Energy and The Environment: Scientific and Technological Principles / Edition 2

Energy and The Environment: Scientific and Technological Principles / Edition 2

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Oxford University Press, USA

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Energy and The Environment: Scientific and Technological Principles / Edition 2

Now thoroughly updated in its second edition, Energy and the Environment: Scientific and Technological Principles addresses a central problem of urban-industrial society—the interconnectedness of energy usage and environmental degradation—by examining how the rapidly growing use of energy threatens the natural environment at local, regional, and global scales.

Authors James A. Fay and Dan S. Golomb describe fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy technologies and explain their efficiencies for transforming source energy to useful mechanical or electrical power. In particular, they emphasize electric power and the use of transportation vehicles, whose technological improvements increase energy efficiency and reduce air pollutant emissions. Fay and Golomb also analyze the source of toxic emissions to air, water, and land that arise from energy uses and their effects on environmental quality. They pay special attention to global climate change, the contribution made to it by energy uses, and the salient technologies that are being developed to mitigate this effect.

Ideal for upper-level undergraduate and first-year graduate students, as well as professionals in the fields of energy and environmental sciences and technology, Energy and the Environment: Scientific and Technological Principles, Second Edition, equips readers with the basic factual knowledge needed to develop solutions to these environmental problems.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780199765133
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date: 01/27/2011
Series: MIT-Pappalardo Series in Mechanical Engineering Series
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 384
Product dimensions: 7.40(w) x 9.30(h) x 0.90(d)

