End-to-End QoS Network Design: Quality of Service for Rich-Media & Cloud Networks / Edition 2

End-to-End QoS Network Design: Quality of Service for Rich-Media & Cloud Networks / Edition 2

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End-to-End QoS Network Design: Quality of Service for Rich-Media & Cloud Networks / Edition 2

End-to-End QoS Network Design

Quality of Service for Rich-Media & Cloud Networks Second Edition

New best practices, technical strategies, and proven designs for maximizing QoS in complex networks

This authoritative guide to deploying, managing, and optimizing QoS with Cisco technologies has been thoroughly revamped to reflect the newest applications, best practices, hardware, software, and tools for modern networks.

This new edition focuses on complex traffic mixes with increased usage of mobile devices, wireless network access, advanced communications, and video. It reflects the growing heterogeneity of video traffic, including passive streaming video, interactive video, and immersive videoconferences. It also addresses shifting bandwidth constraints and congestion points; improved hardware, software, and tools; and emerging QoS applications in network security.

The authors first introduce QoS technologies in high-to-mid-level technical detail, including protocols, tools, and relevant standards. They examine new QoS demands and requirements, identify reasons to reevaluate current QoS designs, and present new strategic design recommendations. Next, drawing on extensive experience, they offer deep technical detail on campus wired and wireless QoS design; next-generation wiring closets; QoS design for data centers, Internet edge, WAN edge, and branches; QoS for IPsec VPNs, and more.

Tim Szigeti, CCIE No. 9794 is a Senior Technical Leader in the Cisco System Design Unit. He has specialized in QoS for the past 15 years and authored Cisco TelePresence Fundamentals.

Robert Barton, CCIE No. 6660 (R&S and Security), CCDE No. 2013::6 is a Senior Systems Engineer in the Cisco Canada Public Sector Operation. A registered Professional Engineer (P. Eng), he has 15 years of IT experience and is primarily focused on wireless and security architectures.

Christina Hattingh spent 13 years as Senior Member of Technical Staff in Unified Communications (UC) in Cisco’s Services Routing Technology Group (SRTG). There, she spoke at Cisco conferences, trained sales staff and partners, authored books, and advised customers.

Kenneth Briley, Jr., CCIE No. 9754, is a Technical Lead in the Cisco Network Operating Systems Technology Group. With more than a decade of QoS design/implementation experience, he is currently focused on converging wired and wireless QoS.

n Master a proven, step-by-step best-practice approach to successful QoS deployment

n Implement Cisco-validated designs related to new and emerging applications

n Apply best practices for classification, marking, policing, shaping, markdown, and congestion management/avoidance

n Leverage the new Cisco Application Visibility and Control feature-set to perform deep-packet inspection to recognize more than 1000 different applications

n Use Medianet architecture elements specific to QoS configuration, monitoring, and control

n Optimize QoS in rich-media campus networks using the Cisco Catalyst 3750, Catalyst 4500, and Catalyst 6500

n Design wireless networks to support voice and video using a Cisco centralized or converged access WLAN

n Achieve zero packet loss in GE/10GE/40GE/100GE data center networks

n Implement QoS virtual access data center designs with the Cisco Nexus 1000V

n Optimize QoS at the enterprise customer edge

n Achieve extraordinary levels of QoS in service provider edge networks

n Utilize new industry standards and QoS technologies, including IETF RFC 4594, IEEE 802.1Q-2005, HQF, and NBAR2

This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press®, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781587143694
Publisher: Cisco Press
Publication date: 12/16/2013
Series: Networking Technology Series
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 1040
Sales rank: 887,707
Product dimensions: 7.80(w) x 9.20(h) x 2.40(d)

