Forests in Asia are under intense pressure to grow construction timber, provide trees and underbrush for fuel or leaves for crafts, and supply medicinal plants, game, fruits, nuts and so on - for one of the fastest growing populations in the world. The number of people living in South Asia alone is expected to grow by two-thirds during the next two generations, and governments across Asia are justifiably concerned about the degradation or loss this growth may mean to their forest resources and to their people. The poor in Asia particularly depend on forests as a source of protein and shelter. But beyond the obvious, immediate causes of deforestation, it is generally recognized that other interrelated forces - economic, institutional, and technical - contribute more to forest loss. For instance, the underpricing of timber, or subsidies, will probably lead to overuse of wood and eventually to deforestation. Recognizing that many of the immediate pressures on Asian forests were caused by the needs of growing populations and economies, in 1991 the World Bank commissioned a series of studies funded by a grant from the Government of Norway to incorporate environmental considerations into economic analyses of forestry operations. Each of the chapters presented in this document represent one of those research topics - from analysis of the logging ban in Thailand to technical advice on tree improvement programs to analysis of the effect on forests of economic policy in India. Because the topics represent the interests of the Asia Country Departments, the document provides an overview of the environmentally related priority issues in Asian forestry and contributes to the critical work ofunderstanding their complex dynamics.