Table of Contents

1 Energy and the Environment
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 An Overview of this Text
1.2 Energy
1.2.1 Electric Power
1.2.2 Transportation Energy
1.2.3 Energy as a Commodity
1.3 The Environment
1.3.1 Managing Industrial Pollution
2 Global Energy Use and Supply
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Global Energy Consumption
2.3 Global Carbon Emissions
2.4 Global Energy Sources
2.5 Global Electricity Consumption
2.6 End-Use Energy Consumption in the United States
2.6.1 Industrial Sector
2.6.2 Residential Sector
2.6.3 Commercial Sector
2.6.4 Transportation Sector
2.7 Global Energy Supply
2.7.1 Coal Reserves
2.7.2 Petroleum Reserves
2.7.3 Unconventional Petroleum Resources
2.7.4 Natural Gas Reserves
2.7.5 Unconventional Gas Resources
2.7.6 Summary of Fossil Reserves
2.8 Conclusion
3 Thermodynamic Principles of Energy Conversion
3.1 Introduction
3.2 The Forms of Energy
3.2.1 The Mechanical Energy of Macroscopic Bodies
3.2.2 The Energy of Atoms and Molecules
3.2.3 Chemical and Nuclear Energy
3.2.4 Electric and Magnetic Energy
3.2.5 Total Energy
3.3 Work and Heat Interactions
3.3.1 Work Interaction
3.3.2 Heat Interaction
3.4 The First Law of Thermodynamics
3.5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
3.6 Thermodynamic Properties
3.7 Steady Flow
3.8 Heat Transfer and Heat Exchange
3.9 Ideal Heat Engine Cycles
3.9.1 The Carnot Cycle
3.9.2 The Rankine Cycle
3.9.3 The Otto Cycle
3.9.4 The Brayton Cycle
3.9.5 Combined Brayton and Rankine Cycles
3.10 The Vapor Compression Cycle: Refrigeration and Heat Pumps
3.11 Energy Processing: First and Second Law Constraints
3.11.1 Fuel Heating Value
3.11.2 Free Energy Change
3.11.3 Separating Gases
3.12 Fuel (Thermal) Efficiency
3.13 Conclusion
4 Thermodynamics of Fossil, Biomass, and Synthetic Fuels
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Fossil Fuels
4.3 Combustion of Fossil Fuel
4.3.1 Fuel Heating Value
4.4 Biomass Fuels
4.5 Synthetic Fuels
4.5.1 Examples of Fossil Fuel Synthesis Coal to Gas
4.5.2 Examples of Biochemical Synthesis
4.6 Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Biomass
4.7 Electrochemical Reactions
4.7.1 Fuel Cells
4.7.2 Practical Fuel Cell Systems
4.8 The Hydrogen Economy
4.8.1 Hydrogen Fuel for Vehicle Propulsion
4.8.2 Synthetic Hydrogen from Fossil Fuels with Carbon Capture and Storage
4.8.3 Hydrogen as Energy Storage for Intermittent Electric Power Plants
4.8.4 Hydrogen as a Substitute for Pipeline Natural Gas
4.9 Conclusion
5 Electrical Energy Generation, Transmission, and Storage
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Electromechanical Power Transformation
5.3 Electric Power Transmission
5.3.1 AC/DC Conversion
5.4 Energy Storage
5.4.1 Electrostatic Energy Storage
5.4.2 Magnetic Energy Storage
5.4.3 Electrochemical Energy Storage Lead-Acid Storage Battery Lithium-Ion Storage Battery Other Storage Batteries
5.4.4 Mechanical Energy Storage Pumped Hydropower Flywheel Energy Storage
5.4.5 Properties of Energy Storage Systems
5.5 Conclusion
6 Fossil-Fueled Power Plants
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Fossil-Fueled Power Plant Components
6.2.1 Fuel Storage and Preparation
6.2.2 Burner
6.2.3 Boiler
6.2.4 Steam Turbine Impulse Turbine Reaction Turbine
6.2.5 Gas Turbine
6.2.6 Condenser
6.2.7 Cooling Tower Wet Cooling Tower Dry Cooling Tower
6.2.8 Generator
6.2.9 Combustion Stoichiometry
6.2.10 Emission Control Control of Products of Incomplete Combustion and Carbon Monoxide Control of Particles Sulfur Control Nitrogen Oxide Control Mercury Control Toxic Metals
6.2.11 Waste Disposal
6.3 Advanced Cycles
6.3.1 Combined Cycle
6.3.2 Coal Gasification Combined Cycle
6.3.3 Cogeneration
6.3.4 Fuel Cell
6.4 Conclusion
7 Nuclear-Fueled Power Plants
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Nuclear Energy
7.2.1 Nuclear Energy from Fission
7.3 Radioactivity
7.3.1 Decay Rates and Half-Lives
7.3.2 Units and Dosage Health Effects of Radiation Radiation Protection Standards
7.4 Nuclear Reactors
7.4.1 Boiling Water Reactor
7.4.2 Pressurized Water Reactor
7.4.3 Gas Cooled Reactor
7.4.4 Breeder Reactor
7.5 Nuclear Fuel Cycle
7.5.1 Mining and Refining
7.5.2 Gasification and Enrichment
7.5.3 Spent Fuel Reprocessing
7.5.4 Temporary Waste Storage
7.5.5 Permanent Waste Storage
7.6 Fusion
7.6.1 Magnetic Confinement
7.6.2 Laser Fusion
7.7 Energy Evolvement in Nuclear Fission and Fusion Reactions
7.8 Conclusion
8 Renewable Energy
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Hydropower
8.2.1 Environmental Effects
8.3 Biomass Energy
8.3.1 Photosynthesis
8.3.2 Biofuels Bioethanol Biodiesel
8.3.3 Wood as Biofuel
8.3.4 Environmental Effects
8.4 Geothermal Energy
8.4.1 Environmental Effects
8.5 Solar Energy
8.5.1 Flat Plate Collector
8.5.2 Focusing Collectors Solar Thermal Farms
8.5.3 Photovoltaic Cells Photovoltaic Farms
8.5.4 Environmental Effects
8.6 Wind Power
8.6.1 Aerodynamics of Wind Turbine Operation
8.6.2 Mechanical and Electrical Components
8.6.3 Wind Resources Capacity Factor Effectiveness Wind Variability and Predictability
8.6.4 Economical Turbine Designs
8.6.5 Wind Farms
8.6.6 Integrating Wind Farms into the Electric Power Network Averaging An Array of Wind Farms
8.6.7 Environmental Effects
8.7 Tidal Power
8.7.1 Tidal Current Power
8.7.2 Environmental Effects
8.8 Ocean Wave Power
8.8.1 Ocean Wave Energy and Power
8.8.2 Ocean Wave Power Systems
8.8.3 Wave Power Farms
8.8.4 Environmental Impacts
8.9 Ocean Thermal Power
8.10 Capital Cost of Renewable Electric Power
8.11 Conclusion
9 Automotive Transportation
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Internal Combustion Engines for Highway Vehicles
9.2.1 Combustion in SI and CI engines
9.3 Engine Power and Performance
9.3.1 Engine Efficiency
9.4 Vehicle Power and Performance
9.4.1 Connecting the Engine to the Wheels
9.5 Vehicle Fuel Efficiency
9.5.1 U.S. Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Regulations and Test Cycles
9.5.2 Improving Vehicle Fuel Economy Improving Vehicle Performance Improving Engine Performance
9.6 Electric Drive Vehicles
9.6.1 Vehicles Powered by Storage Batteries
9.6.2 Hybrid Vehicles
9.6.3 Fuel Cell Vehicles
9.7 Vehicle Emissions
9.7.1 U.S. Vehicle Emission Standards
9.7.2 Reducing Vehicle Emissions Reducing Engine-Out Emissions Catalytic Converters for Exhaust Gas Treatment Evaporative Emissions Reducing CI Engine Emissions Fuel Quality and its Regulation
9.8 Conclusion
10 Environmental Effects of Fossil Fuel Use
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Air Pollution
10.2.1 U.S. Emission Standards
10.2.2 U.S. Ambient Standards
10.2.3 Health and Environmental Effects of Fossil-Fuel-Related Air Pollutants
10.2.4 Air Pollution Meteorology
10.2.5 Air Quality Modeling Modeling of Steady-State Point Source Plume Rise Steady State Line Source Steady State Area Source
10.2.6 Photo-oxidants Photo-oxidant Modeling
10.2.7 Acid Deposition Acid Deposition Modeling
10.2.8 Regional Haze and Visibility Impairment
10.3 Water Pollution
10.3.1 Acid Mine Drainage and Coal Washing
10.3.3 Water Use and Thermal Pollution from Power Plants
10.3.4 Atmospheric Deposition of Toxic Pollutants onto Surface Waters Toxic Metals Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
10.4 Land Pollution
10.5 Conclusion
11 GlobalWarming and Climate Change
11.1 Introduction
11.2 What is the Greenhouse Effect?
11.2.1 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation
11.2.2 Sun-Earth-Space Radiative Equilibrium
11.2.3 Modeling Global Warming
11.2.4 Global Warming Potential
11.2.5 Radiative Forcing