Table of Contents

<>Introduction xxxvi

Part I: QoS Design Overview

Chapter 1 Introduction and Brief History of QoS and QoE 1

History and Evolution 2

Then 3

Now 3

Evolution of QoS 4

QoS Basics and Concepts 5

User Expectations: QoS, QoE, and QoX 5

QoS Models: IntServ and DiffServ 6

Fundamental QoS Concepts and Toolset 7

Packet Headers 8

Simplifying QoS 9

Standardization and Consistency 9

Summary 11

Further Reading 11

General 11

IntServ 12

DiffServ 12

Chapter 2 IOS-Based QoS Architectural Framework and Syntax Structure 13

QoS Deployment Principles 13

QoS Architectural Framework 14

QoS Behavioral Model 15

QoS Feature Sequencing 15

Modular QoS Command-Line Framework 16

MQC Syntax 17

Default Behaviors 19

Traffic Classification (Class Maps) 19

Definition of Policies (Policy Maps) 20

Attaching Policies to Traffic Flows (Service Policy) 22

Hierarchical QoS and HQF 23

Legacy QoS CLI No Longer Used 25

AutoQoS 26

Summary 29

Further Reading 29

General 29

AutoQoS 29

Chapter 3 Classification and Marking 31

Classification and Marking Topics 31

Classification and Marking Terminology 32

Security and QoS 33

Trust Boundaries 33

Network Attacks 34

Classification Challenges of Video and Wireless Traffic 34

Marking Fields in Different Technologies 35

Field Values and Interpretation 35

Ethernet 802.1Q/p 37

Ethernet 802.11 WiFi 38

ATM and FR 38

IPv4 and IPv6 39

L2 and L3 Tunnels 39



Mapping QoS Markings 41

Mapping L2 to L3 Markings 41

Mapping Cisco to RFC 4594 Markings 42

Mapping Markings for Wireless Networks 43

Classification Tools 44

Class-Based Classification (Class Maps) 45

Network-Based Application Recognition 47

NBAR Protocols 48

RTP Traffic 49

Performance Routing 49

Metadata Classification 50

Marking Tools 50

Class-Based Marking (Class Maps) 50

Effects of Feature Sequence 52

Mapping Markings with the Table Map Feature 52

Marking (or Re-Marking) with Policing 53

AutoQoS Marking 54

Recommendations and Guidelines 55

Summary 55

Further Reading 56

Classification and Marking 56


Video QoS 56

Wireless QoS 57

RFCs 57

Chapter 4 Policing, Shaping, and Markdown Tools 59

Policing and Shaping Topics 59

Policing and Shaping Terminology 60

Placing Policers and Shapers in the Network 61

Tail Drop and Random Drop 61

Re-Mark/Markdown 62

Traffic Types to Police and Shape 62

Token Bucket Algorithms 62

Types of Policers 64

Single-Rate Two-Color Policers 64

RFC 2697 Single-Rate Three-Color Policers 65

RFC 2698 Dual-Rate Three-Color Policers 66

Security and QoS 68

Policing Tools 68

Policers as Markers 68

Class-Based Policing (Policy Maps) 69

Multi-Action Policing 70

Hierarchical Policing 71

Percentage-Based Policing 72

Color-Aware Policing 73

Policing as Part of Low-Latency Queuing 73

Control Plane Policing 74

Unconditional Packet Drop 75

Traffic Shaping Tools 75

Class-Based Shaping (Policy Maps) 76

Hierarchical Class-Based Shaping 77

Percentage-Based Shaping 77

Legacy Shaping Tools 78

ATM Traffic Shaping 78

Frame Relay Traffic Shaping 78

Recommendations and Guidelines 79

Summary 80

Further Reading 80

General 80

DiffServ Policing Standards 80

Policing 80

Shaping 81

Chapter 5 Congestion Management and Avoidance Tools 83

Congestion Management and Avoidance Topics 84

Congestion Management and Avoidance Terminology 84

Congestion Management and Congestion Avoidance 85

Scheduling Algorithms 85

Levels of Queuing 85

Queuing and Scheduling Tools 86

Class-Based Queuing (Policy Maps) 86

Class-Based Weighted Fair Queuing 88

Low-Latency Queuing 88

Queuing Below Layer 3: Tx-Ring Operation 91

Congestion Avoidance Tools 92

Random Early Detection 93

Weighted Random Early Detection 93

Recommendations and Guidelines 95

Summary 96

Further Reading 96

Queuing 96

Congestion Avoidance 96

Chapter 6 Bandwidth Reservation Tools 99

Admission Control Tools 100

Resource Reservation Protocol 101

RSVP Overview 101

RSVP Proxy 102

RSVP Deployment Models 103

Basic RSVP Design (IntServ/DiffServ Model) 104

Advanced RSVP Design (IntServ/DiffServ Model) 105

RSVP and LLQ 106

Recommendations and Guidelines 108

Summary 108

Further Reading 109

RSVP for Medianet 109

RSVP Technology 109

Chapter 7 QoS in IPv6 Networks 111

IPv6 and QoS Overview 111

QoS Tools for IPv6 112

QoS Feature Support for IPv6 112

Packet Headers, Classification, and Marking 112

