Environmental Justice

Environmental Justice

by David E. Newton



Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780874368482
Publisher: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated
Publication date: 10/01/1996
Series: Contemporary World Issues Series
Pages: 271
Product dimensions: 0.81(w) x 9.00(h) x 6.00(d)

About the Author

David E. Newton is a professional writer with more than 450 publications to his credit.

Table of Contents

List of Tables xv

Preface xvii

1 Background and History 1

Warren County, North Carolina: September 15, 1982 1

Environmental Inequities, Environmental Racism, and Environmental Justice 2

Examples of Environmental Inequalities 6

West Dallas, Texas 6

Churchrock, New Mexico 7

"Cancer Alley," 9

Pesticide Exposure 11

Consumption of Toxic Fish from the Detroit River 13

Proposed Select Steel Corporation Plant (Flint, Michigan) 14

Sweet Valley and Cobb Town, Alabama 15

West Harlem Environmental Action and Diesel Buses 16

Southern Nuclear Operating Company 17

Environmental Justice: Environmentalism and Civil Rights 18

The Modern Environmental Movement 20

The Civil Rights Movement 22

Environmental Justice Comes of Age 23

The Commission on Racial Justice of the United Church of Christ 23

The Michigan Conference 25

Governmental Recognition in the 1990s 26

First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit 26

Environmental Justice as a Social Movement 27

Growth and Challenges 29

References 33

2 Problems, Controversies, and Solutions 37

Do Environmental Inequities Actually Exist? 38

Progress and Environmental Degradation 42


Concerns about Environmental Issues among People of Color 44

Access to Tools of Protest 46

Job Blackmail 47

The Effects of Environmental Regulations 50

Environmental Inequities: By Chance or By Choice? 53

The Legal Question of "Intent" in Environmental Inequities 57

Responding to Environmental Inequities 59

The Current Status of the Environmental Justice Movement in the United States 60

Environmental Inequities Exist 60

Federal, State, Regional, and LocalGovernmental Agencies Have a Responsibility to Find, Study, and Deal with Cases of Environmental Inequities 61

The Federal Government Has Not Been a Strong Advocate for Environmental Justice 65

Complaints Filed with the EPA Have Not Been an Effective Means of Dealing with Environmental Inequities 68

Environmental Justice Advocates Have Largely Failed to Obtain Redress from Inequities through the Judicial System 69

The U.S. Congress Has Failed to Take Action on Basic Environmental Justice Legislation 71

Environmental Justice Activists Have Learned to Use a Combination of Tools for Achieving Their Goals 73

References 76

3 Worldwide Perspective 81

Environmental Inequities Worldwide 81

Mineral Extraction in Papua New Guinea 82

Environmental Discrimination against the Roma in Central Europe 83

Ecotourism and the Maasai 85

The Bakun Hydroelectric Project in Sarawak 86

Thor Chemicals and Mercury "Recycling," 87

The Voyage of the Khian Sea 89

A Background for the Transboundary Dumping of Hazardous Wastes 91

The Basel Convention 93

Other Treaties and Bans 96

Environmental Justice and Climate Change 97

Environmental Justice and Sustainable Development 103

References 108

4 Chronology 113

5 Biographical Sketches 137

Dana Ann Alston 137

Bunyan Bryant 139

Robert Bullard 140

Dollie Burwell 141

César Chávez 142

Torri Estrada 143

Margie Eugene-Richard 144

Jay Feldman 145

Deeohn Ferris 146

LaDonna Harris 148

Hazel Johnson 149

Pamela Tau Lee 150

Graciela Martinez 151

Norris McDonald 152

Paul Mohai 153

Richard Moore 155

Na'taki Osborne 155

Swati Prakash 157

Patricia E. Salkin 158

Peggy Shepard 159

Gail Small 160

Damu Smith 161

Beverly Wright 163

6 Data and Documents 165

Documents 166

Civil Rights Act of 1964 166

Fair Housing Act of 1968 167

National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 168

Siting of Hazardous Waste Landfills and Their Correlation with Racial and Economic Status of Surrounding Communities (1983) 171

Toxic Wastes and Race in the United States (1987) 172

Principles of Environmental Justice (1991) 173

Environmental Equity: Reducing Risks for All Communities (1992) 175

Executive Order 12898 (President Clinton)-Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (1994) 178

Not in My Backyard: Executive Order 12898 and Title VI as Tools for Achieving Environmental Justice (2003) 181

2003-2008 EPA Strategic Plan: Direction for the Future (2003) 182

Toolkit for Assessing Potential Allegations of Environmental Injustice (2004) 185

Evaluation Report: EPA Needs to Consistently Implement the Intent of the Executive Order on Environmental Justice (2004) 188

Redefining Rights in America: The Civil Rights Record of the George W. Bush Administration, 2001-2004 (2004) 190

Environmental Justice: EPA Should Devote More Attention to Environmental Justice When Developing Clean Air Rules (2005) 197

Toxic Wastes and Race at Twenty (2007) 198

S. 2549: Environmental Justice Renewal Act (2008) 202

Data 209

7 Directory of Organizations 213

Governmental Organizations 214

Nongovernmental Organizations 217

National and International 217

State, Regional, and Local 235

8 Resources 245

Books 245

Articles 261

Reports 280

Internet Sources 282

Glossary 289

Index 295

About the Author 308

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