Environmental ethics is a relatively new philosophical discipline that addresses the complex convergence of humans with the natural world and its nonhuman inhabitants. Environmental Ethics: The Big Questions presents a series of interdisciplinary readings that examine the moral dimensions of the delicate relationship between human beings and the environment. Carefully chosen selections drawn from philosophy, the social and life sciences, economics, history, legal studies, business, and literature are organized clearly around the history of anthropocentric (human-centered) and nonanthropocentric origins of environmental ethics. The readings serve as an investigation of the proper scope of moral considerations relating to the environment – one that includes humans, animals, living things, ecosystems, and the built environment. Other topics include political approaches to environmental ethics, the importance of ecological science, and contemporary public policy issues such as agriculture, sustainability, population, globalization, and injustice. Readers are also directed to an online archive of continually updated international case studies that serve to complement and explicate the theoretical discussions outlined in the text.
Thought provoking and timely, Environmental Ethics: The Big Questions offers illuminating insights into an issue that is becoming more critical each year.
To view a growing archive of environmental ethics case studies, please visit: http://environmentalethics.info/.
About the Author
David R. Keller is Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Center for the Study of Ethics at Utah Valley University. He is co-editor of The Philosophy of Ecology: From Science to Synthesis (with Frank Golley, 2000), and co-author of Ethics in Action (with Peggy Connolly, Becky Cox-White, and Martin G. Leever, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), a case-based approach to introducing ethics and environmental issues.
Table of Contents
Part I. Preface.
Part II. What is the Proper Suject-Matter of MoralPhilosophy? A Brief Overview of Environmental Ethics: DavidKeller.
Part III. Why Study Environmental Ethics?.
Part IV. WHAT IS ANTHROPOCENTRISM?.
2. Humans as Moral Ends: Saint Thomas Aquinas from SummaContra Gentiles.
3. The Mastery of Nature: Francis Bacon from The GreatInstauration.
4. Nonhumans as Machines: Rene Descartes from Discourse onthe Method.
5. The Amoral Status of Nature: John Stuart Mill from“Nature”.
6. Nature as Economic Resource: John Locke from “OfProperty”.
7. Indirect Duties to Nonhumans: Immanuel Kant from Lectureson Ethics.
8. Mechanistic Metaphysics: Isaac NewtonfromOpticks.
9. In Defense of Anthropocentrism: Wilfred Beckerman and JoannaPasek from Justice, Posterity, and the Environment.
Part V. WHAT IS NONANTHROPOCENTRISM?.
11. Walking: Henry David Thoreau from Excursions.
12. The Wild Parks and Forest Reservations of the West: JohnMuir from Our National Parks and The Yosemite.
13. Is There a Need for a New, an Environmental, Ethic?: RichardRoutley from Proceedings of teh XVth World Congress ofPhilosophy.
14. Attitudes to Nature: John Passmore from Nature andConduct.
15. Should Trees Have Standing?: Christopher D. Stone from theSouthern California Law Review Vol. 45.
16. The Varieties of Intrinsic Value: John O'Neill from TheMonist Vol. 75.
17. Value in Nature and the Nature of Value: Holmes Rolston.
18. The End of Anthropocentrism?: Mary Midgley fromPhilosophy and the Natural Environment.
19. Is the Crown of Creation a Dunce Cap?: Chip Ward.
Part VI. WHAT IS THE SCOPE OF MORAL CONSIDERABILITY?.
21. All Animals are Equal: Peter Singer from PhilosophicalExchange vol. 1.
22. The Case for Animal Rights: Tom Reagan from In Defense ofAnimals and “Animal Rights, Human Wrongs”.
23. On Being Morally Considerable: Kenneth E. Goodpaster fromThe Journal of Philosophy.
24. The Ethics of Respect for Nature: Paul W. Taylor fromEnvironmental Ethics vol. 3.
25. The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movement: ArneNaess from Inquiry vol. 16.
26. The Heart of Deep Ecology: Tom McLaughlin from DeepEcology for the Twenty-First Century.
27. The Deep Ecology Movement: Arne Naess from PhilisophicalInquiry vol. VIII.
28. Transpersonal Ecology as a Distinctive Approach toEcophilosophy: Warwick Fox from Toward a TranspersonalEcology.
29. The Land Ethic: Aldo Leopold from A Sand CountyAlmanac.
30. Conceptual Foundations of the Land Ethic: J. Baird Callicottfrom In Defense of the Land Ethic.
31. Gaia As Seen Through the Atmosphere: James Lovelock fromAtmospheric Environment vol. 6.
32. Kantians and Utilitarians and the Moral Status of NonhumanLife: James P. Sterba from The Triumph of Practice Over Theoryin Ethics.
33. Persons in Nature: Frederick Ferré from Ethics inteh Environment vol. 1.
34. General Ethics: Fox from Developing a General Ethics: AnIntroduction to the Theory of Responsive Cohesion Part VII.WHAT ARE PROMINENT ALTERNATIVES TO GROUNDING ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICSIN MORAL EXTENSIONISM?.
36. What is Social Ecology?: Murray Bookchin fromEnvironmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to RadicalEcology.
37. Socialism and Ecology: James O'Connor from Capitalism,Nature, Socialism vol. 2.
38. The Power and Promise of Ecological Feminism: Karen J.Warren from Environmental Ethics vol. 12.
39. Ecofeminism and Feminist Theory: Carolyn Merchant fromReweaving the World: The Emergence of Ecofeminism andFeminism and the Philosophy of Nature: Carolyn Merchant from TheDeath of Nature.