Packet Classification 113

Packet Marking 114

Policing and Shaping 115

Recommendations and Guidelines 115

Summary 116

Further Reading 116

Chapter 8 Medianet 117

An Introduction to Medianet 117

Medianet Architecture and Framework 119

Medianet Features and Capabilities 120

Autoconfiguration 121

Auto Smartports 121

AutoQoS 121

Media Monitoring 122

Mediatrace 122

Performance Monitor 125

IPSLA Video Operation (Traffic Simulator, IPSLA VO) 127

Media Awareness 128

Flow Metadata 129

Network Based Application Recognition 2 130

Media Services Interface 132

Media Services Proxy 132

Summary 133

Further Reading 133

Overviews 133

Design Documents 134

Configuration Guides and Command References 134

Resources and Services 134

Chapter 9 Application Visibility Control (AVC) 135

AVC Use Cases 136

How AVC Works 138

The AVC Building Blocks 140

Building Block 1: NBAR2 140

NBAR2 Protocol Discovery 142

NBAR2 MQC Traffic Classification 144

Building Block 2: Flexible NetFlow 147

Flexible NetFlow Key Fields and Non-Key Fields 148

Configuration of FNF 149

Building Block 3: AVC Management and Reporting 152

Insight Reporter 153

Building Block 4: AVC QoS Controls 154

Deploying AVC QoS Controls at the WAN Edge 154

Deploying AVC QoS Controls at the Internet Edge 156

Performance Considerations When Using AVC 159

Summary 160

Additional Reading 161

Part II: QoS Design Strategies

Chapter 10 Business and Application QoS Requirements 163

Global Trends in Networking 164

The Evolution of Video Applications 164

The Explosion of Media 166

The Phenomena of Social Networking 167

The Bring Your Own Device Demand 167

The Emergence of Bottom-Up Applications 168

The Convergence of Media Subcomponents Within Multimedia Applications 168

The Transition to High-Definition Media 169

QoS Requirements and Recommendations by Application Class 169

Voice 170

Video Applications 171

Broadcast Video 173

Real-Time Interactive 174

Multimedia Applications 175

Multimedia Conferencing 176

Multimedia Streaming 177

Data Applications 177

Transactional Data (Low-Latency Data) 178

Bulk Data (High-Throughput Data) 178

Best Effort Data 179

Scavenger (Lower-Priority Data) 180

Control Plane Traffic 180

Network Control 181

Signaling 181

Operations/Administration/Management 182

Cisco (RFC 4594-Based) QoS Recommendations by Application Class Summary 182

QoS Standards Evolution 183

RFC 2597, Clarification 183

RFC 5865, Proposed Standard 184

RFC 4594, Update Draft 185

Summary 187

Further Reading 187

Chapter 11 QoS Design Principles and Strategies 189

QoS Best-Practice Design Principles 189

Hardware Versus Software QoS Best Practices 190

Classification and Marking Best Practices 191

Policing and Markdown Best Practices 192

Queuing and Dropping Best Practices 192

EF Queue Recommendations: The 33% LLQ Rule 193

AF Queue Recommendations 195

DF Queue Recommendations 195

Scavenger Class Queue Recommendations 195

WRED Recommendations 197

QoS Design Strategies 198

Four-Class Model QoS Strategy 198

Eight-Class Model QoS Strategy 200

Twelve-Class Model QoS Strategy 202

Application Class Expansion QoS Strategies 204

QoS for Security Strategies 206

Control Plane Policing Recommendations 208

Data Plane Policing Recommendations 210

Summary 213

Further Reading 214

Chapter 12 Strategic QoS Design Case Study 215

Tifosi Software Inc.: Company Overview 215

Original (Four-Class) QoS Model 215

Business Catalysts for QoS Reengineering 216

Proposed (Eight-Class) QoS Model 217

“Layer 8” Challenges 219

Summary 221

Additional Reading 221

Part III: Campus QoS Design

Chapter 13 Campus QoS Design Considerations and Recommendations 223

MLS Versus MQC 225

Default QoS 226

Internal DSCP 226

Trust States and Operations 227

Trust Boundaries 230

DSCP Transparency 231

Port-Based QoS Versus VLAN-Based QoS Versus Per-Port/Per-VLAN QoS 232

EtherChannel QoS 234

Campus QoS Models 235

Ingress QoS Models 235

Egress QoS Models 238

Campus Port QoS Roles 239

Campus AutoQoS 241

Control Plane Policing 243

Summary 244

Additional Reading 246

Chapter 14 Campus Access (Cisco Catalyst 3750) QoS Design 247

Cisco Catalyst 3750 QoS Architecture 248

QoS Design Steps 249

Enabling QoS 250

Ingress QoS Models 250

Trust Models 251

Classification and Marking Models 254

Classification, Marking, and Policing Models 256

