Esteem, Stress and Emotion.
Selye, Hans.
Sex Differences in Human Stress Response.
Sex Steroids, Response to Stress and Susceptibility to Depression.
Sexual Assault.
Sexual Dysfunction.
Sickle Cell Disease and Stress.
Sleep Loss, Jet Lag, and Shift Work.
Sleep, Sleep Disorders, and Stress.
Smoking and Stress.
Social Capital.
Social Status and Stress.
Social Stress, Animal Models of.
Social Support.
Somatic Disorders.
Startle Response.
Steroid Hormone Receptors.
Steroid Hydroxylases.
Stress, Definitions and Concepts of.
Stress Effects, Overview.
Stress Generation in the Context of Depressive Disorders.
Stress Hyporesponsive Period.
Stress Management and Cardiovascular Disease.
Stress Management, CAM Approach.
Suicide, Biology of.
Suicide, Psychology of.
Suicide, Sociology of.
Surgery and Stress.
Survivor Guilt.
Sympathetic Nervous System.
Synthetic Glucocorticoids.
Teaching and Stress.
Temperature Effects.
Thermal Stress.
Thermotolerance, Thermoresistance, and Thermosensitivity.
Three Mile Island, Stress Effects of.
Thyroid Hormones.
Trauma and Memory.
Type A Behavior.
Type A Personality, Type B Personality.
Ulceration, Gastric.
Vasoactive Peptides.
Vietnam Veterans, Postwar Experiences of.
Waist-Hip Ratio.
War-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Treatment of.
War Stress in the former Yugoslavia.
Workplace Stress.

What People are Saying About This

Lorraine Evans

Given the pervasive nature of stress in everyone's lives, it is amazing that no major reference work to date has previously focused on this subject. The three-volume Encyclopedia of Stress fills a large gap in the encyclopedic literature of psychology and physiology. The 14 subject areas and 394 articles cover every aspect of stress, from the emotional to the biochemical. Navigation through the volumes is logical and straightforward. ...It is well written and may easily hold the interest of someone who is merely casually browsing. Depth of content is appropriate for undergraduates and graduate students and the professional looking for comprehensive background information. This impressive work addresses an issue fundamental to the quality of life. It would be an excellent addition to the collection of academic, medical, psychological, and public libraries. (Lorraine Evans in American Reference Books Annual 2002)


"Stress" remains one of the most frequently used, but ill-defined words in the English language. Stress is a phenomenon that has quite different meanings for the politician, social scientist, physician, nurse, psychotherapist, physiologist, or molecular biologist, and perhaps for you and me.

This diversity of meanings was one impetus for creating the Encyclopedia of Stress, the aim being to derive a definition of stress from a variety of expert descriptions. The second impetus was the obvious need for an up-to-date compendium on one of the most important social, medical, and psychological phenomena of our age. We were fortunate in attracting stars for our Editorial Board and a set of most distinguished contributors for the 400 or so entries - indeed, the list of contributors is a Who's Who in stress research.

We anticipate that the diversity of our readers will equal the diversity of the topics covered. They will find that the coverage of the Encyclopedia extends well beyond the General Adaptation theory of Hans (Janos) Selye and the fight-or-flight response of Walter Cannon. Nonetheless, the general principles enunciated by these two great pioneers in the field still underpin our understanding of the biology of the stress phenomenon. That is, stress is a real or perceived challenge, either endogenous or exogenous, that perturbs body equilibrium or "homeostasis." The stressor may range from overcrowding, traffic congestion, violence, bereavement, redundancy or unemployment, to physical, chemical, biological, or psychological insults. Whether the person can adapt to or cope with the stress will depend on the nature and severity of the stressor and the person's physical and mental state, which is determined by genetic, experiential, social, and environmental factors. These issues are discussed in depth in the Encyclopedia, as are the mechanisms of coping and the impact of stress on health and predisposition to diseases such as cancer, infection, rheumatoid arthritis, heart disease, high blood pressure, and mental disorder.

Aggression remains a hallmark of human behavior, even as we move into the third millennium, and therefore the Encyclopedia covers several topical areas that have only recently been analyzed systematically. These include war and specific wars, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; formerly thought of vaguely as "shell shock"), rape, torture, marital discord and spousal abuse, and the Holocaust. In tackling these topics, we accept that our entries may not include all the nuances that are necessary for a full understanding of what these phenomena are all about and described so graphically and sensitively in Tolstoy's War and Peace or Pat Barker's monumental Regeneration trilogy on the horrific psychological traumas of the First World War. Nonetheless, an important start has been made in that we now accept that PTSD is not just lack of "bottle" (courage or "guts"), but rather a syndrome that needs to be, and can be, understood within the framework of Medicine and Psychology.

Biologically, the stress response reflects a set of integrated cascades in the nervous, endocrine and immune defense systems. As in most areas of biology, molecular genetics has made a significant difference in the precision with which we now understand the physiopathological processes of the stress response. And so the adage, formerly applied to diabetes mellitus, may now apply equally to stress: "understand stress and you will understand Medicine."

In summary, we hope that this first Encyclopedia of Stress will indeed define the term and at the same time provide a valuable source of information on a phenomenon that affects us all. In setting out on this adventure, we were aware that there is nothing new under the sun, and that "stress" has been around since the first biological particles, bacteria, or even viruses competed for the same mechanisms for replication. There is a tendency for each generation to imagine that stress and its untoward effects are uniquely harsh for them; but it is not this misconception that underlies this Work. Rather, the stress of "stress" itself - the massive accumulation of knowledge - made it seem propitious to bring the information together in a systematic manner that allows ready access to all who need or wish to understand the phenomenon.

The idea of producing this encyclopedia was conceived at an Academic Press reception in San Diego held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in 1996. I am deeply indebted to Erika Conner for enabling conversion of the idea to a concept and then a project, and Jennifer Wrenn, Christopher Morris, and Carolan Gladden, all of the Press, for their enthusiasm, encouragement and Herculean efforts which converted the concept into a reality. For giving generously of their intellect, expertise, sound advice, and unstinting work, I am greatly indebted to my friends and colleagues on the Editorial Board who made the project such a satisfying experience. To all our contributors go our profound thanks for taking time out from wall-to-wall schedules to produce their entries, which together have made this Encyclopedia.

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