Environmental Science and Technology: Concepts and Applications

Environmental Science and Technology: Concepts and Applications

by Frank R. Spellman

Hardcover(Third Edition)

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The third edition of Environmental Science and Technology: Concepts and Applications is the first update since 2006. Designed for the student and the professional, this newly updated reference uses scientific laws, principles, models, and concepts to provide a basic foundation for understanding and evaluating the impact that chemicals and technology have on the environment.

Building upon the success of previous editions, this fully revised edition has been expanded and completely updated with significant changes in the treatment of all subject areas. Extensive energy parameters have been added to the text along with a thorough discussion of non-renewable and renewable energy supplies and their potential impact on the environment. In addition, thought-provoking questions have been added at the end of each chapter. Finally, pictorial presentation has been enhanced by the addition of numerous photographs.

Organization and Content:

Environmental Science and Technology: Concepts and Applications is divided into five parts and twenty-five chapters, and organized to provide an even and logical flow of concepts. It provides the student with a clear and thoughtful picture of this complex field.

Part I provides the foundation for the underlying theme of this book—the connections between environmental science and technology.

Part II develops the air quality principles basic to an understanding of air quality.

Part III focuses on water quality, and the characteristics of water and water bodies, water sciences, water pollution, and water/wastewater treatment.

Part IV deals with soil science and emphasizes soil as a natural resource, highlighting the many interactions between soil and other components of the ecosystem.

Part V is devoted to showing how decisions regarding handling solid and hazardous waste have or can have profound impact on the environment and the three media discussed in this text: air, water, and soil.

Finally, the epilogue looks at the state of the environment, past, present, and future. The emphasis in this brief unit is on mitigating present and future environmental concerns by incorporating technology into the remediation process—not by blaming technology for the problem.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781598888973
Publisher: Bernan Press
Publication date: 09/30/2017
Edition description: Third Edition
Pages: 666
Product dimensions: 7.80(w) x 10.50(h) x 1.60(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

Frank R. Spellman, PhD, is a retired assistant professor of environmental health at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, and the author of more than 107 books covering topics ranging from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAF's) to all areas of environmental science and occupational health. Many of his texts are readily available online, and several have been adopted for classroom use at major universities throughout the United States, Canada, Europe, and Russia; two have been translated into Spanish for South American markets. Dr. Spellman has been cited in more than 450 publications. He serves as a professional expert witness for three law groups and as an incident/accident investigator for the U.S. Department of Justice and a northern Virginia law firm. In addition, he consults on homeland security vulnerability assessments for critical infrastructures including water/wastewater facilities nationwide and conducts pre-Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)/Environmental Protection Agency EPA audits throughout the country. Dr. Spellman receives frequent requests to co-author with well-recognized experts in several scientific fields; for example, he is a contributing author of the prestigious text The Engineering Handbook, 2nd ed. (CRC Press). Dr. Spellman lectures on sewage treatment, water treatment, and homeland security and lectures and safety topics throughout the country and teaches water/wastewater operator short courses at Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, Virginia). He holds a BA, in public administration, a BS in business management, an MBA, and an MS and PhD in environmental engineering.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Edition

Part I Introduction: Fundamentals
1 Environmental Science and Technology: The Connection
What Is Environment Science?
Science and Environmental Science
Case Study 1.1: Salmon and the Rachel River
Environmental Science and Technology: The Connection
Case Study 1.2: Passenger Pigeons, Heath Hens, and Attwater’s Prairie Chicken
Case Study 1.3: The Amish and Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
When Properly Connected, Science and Technology Offer Solutions
Case Study 1.4: Transnational Corporations and Environmental Pollution
When Improperly Connected, Science and Technology Can Cause Harm
Case Study 1.5: Like a Cooked Goose

2 Environment Science: The Fundamentals
Biogeochemical Cycles
Energy Flow through an Ecosystem and the Biosphere
Units of Measurement

3 Environmental Chemistry
What Is Chemistry?
Elements and Compounds
Classification of Elements
Physical and Chemical Changes
The Structure of the Atom
Periodic Classification of the Elements
Molecules and Ions
Chemical Bonding
Chemical Formulas and Equations
Molecular Weights, Formulas, and the Mole
Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter
States of Matter
The Gas Laws
Liquids and Solutions
Thermal Properties
Organic Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry: Environmental Media
Summary of Chemical Properties of Water
Earth’s Atmosphere: “A Flask without Walls”
Summary of Chemical Properties of Air
Soil Chemistry
4 Environmental Microbiology
The Cell
Case Study 4.1: Airborne Particulate Matter
Protozoa and Other Microogranisms
Case Study 4.2: Activated Biosolids Process (Wastewater Treatment)
Case Study 4.3: Brain-Eating Amoeba in Tap Water
Environmental Factors Affecting Protozoan Population
Metabolic Transformations
Bacterial Growth
Case Study 4.4: West Nile Virus