Queuing Models 260

Ingress Queuing Model 261

Egress Queuing Models 265

Additional Platform-Specific QoS Design Options 271

Per-VLAN QoS Design 271

Per-Port/Per-VLAN QoS 272

EtherChannel QoS Design 273

AutoQoS SRND4 273

Control Plane Policing 274

Summary 274

Additional Reading 274

Chapter 15 Campus Distribution (Cisco Catalyst 4500) QoS Design 275

Cisco Catalyst 4500 QoS Architecture 276

QoS Design Steps 277

Queuing Models 277

Four-Class Egress Queuing Model 278

Eight-Class Egress Queuing Model 281

Twelve-Class Egress Queuing Model 284

Additional Platform-Specific QoS Design Options 289

Access-Edge Design Options 290

Conditional Trust Model 290

Medianet Metadata Classification Model 292

Classification and Marking Models 293

Classification, Marking, and Policing Model 294

Per-VLAN QoS Design 297

Per-Port/Per-VLAN QoS 298

EtherChannel QoS Design 299

Flow-Based QoS 301

Control Plane Policing 303

Summary 303

Further Reading 303

Chapter 16 Campus Core (Cisco Catalyst 6500) QoS Design 305

Cisco Catalyst 6500 QoS Architecture 306

QoS Design Steps 308

Queuing Models 308

Four-Class (4Q4T Ingress and 1P3Q4T Egress) Queuing Models 311

Eight-Class (8Q4T Ingress and 1P7Q4T Egress) Queuing Models 314

Twelve-Class (8Q4T Ingress and 1P7Q4T Egress) Queuing Models 318

2P6Q4T Ingress and Egress Queuing Models 328

Additional Platform-Specific QoS Design Options 329

Access-Edge Design Options 330

Conditional Trust Model 330

Classification and Marking Models 332

Classification, Marking, and Policing Model 335

Microflow Policing 341

Per-VLAN QoS Design 342

EtherChannel QoS Design 343

AutoQoS SRND4 344

Control Plane Policing 344

Summary 344

Further Reading 345

Chapter 17 Campus QoS Design Case Study 347

Tifosi Campus Access QoS Design 350

Policy 1: Access-Edge Design for Printer Endpoints (No Trust) 351

Policy 2: Access-Edge Design for Wireless Access Endpoints (DSCP Trust) 351

Policy 3: Access-Edge Design for Cisco TelePresence Endpoints (Conditional Trust) 352

Policy 4: Access-Edge Design for Cisco IP Phones or PCs (Conditional Trust and Classification and Marking) 352

Eight-Class 1P1Q3T Ingress Queuing Design 355

Eight-Class 1P3Q3T Egress Queuing Design 357

Policy 5: Access Layer Uplink Design 359

Tifosi Campus Distribution QoS Design 360

Policy 6: Distribution Layer Downlink Ports (Catalyst 4500E Supervisor 7-E) 360

Policy 7: Distribution Layer Distribution-Link / Core-Uplink Ports 362

Tifosi Campus Core QoS Design 364

Policy 8: Core Layer (10GE) Downlink Design 364

Policy 9: Core Layer (40GE) Core-Link Design 368

Summary 370

Further Reading 371

Part IV: Wireless LAN QoS Design

Chapter 18 Wireless LAN QoS Considerations and Recommendations 373

Comparing QoS in Wired and Wireless LAN Environments 374

WLAN QoS Building Blocks 376

The Distributed Coordination Function 376


The DCF Contention Window 378

IEEE 802.11e and Wireless Multimedia (WMM) 382

Retrofitting DCF: Enhanced Distributed Channel Access 382

Access Categories 383

Arbitration Interframe Spacing 385

Contention Window Enhancements 386

Transmission Opportunity 388

802.11e TSpec: Call Admission Control 388

QoS Design Considerations 389

Defining Upstream and Downstream Traffic Flow 389

QoS Mapping and Marking Considerations 390

The Upstream QoS Marking Strategy 392

The Downstream QoS Marking Strategy 394

Summary 395

Additional Reading 396

Chapter 19 Centralized (Cisco 5500 Wireless LAN Controller) QoS Design 397

QoS Enforcement Points in the WLAN 398

Managing QoS Profiles in the Wireless LAN Controller 399

QoS Marking and Conditional Trust Boundaries 399

WLAN QoS Profiles 400

Building a Guest QoS Profile 408

QoS Design for VoIP Applications 410

Tweaking the EDCA Configuration 411

Call Admission Control on the Wireless Network 413

Enabling WMM QoS Policy on the WLAN 413

Enabling WMM QoS Policy on the WLAN 414

Media Session Snooping (a.k.a. SIP Snooping) 416

Application Visibility Control in the WLC 417

Developing a QoS Strategy for the WLAN 424

Four-Class Model Design 424

Tweaking the QoS Classification Downstream 425

Tweaking the QoS Classification Upstream 429

Eight-Class Model Design 430

Twelve-Class Model Design 431

Summary 432

Further Reading 433

Chapter 20 Converged Access (Cisco Catalyst 3850 and the Cisco 5760 Wireless LAN Controller) QoS Design 435

