Engineering Applications of Lasers and Holography

Engineering Applications of Lasers and Holography

by Winston Kock

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1975)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781468421620
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 11/25/2012
Series: Optical Physics and Engineering
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1975
Pages: 400
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1 Fundamental Wave Properties.- 1.1. Wave Interference.- 1.2. Phase.- 1.3. Wave Visualization.- 1.4. Diffraction.- 1.5. Diffraction by a Slit.- 1.6. The Near (Fresnel), Far (Fraunhofer), and Transition Fields.- 1.7. Diffraction by Two Slits.- 1.8. Dependence of Diffraction on Wavelength.- 1.9. Wave Polarization.- 1.10. Refraction.- 1.11. Prisms.- 1.12. References.- 2 Wave Coherence.- 2.1. Frequency Coherence.- 2.2. Frequency Stability.- 2.3. Spatial Coherence.- 2.4. Coherent Waves from Small Sources.- 2.5. The Extremely Short Wavelengths of Light.- 3 Gratings and Zone Plates.- 3.1. The Optical Grating.- 3.2. Slit Gratings and Photographic Gratings.- 3.3. A Prism Grating.- 3.4. A Double-Prism Grating.- 3.5. Volume Effects.- 3.6. The Classical Zone Plate.- 3.7. Zone Plates with Areas Interchanged.- 3.8. A Photographic Zone Plate.- 3.9. Offset Zone Plates.- 3.10. Zone Plates as Lenses.- 3.11. Volume Zone Plates.- 3.12. Standing-Wave Patterns.- 3.13. Lattice Reflectors.- 3.14. Reflection Zone Plates.- 3.15. References.- 4 Hologram Fundamentals.- 4.1. Two Simple Holograms.- 4.2. The Complete Hologram Process.- 4.3. The Hologram of a Scene.- 4.4. Parallax in Holograms.- 4.5. Single-Wavelength Nature of Holograms.- 4.6. Nonoptical Holograms.- 4.7. Microwave Holograms.- 4.8. Acoustic Holograms.- 4.9. Microwave Holograms and Liquid Crystals.- 4.10. Liquid-Surface Acoustic Holograms.- 4.11. Hologram Equations.- 4.12. References.- 5 Properties of Holograms.- 5.1. Three-Dimensional Realism.- 5.2. Holograms and Photographs.- 5.3. Lens Action.- 5.4. A Stereohologram.- 5.5. Focused-Image Holography.- 5.6. Reconstruction with a Small Portion of a Hologram.- 5.7. Pseudoscopy in the Real Image of a Hologram.- 5.8. Image Inversion.- 5.9. Color Holograms.- 5.10. Requirements on Film Properties.- 5.11. Information Content.- 5.12. Holograms and Coherent Radar.- 5.13. References.- 6 Laser Fundamentals.- 6.1. The Metastable State.- 6.2. The Two-Step Process.- 6.3. Energy Conservation with Reflectors.- 6.4. Reflectors and Spatial Coherence.- 6.5. Energy Concentration.- 6.6. Q-Spoiling.- 6.7. Gas Lasers.- 6.8. Reflectors and Resonators.- 6.9. The Natural Line Width.- 6.10. Coherence Length.- 6.11. Semiconductor Lasers.- 6.12. Other-Level Lasers.- 6.13. References.- 7 Recent Developments in Lasers.- 7.1. Laser Units.- 7.2. Solid Lasers.- 7.3. Solid Laser Amplifiers.- 7.4. Gas Lasers.- 7.5. Semiconductor Lasers.- 7.6. Liquid Lasers.- 7.7. Mode Locking.- 7.8. References.- 8 Lasers in Measurement.- 8.1. Alignment.- 8.2. Distance and Length Measurements.- 8.3. Velocity Measurements.- 8.4. Measurement of Acceleration.- 8.5. Atmospheric Effects.- 8.6. Sonic Boom.- 8.7. Measurement of Pollutants.- 8.8. Lasers in Machine-Tool Measurements.- 8.9. Holographic Microscopy.- 8.10. Saturation Spectroscopy.- 8.11. Raman and Brillouin Spectroscopy.- 8.12. Mass Spectroscopy.- 8.13. Holographic Interferometry.- 8.14. Interferometric Structure Analysis.- 8.15. Interferometric Detection of Footprints.- 8.16. Interferometric Testing of Rocket Components.- 8.17. Nonoptical Holographic Interferometry.- 8.18. Laser Speckle.- 8.19. Measurement Techniques Employing Speckle.- 8.20. References.- 9 Microwave Holography.- 9.1. Early Developments.- 9.2. Detection Devices.