This book explores the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the context of regenerative medicine (RegMed). In particular, it reveals the value of RegMed as a new TM branch intended to improve the health and quality of life, by restoring, maintaining or enhancing tissue and functions of organs.
The book is divided into three chapters, the first of which describes the relevance of translational medicine (TM) as a new research approach to counteract the imposing challengeof age-related diseases. Of the diverse RegMed approaches, particular attention is paid to stem/progenitor cell-based therapies, their benefits and shortcomings, as well as to the description of types of stem and progenitor cells considered for regenerative cell therapies, such as EPCs as emerging candidates for RegMed applications.
In turn, the second chapter outlines the clinical relevance of EPCs as both potential predictors, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of age-related diseases and therapeutic agents,discussing their advantages, disadvantages, and conflicting data.
Chapter three proposes a potential roadmap for revising the findings and creating a clearer picture of valid data, which can provide support for various important aspects, i.e.isolating and characterizing EPCs by establishing standardized criteria for EPC research, identifying appropriate sub-populations for cell therapy, timing, dosing, priming of cells,and defining delivery modes for different applications.
The book concludes with an overview of innovative strategies that could improve the efficacy of cell therapy at all levels, including cell priming, bio-nanotechnology, and tissue engineering.
Table of Contents
1. Chapter: From the Regenerative Medicine to Endothelial progenitor cells as potentialcandidates.-
1.1Regenerative Medicine: a new branch of Translational Medicine.-
1.1.1 Stem cell therapy.-
1.1.2. Stem cells as appropriate candidates of cell therapy: types of stem cells.-
1.2 Endothelial progenitor cells: other emerging candidates for RegMed therapeutictreatment.-1.2.1 Evidence of several circulating subpopulations of EPC cells.-
1.2.2 EPC cells from BM to differentiation in EC mature cells and the formation of new vessels.-
1.3 Phenotypical Markers and levels of circulating EPCs in adult subjects.- 1.3.1 EPC quantification using flow cytometry and its limitation.-
1.3.2 Factors modulating EPC quantitative and qualitative evaluation by flow cytometry.-
1.3.3 Pathological or physiological conditions as factors able to modulate EPC quantitative and qualitative evaluation.-
1.4 The complex process of regulation of EPC biology and function: new insights on the key role of Notch, ROS and Wnt pathways and their crosstalk, and epigenetics.-
2. Chapter: Endothelial progenitor cells and their clinical applications as potential disease biomarkers and therapeutic agents: evidence and controversies in their effectiveness.-
2.1 Endothelium dysfunction as the early event of chronic age-related diseases: EPCs as cellular biomarkers.-
2.2 Relationship between circulating EPC levels and age-related diseases.- 2.2.1 Unfavourable Factors associated with Decreased Circulating EPC Levels.-
2.2.2 Physiological Factors and high Circulating EPC Levels.-
2.3 Correlation between blood EPC levels and cardiovascular profile.- 2.3.1 Atherosclerosis.-
2.3.3 Coronary artery disease (CAD).-
2.3.4 Bicuspid aortic valve, Aortic valve regurgitation (AR) and Aneurysm.-
2.3.5 Cerebral ischemia.-
2.3.6 Other CVD diseases.-
2.4 EPC cells in Alzheimer disease.-
2.5 Diabetes and EPC cells.-
2.6 EPC cells in solid and haematological cancers, and recent controversies on their incorporation into tumour neovessels.-
2.7 EPCs as Therapeutic Agents.-
2.7.1. EPCS as Therapeutic Agents for CVDs: focus on ischemia disease treatment. Capacity and doubts.-
2.7.2. The clinical results and indications of autologous therapies.-
2.8 EPC cells as Therapeutic Agents for Cancer: focus on anti-VEGF treatments and controversies in their efficacy.-
2.9 EPCs as Therapeutic Agents for Alzheimer disease.-
2.10 EPCs as Therapeutic Agents for Diabetes.-.
2.11 Controversies about EPC use as optimal candidates for cell therapy.-
2.12 Conclusions and perspectives.-
3. Chapter: EPCs: a real hope or an unrealizable dream? Which measures or strategies are necessary for achieving the real hope? Focus on a potential roadmap.-
3.1. EPCs: a real hope or an unrealizable dream?.-
3.2 Priming of EPC cells for improving their therapeutic efficacy.-
3.3 Bio-nanotechnology as support of EPC based therapies.-
3.4 Tissue engineering.-
3.5 Combined strategies for raising biological repair.-
3.6 Reprogramming for counteracting the ageing and the senescence of EPC cells?.-