Converged Access 438

Cisco Catalyst 3850 QoS Architecture 439

QoS Design Steps 442

Enabling QoS 442

Ingress QoS Models 444

Wired-Only Conditional Trust Model 444

Classification and Marking Models 446

Classification, Marking, and Policing Model 448

Queuing Models 454

Wired Queuing 455

Wired 1P7Q3T Egress Queuing Model 456

Wired 2P6Q3T Egress Queuing Model 459

Wireless Queuing 470

Wireless 2P2Q Egress Queuing Model 472

Summary 474

Additional Reading 475

Chapter 21 Converged Access QoS Design Case Study 477

Tifosi Converged Access QoS Design: Wired 481

Policy 1: Access-Edge Design for Wired Printer Endpoints (No Trust) 481

Policy 2: Access-Edge Design for Wired Access Endpoints (DSCP Trust) 481

Policy 3: Access-Edge Design for Cisco TelePresence Endpoints (Conditional Trust) 482

Policy 4: Access-Edge Design for Cisco IP Phones and PCs (Conditional Trust and Classification and Marking) 482

Policy 5: Access-Edge Wired Queuing Design 485

Tifosi Converged Access QoS Design: Wireless 488

Policy 6: Access-Edge Design for Mobile Wireless Clients (Dynamic Policy with and Classification & Marking) 489

Policy 7: Access-Edge Wireless Queuing Design 491

Policy 8: SSID Bandwidth Allocation Between Guest and Enterprise SSIDs (SSID Policy to Separate Bandwidth Distribution) 492