5 Environmental Toxicology
Environmental Toxicology: Practical Applications
Case Study 5.1: Biotic Index
Environmental Endocrine Disrupters
Case Study 5.2: DDT: Glory Days to Walking on Eggshells

6 Environmental Geology and Groundwater Hydrology
What Is Geology?
Formation and Types of Rocks
Formation of Soil
Case Study 6.1: Doing Dirt
Soil Enhancement and Rebuilding
Soil Characteristics
Soil Profile
Functions of Soils
Groundwater Hydrology

7 Environmental Sampling and Analyses
Environmental Sampling and Analysis: What’s It All About?
General Considerations for a Sampling Program
Case Study 7.1: Sydney, Australia
General Evaluation Methods for Environmental Media

8 Technology and the Environment
The Impact of Technology on Air Quality
Case Study 8.1: Xenoestrogens and Estrogen Dominance
Sources of Water Pollution
Case Study 8.2: Persistent Pesticide Exposure
Sources of Soil Pollution
Case Study 8.3: When the Animas River Became a “Yellow Boy”
Case Study 8.4: Composting Toilets: Beneficial Technology for Preserving Soil and Water Quality
Alternative and Renewable Energy Technologies

Part II Air Quality
9 The Atmosphere—Basic Air Quality
The Atmosphere
Case Study 9.1: Albedo
Case Study 9.2: Blowing in the Wind . . .
The Seasons
Urban Heat Islands

10 Meteorology
Case Study 10.1: Shenk’s Ferry: A Microclimate in Action
Meteorology: The Science of Weather
Case Study 10.2: El Niño
Thermal Inversions and Air Pollution
Optical Phenomena

11 Atmospheric Pollutants
Major Air Pollutants
Case Study 11.1: Snowmobiling in Yellowstone National Park
Case Study 11.2: Take a Deep Breath . . . and Hold It

12 Atmospheric Air Dispersion
The Atmosphere and Meteorology
Dispersion Models

13 Atmospheric Change—Global Climate Change
Global Warming
How Is Climate Change Measured?
Case Study 13.1: The 411 on Global Climate Change
Acid Precipitation
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

14 Air Pollution Control Technology
Air Pollution Control: Choices
Case Study 14.1: Cedar Creek Composting
Air Pollution Control Equipment and Systems
Removal of Dry Particulate Matter
Removal of Gaseous Pollutants: Stationary Sources
Removal of Gaseous Pollutants: Mobile Sources

Part III Water Quality
15 Characteristics of Water
Water Resources
Case Study 15.1: Real and Artificial Wetlands
Water Use
Characteristics of Water

16 Characteristics of Freshwater Bodies
Surface Water
Lentic (Standing or Still) Water Systems
Case Study 16.1: Eutrophication
Lotic (Flowing) Water Systems
Case Study 16.2: Why Do Rivers Flood?

17 Water Pollution and Water Pollution Control
Sick Water and PPCPs
Case Study 17.1: Flint by Any Other Name Might Be Lead
Point and Nonpoint Sources of Pollution
Industrial Sources of Water Pollution
Case Study 17.2: Woburn, Massachusetts
Hazardous Waste Disposal
Acid Mine Drainage
Case Study 17.3: Acid Mine Drainage and the Berkeley Pit
Agricultural Sources of Surface Water Pollution
Case Study 17.4: The Lotka-Volterra Predator-Prey Principle

Acid Rain
Groundwater Pollution
Water Pollution Control
Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
Federal Water Pollution Control Act
Effect of Regulations on Preventing Water Pollution
Case Study 17.5: When Government Intervened To Protect a Polluter
Water Treatment
Wastewater Treatment
Wastewater Characteristics
Thermal Pollution Treatment
Pollution Control Technology: Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)
Pollution Control Technology: Groundwater Remediation

Part IV Soil Quality
18 Soil Characteristics
Soil: What Is It?
Soil Basics

19 Soil Pollution and Soil Pollution Control
Surface Origins of Soil Contaminants
Industrial Practices and Soil Contamination
Case Study 19.1: Brownfields
Soil Pollution Control
USTs: The Problem
Case Study 19.2: Roundaway Tanks
Case Study 19.3: Human Error
Risk Assessment
Exposure Pathways
Remediation of UST-Contaminated Soils

Part V Solid and Hazardous Waste
20 Solid Wastes
Solid Waste Regulatory History (United States)
Solid Waste Characteristics
Sources of Municipal Solid Wastes
Case Study 20.1: Problem Wastes—Tire Disposal

21 Hazardous Wastes
What Is a Hazardous Substance? A Hazardous Waste?
Case Study 21.1: Spills of Hazardous Materials
Again, What Is a Hazardous Substance?
What Is a Hazardous Waste?
Where Do Hazardous Wastes Come From?
Why Are We Concerned about Hazardous Wastes?
Hazardous Waste Legislation

22 Waste Control Technology
Waste Minimization
Treatment Technologies
Ultimate Disposal

Appendix: Energy Units and Math Operations
About the Author

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