11.2.6 Results of Global Warming Modeling
11.2.7 Observed Trend of Global Warming
11.3 Associated Effects of Global Warming
11.3.1 Sea Level Rise.
11.3.2 Water Vapor and Precipitation Changes
11.3.3 Hurricanes and Typhoons
11.3.4 Climate Changes
11.4 Greenhouse Gas Emissions
11.4.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions and the Carbon Cycle
11.4.2 Methane
11.4.3 Nitrous Oxide .
11.4.4 Chlorofluorocarbons
11.4.5 Ozone
11.5 Conclusion.
12 Mitigating GlobalWarming
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Controlling Halocarbon Emissions
12.3 Controlling Nitrous Oxide Emissions
12.4 Controlling Methane Emissions
12.4.1 Controlling Methane Generated by Coal Mining
12.4.2 Controlling Methane from Petroleum and Natural Gas Operations
12.4.3 Controlling Landfill Methane
12.5 Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions
12.5.1 Controlling CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fueled Electric Power Plants Shift from Coal or Oil to Natural Gas Fuel Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Plants Capturing CO2 from the Flue Gas by Chemical Absorption Oxyfuel Combustion with CO2 Capture Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Plants with CO2 Capture Capturing CO2 after Gasification by Physical Absorption Capturing CO2 after Gasification by Membrane Separation
12.6 Thermal Efficiency and Cost of Controlling CO2 Emissions from Power Plants
12.7 CO2 Sequestration
12.7.1 Sequestration in Oil and Gas Reservoirs
12.7.2 Sequestration in Coal Seams
12.7.3 Sequestration in Deep Sedimentary Basins
12.7.4 Sequestration in the Deep Ocean
12.7.5 CO2 Removal from the Atmosphere Afforestation Ocean Fertilization Mineral Sequestration CO2 Utilization
12.8 Conclusion
13 Concluding Remarks
13.1 Energy Resources
13.2 Regulating the Environmental Effects of Energy Use
13.3 Global Climate Change
13.3.1 Coping with Climate Change
13.4 Conclusion

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