Policy 9: CT 5760 Wireless LAN Controller Uplink Ports 493

Cisco Identity Services Engine 495

Summary 496

Additional Reading 496

Part V: Data Center QoS Design

Chapter 22 Data Center QoS Design Considerations and Recommendations 499

Data Center Architectures 500

High-Performance Trading Data Center Architectures 500

Big Data (HPC/HTC/Grid) Architectures 501

Virtualized Multiservice Data Center Architectures 503

Secure Multitenant Data Center Architectures 505

Massively Scalable Data Center Architectures 506

Data Center QoS Tools 507

Data Center Bridging Toolset 508

Ethernet Flow Control: IEEE 802.3x 508

Priority Flow Control: IEEE 802.1Qbb 510

Skid Buffers and Virtual Output Queuing 512

Enhanced Transmission Selection: IEEE 802.1Qaz 514

Congestion Notification: IEEE 802.1Qau 515

Data Center Bridging Exchange: IEEE 802.1Qaz + 802.1AB 516

Data Center Transmission Control Protocol 517

NX-OS QoS Framework 519

Data Center QoS Models 520

Data Center Marking Models 520

Data Center Applications and Protocols 521

CoS/DSCP Marking 523

CoS 3 Overlap Considerations and Tactical Options 524

Data Center Application-Based Marking Models 526

Data Center Application/Tenant-Based Marking Models 527

Data Center QoS Models 528

Data Center Port QoS Roles 529

Summary 532

Additional Reading 534

Chapter 23 Data Center Virtual Access (Nexus 1000V) QoS Design 535

Cisco Nexus 1000 System Architecture 537

Nexus 1000V Configuration Notes 539

Monitoring QoS Statistics 540

Ingress QoS Model 540

Trust Models 541

Trusted Server Model 541

Untrusted Server Model 541

Classification and Marking 544

Single-Application Server Model 544

Multi-Application Server Model 545

Server Policing Model 547

Egress QoS Model 549

Four-Class Egress Queuing Model 551

Eight-Class Egress Queuing Model 556

Summary 559

Additional Reading 559

Chapter 24 Data Center Access/Aggregation (Nexus 5500/2000) QoS Design 561

Cisco Nexus 5500 System Architecture 562

Architectural Overview 563

Virtual Output Queuing 564

QoS Groups and System Classes 567

QoS Design Steps 569

Ingress QoS Models 569

Trust Models 570

Trusted Server Model 570

Untrusted Server Model 570

Classification and Marking Models 572

Single-Application Server Model 573

Multi-Application Server Model 576

Application Policing Server Model 578

Modifying the Ingress Buffer Size 580

Egress Queuing Models 582

Four-Class Model 582

Eight-Class Model 587

Additional QoS Designs Options 592

Nexus 5500 L3 QoS Configuration 592

Nexus 2000 Fabric Extender QoS 593

Using the network-qos Policy to Set MTU 597

Summary 597

Additional Reading 598

Chapter 25 Data Center Core (Nexus 7000) QoS Design 599

Nexus 7000 Overview 600

Nexus 7000 M2 Modules: Architecture and QoS Design 604

M2 QoS Design Steps 607

M2 Queuing Models 607

M2 Default Queuing Models 608

M2 Four-Class (4Q2T Ingress / 1P3Q4T Egress) Queuing Model 610

M2 Eight-Class (8Q2T Ingress / 1P3Q4T Egress) Queuing Model 615

M2 OTV Edge Device QoS Design 621

Nexus 7000 F2 Modules: Architecture and QoS Design 623

F2 QoS Design Steps 625

F2 Network QoS Policy Design 625

F2 Queuing Models 630

F2 Default Queuing Models 631

F2 Four-Class (4Q1T Ingress / 1P3Q1T Egress) Queuing Model 634

F2 Eight-Class (4Q1T Ingress / 1P3Q1T Egress) Queuing Model 634

FEX QoS Design 638

Additional M2/F2 QoS Design Options 638

Trusted Server Model 638

Untrusted Server Model 638

Single-Application Server Marking Model 642

Multi-Application Server Classification and Marking Model 642

Server Policing Model 643

DSCP-Mutation Model 645

CoPP Design 648

Summary 648

Further Reading 649

Chapter 26 Data Center QoS Design Case Study 651

Tifosi Data Center Virtual Access Layer Nexus 1000V QoS Design 655

Policy 1: Trusted Virtual Machines 655

Policy 2: Single-Application Virtual Machine 655

Policy 3: Multi-Application Virtual Machine 656

Policy 4: Network-Edge Queuing 657

Tifosi Data Center Access/Aggregation Layer Nexus 5500/2000 QoS Design 659

Policy 5: Trusted Server 660

Policy 6: Single-Application Server 660

Policy 7: Multi-Application Server 661

Policy 8: Network-Edge Queuing Policy 662

Tifosi Data Center Core Layer Nexus 7000 QoS Design 666

Policy 9: Network-Edge Queuing (F2 Modules) 666

Policy 10: Network-Edge Queuing (M2 Modules) 668

Policy 11: DSCP Mutation for Signaling Traffic Between Campus and Data Center 671