40. Nature, Self, and Gender: A Critique of Rationalism: ValPlumwood from Hypatia vol. 6.
41. Environmental Virtue Ethics: Sandler from EnvironmentalVirtue Ethics.
42. Continental Environmental Ethics: Vogel, “Nature asOrigin and Difference”.
43. Beyond Intrinsic Value: Pragmatism in Environmental Ethics:Anthony Weston from Environmental Ethics vol. 7.
44. The Case For a Practical Pluralism: Andrew Light fromEnvironmental Ethics.
45. Earth First!: David Foreman The Progressive vol.45.
46. The Ethics of Ecological Sabotage: An Exchange fromEnvironmental vol. 4.
a. “Ecological Sabotage: Pranks or Terrorism?”:Hargrove.
b. “Earth First! and the Monkey Wrench Gang”: EdwardAbbey.
c. “More on Earth First! and The Monkey WrenchGang”: David Foreman.
d. Response: Hargrove.
Part VIII. WHAT ARE THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN NATURE, CULTURE,SUBJECTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS?.
48. Subjectivist Environmental Ethics: Elliot fromMeta-Ethics and Environmental Ethics.
49. How to Construe Nature: Roger J. H. King from Between theSpecies.
50. The Trouble with Wilderness: William Cronon.
51. Ecological Realism: Shepard from “Virtually HuntingReality in the Forests of Simulacra”.
52. Environmental Ethics and the Philosophy of Technology:Rothenberg from Hand’s End.
Part IX. WHAT IS THE USE OF ECOLOGICAL SCIENCE FORENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS?.
54. Ecology—A Subversive Subject: Paul B. Sears.
55. What is Conservation Biology?: Michael E. Soulé fromBioScience vol. 35.
56. Environmental Ethics and Ecological Science: Mark Sagofffrom Environmental Ethics and International Policy.
57. The Metaphysical Implications of Ecology: J. Baird Callicottfrom Environmental Ethics vol. 7.
58. The Ends of the World as We Know Them: Jared Diamond fromThe New York Times.
Part X. WHAT ARE SOME OF THE ETHICAL DIMENSIONS OFENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC POLICY?.
59. An Essay on the Principle of Population: Thomas Malthus.
60. The Tragedy of the Commons: Garrett Hardin from Sciencevol. 162 and Ethical Implications of Carrying Capacity: GarrettHardin from Managing the Commons and The Immorality of BeingSofthearted: Garrett Hardin from The Relevant Scientist.
61. Impact of Population Growth: Paul R. Ehrlich and John P.Holdren from Science vol. 171.
62. How Poverty Breeds Overpopulation: Barry Commoner fromRamparts vol. 13.
63. More People, Greater Wealth, More Resources, HealthierEnvironment: Julian L. Simon from Economic Affairs.
64. Population: Delusion and Reality: Amartya Sen from TheNew York Review of Books.
65. A Special Moment in History: The Future of Population: BillMcKibben from The Atlantic Monthly.
66. Nature as the Measure for a Sustainable Agriculture: WesJackson from Ecology, Economics, Ethics- The BrokenCircle.
67. Putting Food Production in Context: Toward a PostmechanisticAgricultural Ethic: David R. Keller and E. Charles Brummer fromBioScience vol. 52.
68. Environmental Justice for All: Robert D. Bullard fromUnequal Protection.
69. Just Garbage: Peter S. Wenz from Faces of EnvironmentalRacism.
70. A Declaration of Sustainability: Paul Hawken from theUTNE Reader.
71. Steady-State Economy: Herman E. Daly from Valuing theEarth.
72. The Triple-Bottom Line: John Elkington from Cannibalswith Forks: The Triple Bottom Line of the 21st CenturyBusiness.
73. The Ignorance Argument: Bryan Norton from Economics,Ethics, and Environmental Policy.
74. Environmental Justice and Intergenerational Debt: Clark Wolffrom Blackwell Companion to Environmental Philosophy.
75. The Environmental Limits to Globalization: David Ehrenfeldfrom Conservation Biology vol. 19.
Part XI. WHAT IS THE FUTURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS?.
76. The Future of Environmental Ethics: Holmes Rolston III.
Part XII. BIBLIOGRAPHY.
Part XIII. INDEX.
What People are Saying About This
"Environmental ethics emerged in the mid-1970s and has beenexponentially growing in volume and scope ever since. As a newcentury and a new millennium dawn, environmental ethics is thephilosophy of the future, looking outward to partner with socialand life sciences, history, law, business, and literature toprovide synthesis instead of the finer and finer analysis of arcane"puzzles" that characterized the inward-looking philosophy of theprevious century.
In the new spirit of the new philosophy of the new century, thisnew textbook provides a synoptic overview of the field. Thepioneers, living and dead, are all represented along with theemerging voices of the present. Unique to this volume is commentaryby the leading lights in the field about why environmental ethicsis a worthwhile study. That section, along with Keller's historicaland thematic overview of the field, the best yet in any textbook,is worth the price of admission to the book."—J Baird Callicott, Regents Professor of Philosophy,Chair, Department of Philosophy and Religion Studies, University ofNorth of Texas