- 9.3. Microwave-Hologram Antennas.- 9.4. Liquid Crystal Holograms.- 9.5. Holographic Signal Processing.- 9.6. The Synthetic-Aperture Concept.- 9.7. Stationary Synthetic-Aperture Systems.- 9.8. Forward-Scatter Hologram Radars.- 9.9. Bistatic Hologram Radars.- 9.10. Passive and End-Fire Radars.- 9.11. Synthetic-Interferometer Radars.- 9.12. Radar Range Acquisition by Holography.- 9.13. References.- 10 Acoustic Holography Applications.- 10.1. Early Developments.- 10.2. Acoustic Synthetic-Aperture Systems.- 10.3. Underwater Applications.- 10.4. Acoustic Kinoforms.- 10.5. Holographic Pulse Compression.- 10.6. Hologram Sonar Using Incoherent Illumination.- 10.7. Seismic Holography.- 10.8. References.- 11 Lasers in Industry.- 11.1. Welding and Metalworking.- 11.2. Micromachining.- 11.3. Solid-State Trimming.- 11.4. Laser Scribers for Substrates.- 11.5. Microdrilling.- 11.6. Fabric Cutting.- 11.7. Checkout Systems for Supermarkets.- 11.8. Display Applications.- 11.9. Cable Insulation Stripping.- 11.10. Control of Crystal Growth.- 11.11. Chromatograph-Analysis Use.- 11.12. Weather Analysis.- 11.13. References.- 12 Communications.- 12.1. The Constant Demand for Bandwidth.- 12.2. Coaxial Cable.- 12.3. Microwave Systems.- 12.4. Radio Relay Circuits.- 12.5. Satellite Communications.- 12.6. Orbiting Satellites.- 12.7. Synchronous Satellites.- 12.8. Domestic Systems.- 12.9. Early Laser Research.- 12.10. Basic Laser Communication Considerations.- 12.11. Line-of-Sight Laser Communications.- 12.12. Satellite Laser Communications.- 12.13. Wires of Glass.- 12.14. A Long-Distance Fiber Circuit.- 12.15. Short-Length Fiber Circuits.- 12.16. Optical Film Devices.- 12.17. Lasers in Microfilm Transmission.- 12.18. Television Recording.- 12.19. References.- 13 Medical Applications.- 13.1. The Development of Ultrasonics in Medical Imaging.- 13.2. Recent Developments.- 13.3. Details of Recent Ultrasonic Techniques.- 13.4. Synthetic-Aperture Techniques in Medicine.- 13.5. Real-Time Synthetic Aperture.- 13.6. Liquid-Surface Holography for Medical Diagnostics.- 13.7. Concern About Acoustic Intensity in Holography.- 13.8. Holography and Three-Dimensional X-Ray Pictures.- 13.9. Holography and Three-Dimensional Gamma-Ray Images.- 13.10. Applications in Ophthalmic Fields.- 13.11. Dental Applications.- 13.12. References.- 14 Computing Applications.- 14.1. Fourier Series.- 14.2. Discrete Fourier Analysis.- 14.3. Discrete Analysis Tables.- 14.4. Fourier Integrals.- 14.5. Fourier Transforms.- 14.6. Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT).- 14.7. Distant-Field Patterns.- 14.8. Near-Field Patterns.- 14.9. Space-Frequency Equivalence.- 14.10. Two-Dimensional Fourier Transforms.- 14.11. The History of Optical Processing.- 14.12. Optical Filtering.- 14.13. Seismic Applications.- 14.14. Complex Optical Filters.- 14.15. Complex-Filter Applications.- 14.16. Optical Processing in Radar.- 14.17. Parallel Optical Processing: The Accepting Function.- 14.18. Parallel Optical Processing: The Processing and Display Function.- 14.19. Real-Time Optical Computing.- 14.20. Computer-Generated Holograms.- 14.21. Holographic Computer Memories.- 14.22. Flying-Spot Scanning.- 14.23. Read-Only Memories.- 14.24. Volume Hologram Memories.- 14.25. Erasable Memories.- 14.26. One-Dimensional Hologram Memories.- 14.27. References.- 15 Nuclear Fusion.- 15.1. Power Needs.- 15.2. Atomic Energy Development.- 15.3. Nuclear Weapons.- 15.4. Fission Reactors.- 15.5. The Breeder Reactor.- 15.6. Controlled Fusion.- 15.7. Amplifying the Laser Pulses.- 15.8. Laser-Fusion Experiments.- 15.9. Pulse Tailoring.- 15.10. Uranium Enrichment by Lasers.- 15.11. References.- Further Reading Suggestions.- Author Index.

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