Summary 672

Further Reading 673

Part VI: WAN and Branch QoS Design

Chapter 27 WAN and Branch QoS Design Considerations and Recommendations 675

WAN and Branch Architectures 677

Hardware Versus IOS Software QoS 678

Latency and Jitter 679

Tx-Ring 682


LLQ 684

WRED 685

RSVP 685

Medianet 686

AVC 687

AutoQoS 687

Control Plane Policing 687

Link Types and Speeds 687

WAN and Branch QoS Models 688

Ingress QoS Models 689

Egress QoS Models 689

Control Plane Policing 692

WAN and Branch Interface QoS Roles 692

Summary 693

Further Reading 694

Chapter 28 WAN Aggregator (Cisco ASR 1000) QoS Design 697

Cisco ASR 1000 QoS Architecture 698

QoS Design Steps 700

ASR 1000 Internal QoS 701

SPA-Based PLIM 706

SIP-Based PLIM 707

Ingress QoS Models 708

Egress QoS Models 709

Four-Class Model 709

Eight-Class Model 712

Twelve-Class Model 715

Additional Platform-Specific QoS Design Options 725

RSVP 725

Basic RSVP Model 726

Advanced RSVP Model with Application ID 729

AutoQoS SRND4 733

Control Plane Policing 733

Summary 733

Further Reading 734

Chapter 29 Branch Router (Cisco ISR G2) QoS Design 735

Cisco ISR G2 QoS Architecture 736

QoS Design Steps 738

Ingress QoS Models 738

Medianet Classification Models 738

Medianet Application-Based Classification and Marking Model 739

Medianet Application-Group-Based Classification Model 743

Medianet Attribute-Based Classification Model 744

NBAR2 Classification Models 744

NBAR2 Application-Based Classification and Marking Model 745

NBAR2 Application-Group-Based Classification Model 748

NBAR2 Attribute-Based Classification Model 748

Custom-Protocol NBAR2 Classification 752

Egress QoS Models 753

Four-Class Model 754

Eight-Class Model 754

Twelve-Class Model 754

Additional Platform-Specific QoS Design Options 757

RSVP 757

AutoQoS SRND4 757

Control Plane Policing 757

Summary 757

Further Reading 758

Chapter 30 WAN and Branch QoS Design Case Study 759

Policy 1: Internal (PLIM) QoS for ASR 1000 761

Policy 1a: SIP-Based PLIM QoS 762

Policy 1b: SPA-Based PLIM QoS 762

Policy 2: LAN-Edge QoS Policies 763

Policy 3: WAN Edge QoS Policies 765

Summary 768

Further Reading 769

Part VII: MPLS VPN QoS Design

Chapter 31 MPLS VPN QoS Design Considerations and Recommendations 771

MPLS VPN Architectures 772

MAN and WAN Ethernet Service Evolution 773

Sub-Line-Rate Ethernet Design Implications 775

QoS Paradigm Shift 779

Service Provider Class of Service Models 781

MPLS DiffServ Tunneling Modes 781

Uniform Mode 782

Short Pipe Mode 783

Pipe Mode 784

Enterprise-to-Service Provider Mapping 785

Mapping Real-Time Voice and Video 785

Mapping Control and Signaling Traffic 786

Separating TCP from UDP 786

Re-Marking and Restoring Markings 787

MPLS VPN QoS Roles 787

Summary 789

Further Reading 790

Chapter 32 Enterprise Customer Edge (Cisco ASR 1000 and ISR G2) QoS Design 793

QoS Design Steps 794

Ingress QoS Models 795

Egress QoS Models 795

Sub-Line-Rate Ethernet: Hierarchical Shaping and Queuing Models 795

Known SP Policing Bc 796

Unknown SP Policing Bc 797

Enterprise-to-Service Provider Mapping Models 798

Four-Class Enterprise Model Mapped to a Four-CoS Service Provider Model 798

Eight-Class Enterprise Model Mapped to a Six-CoS Service Provider Model 800

Twelve-Class Enterprise Model Mapped to an Eight Class-of-Service Service Provider Model 803

Summary 808

Further Reading 808

Chapter 33 Service Provider Edge (Cisco ASR 9000) QoS Design 809

QoS Architecture 810

QoS Design Steps 814

MPLS DiffServ Tunneling Models 814

Uniform Mode MPLS DiffServ Tunneling 815

Uniform Mode Ingress Policer 816

Uniform Mode (MPLS EXP-Based) Egress Queuing Policy 822

Uniform Mode (MPLS EXP-to-QG) Ingress Mapping Policy 823

Uniform Mode (QG-Based) Egress Queuing Policy 824

Pipe Mode MPLS DiffServ Tunneling 826

Pipe Mode Ingress Policer 827

Pipe Mode (MPLS EXP-Based) Egress Queuing Policy 830

Pipe Mode (MPLS EXP-to-QG) Ingress Mapping Policy 831

Pipe Mode (QG-Based) Egress Queuing Policy 832

Short Pipe Mode MPLS DiffServ Tunneling 834

Short Pipe Mode Ingress Policer 835

Short Pipe Mode (MPLS EXP-Based) Egress Queuing Policy 838

Short Pipe Mode (DSCP-Based) Egress Queuing Policy 840

Summary 842

Additional Reading 843

Chapter 34 Service Provider Core (Cisco CRS) QoS Design 845

QoS Architecture 846

QoS Design Steps 849

SP Core Class-of-Service QoS Models 849

Four-Class-of-Service SP Model 850

Four-Class-of-Service Fabric QoS Policy 850

Four-Class-of-Service Interface QoS Policy 853

Six-Class-of-Service SP Core Model 854

Six-Class-of-Service Fabric QoS Policy 855

Six-Class-of-Service Interface QoS Policy 856

Eight-Class-of-Service SP Core Model 857

Eight-Class-of-Service Fabric QoS Policy 857

Eight-Class-of-Service Interface QoS Policy 858

Summary 860

Additional Reading 860

Chapter 35 MPLS VPN QoS Design Case Study 861

Policy 1: CE Router Internal QoS (Cisco ASR 1000) 863

Policy 2: CE Router LAN-Edge QoS Policies 863

Policy 3: CE Router VPN-Edge QoS Policies 863

Policy 4: PE Router Internal QoS (Cisco ASR 9000) 866

Policy 5: PE Router Customer-Edge QoS 866

Policy 6: PE Router Core-Edge QoS 867

Policy 7: P Router Internal QoS (Cisco CRS-3) 868

Policy 8: P Router Interface QoS 868

Summary 868

Additional Reading 868

Part VIII: IPsec QoS Design

Chapter 36 IPsec VPN QoS Considerations and Recommendations 871

IPsec VPN Topologies 871

Standard IPsec VPNs 872

Tunnel Mode 872

Transport Mode 873

IPsec with GRE 873

Remote-Access VPNs 874

QoS Classification of IPsec Packets 875

The IOS Preclassify Feature 877

MTU Considerations 880

How GRE Handles MTU Issues 881

How IPsec Handles MTU Issues 881

Using the TCP Adjust-MSS Feature 883

Compression Strategies Over VPN 885

TCP Optimization Using WAAS 885

Using Voice Codecs over a VPN Connection 886

cRTP and IPsec Incompatibilities 887

Antireplay Implications 888

Summary 891

Additional Reading 891

Chapter 37 DMVPN QoS Design 893

The Role of QoS in a DMVPN Network 895

DMVPN Building Blocks 895

How QoS Is Implemented in a DMVPN? 895

DMVPN QoS Configuration 896

Next-Hop Routing Protocol 897

The Need for a Different Approach to QoS in DMVPNs 898

The Per-Tunnel QoS for DMVPN Feature 899

DMVPN QoS Design Example 900

DMVPN QoS Design Steps 902

Configuring the Hub Router for Per-Tunnel QoS 902

Configuring the Hub Router for the Four-Class QoS Model 903

Configuring the Hub Router for the Eight-Class QoS Model 905

Configuring the Hub Router for the Twelve-Class QoS Model 907

Configuring the Spoke Routers for Per-Tunnel QoS 910

Verifying Your DMVPN QoS Configuration 913

Per-Tunnel QoS Between Spokes 917

Summary 918

Additional Reading 919

Chapter 38 GET VPN QoS Design 921

GET VPN QoS Overview 922

Group Domain of Interpretation 923

GET VPN Building Blocks 924

IP Header Preservation 926

GET VPN Configuration Review 928

Key Server Configuration 928

Group Member Configuration 929

GET VPN QoS Configuration 931

Configuring a GM with the Four-Class Model 932

Configuring a GM with the Eight-Class Model 933

Configuring a GM with the Twelve-Class Model 934

Confirming the QoS Policy 936

How and When to Use the QoS Preclassify Feature 939

A Case for Combining GET VPN and DMVPN 940

Working with Your Service Provider When Deploying GET VPN 941

Summary 941

Additional Reading 942

Chapter 39 Home Office VPN QoS Case Study 943

Building the Technical Solution 943

The QoS Application Requirements 944

The QoS Configuration 945

Headend Router Configuration 946

Home Office Router (Spoke) Configuration 948

Summary 952

Additional Reading 952

Index 953

Part XI: Appendixes (Online)

Appendix A AutoQoS for Medianet

Appendix B Control Plane Policing

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End-to-End QoS Network Design: Quality of Service for Rich-Media & Cloud Networks 5 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 1 reviews.
Are you a network administrator tasked with deploying QoS technologies? If you are, then this book is for you! Authors Tim Szigeti, Christina Hattingh, Robert Barton and Kenneth Briley Jr., have done an outstanding job of writing a second edition of a book which reflects the evolution of industry standards relating to QoS. Authors Szigeti, Hattingh, Barton and Briley,  begin by providing a brief history lesson on quality of service and the quality of experience evolution, by introducing fundamental QoS concepts, standards and evolutionary changes. Then, the authors present an overview on how QoS tools interrelate, and introduce Cisco&rsquo;s IOS-based Modular QoS command-line interface--the common syntax structure for configuring QoS across most Cisco platforms. They continue by describing the various classification options for distinguishing one packet from another, which is the requisite first step in providing differentiated services. Then, the authors discuss various tools that can be used to meter and regulate packet flows, including policers, shapers and markers. They then show you how to deal with bottlenecks in the network, by addressing both queuing tools and early-dropping tools. Next, the authors introduce the concepts of bandwidth reservations and endpoint/infrastructure signaling to communicate how and when such reservations are to be made. The authors continue by examining IPv6 packet formats; classification and marketing options; and, how QoS tools are to be configured in IPv6 networks or in mixed IPv4 and IPv6 networks. Then, they give a brief overview of the Medianet architecture, with particular focus on the aspects of Medianet specific to QoS configuration and monitoring. Next, the authors present deep packet inspection technologies for application identification, classification, and monitoring; and, how these can be used within the network. They also examine current business trends impacting QoS designs and various application-class QoS requirements. Then, the authors show you how to combine the QoS tools and business requirements, and how to formulate these into QoS strategic models to address basic, intermediate, and advanced requirements. They continue by discussing the business and technical considerations that come into play when defining an end-to-end QoS strategy. Then, the authors present an overview of the various considerations and recommendations relating to campus QoS design, including trust boundaries, per-port versus per-VLANdesign options, and EtherChannel QoS considerations. Next, they detail the best practice QoS designs at a configuration level for Cisco Catalyst 3750 series switches in the role of a campus access layer edge switch. The authors also detail configuration recommendations for a Cisco Catalyst 4500 series switch in the role of a campus distribution layer switch. Finally, they detail configuration recommendations for Cisco ISR G2 routers in the roles of GET VPN routers. The number one goal of this excellent book is to present the many aspects of the quality of service design, including an overview of the tools; strategic and tactical design recommendations; and, platform-specific configuration details. In addition, this great book also shows QoS as entailing a significant amount of fundamental technological concepts; as well as, platform-specific implementation detail.