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Environmental Science: Working with the Earth / Edition 9

Environmental Science: Working with the Earth / Edition 9

by G. Tyler Miller
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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780534420390
Publisher: Brooks/Cole
Publication date: 12/01/2002
Series: Biology Ser.
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 542

Table of Contents

Part IHumans and Sustainability: An Overview2
1Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability4
Living in an Exponential Age4
1-1Living Sustainably5
1-2Growth and the Wealth Gap6
1-5Environmental and Resource Problems: Causes and Connections17
1-6Cultural Changes and Sustainability19
1-7Is Our Present Course Sustainable?22
2Economics, Politics, Ethics, and Sustainability29
A.D. 2060: Green Times on Planet Earth29
2-1Economic Systems and Environmental Problems30
2-2Economic Growth and External Costs32
2-3Solutions: Using Economics to Improve Environmental Quality35
2-4Solutions: Reducing Poverty40
2-5Solutions: Converting to Earth-Sustaining Economies42
2-6Politics and Environmental Policy44
2-7Environmental Worldviews: Clashing Values and Cultures49
2-8Solutions: Living Sustainably53
Part IIScientific Principles and Concepts61
3Science, Systems, Matter, and Energy62
Saving Energy, Money, and Jobs in Osage, Iowa62
3-1Science, Technology, Environmental Science, and Critical Thinking63
3-2Models and Behavior of Systems66
3-3Matter: Forms, Structure, and Quality68
3-4Energy: Forms and Quality72
3-5Physical and Chemical Changes and the Law of Conservation of Matter73
3-6Nuclear Changes75
3-7The Two Ironclad Laws of Energy77
3-8Connections: Matter and Energy Laws and Environmental Problems80
4Ecosystems and How They Work: Connections in Nature84
Have You Thanked the Insects Today?84
4-1Ecology and Life85
4-2Earth's Life-Support Systems87
4-3Ecosystem Concepts and Components89
4-4Connections: Food Webs and Energy Flow in Ecosystems94
4-5Connections: Matter Cycling in Ecosystems99
4-6How Do Ecologists Learn About Ecosystems?105
4-7Ecosystem Services and Sustainability107
5Evolution, Biodiversity, and Community Processes109
Why Should We Care About Alligators?109
5-1Life and Its Origins110
5-2Evolution and Adaptation115
5-3Speciation, Extinction, and Biodiversity117
5-4Niches and Types of Species120
5-5Species Interactions124
5-6Ecological Succession126
5-7Ecological Stability and Sustainability130
6Climate, Weather, and Biodiversity135
Connections: Blowing in the Wind135
6-1Weather and Climate: A Brief Introduction136
6-2Biomes: Climate and Life on Land141
6-3Desert and Grassland Biomes143
6-4Forest and Mountain Biomes147
6-5Saltwater Life Zones155
6-6Freshwater Life Zones162
7Population Dynamics, Carrying Capacity, and Conservation Biology168
Two Islands: Can We Treat This One Better?168
7-1Population Dynamics and Carrying Capacity169
7-2Reproductive Strategies and Survival172
7-3Conservation Biology: Sustaining Wildlife Populations173
7-4Human Impacts on Ecosystems: Learning from Nature174
7-5Solutions: Working with Nature to Help Ecosystems Heal176
8Risk, Toxicology, and Human Health179
The Big Killer179
8-1Risks and Hazards180
8-3Chemical Hazards180
8-4Physical Hazards: Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions186
8-5Biological Hazards: Disease in Developed and Developing Countries187
8-6Risk Analysis192
Part IIIHuman Population, Resources, and Sustainability201
9The Human Population: Growth and Distribution202
Slowing Population Growth in Thailand202
9-1Factors Affecting Human Population Size203
9-2Population Age Structure208
9-3Solutions: Influencing Population Size211
9-4Case Studies: Slowing Population Growth in India and China219
9-5Cutting Global Population Growth220
9-6Population Distribution: Urbanization and Urban Growth220
9-7Urban Resource and Environmental Problems223
9-8Transportation and Urban Development226
9-9Some Solutions to Urban Problems229
10Air and Air Pollution236
When Is a Lichen Like a Canary?236
10-1The Atmosphere237
10-2Urban Outdoor Air Pollution from Smog238
10-3Regional Outdoor Air Pollution from Acid Deposition242
10-4Indoor Air Pollution246
10-5Effects of Air Pollution on Living Organisms and Materials249
10-6Solutions: Preventing and Reducing Air Pollution252
11Global Warming and Ozone Loss259
A.D. 2060: Hard Times on Planet Earth259
11-1The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming260
11-2Past and Future Changes in the Earth's Climate260
11-3Global Warming or a Lot of Hot Air? How Serious Is the Threat?264
11-4Some Possible Effects of a Warmer World267
11-5Solutions: Dealing with the Threat of Global Warming270
11-6Ozone Depletion: Is It A Serious Threat?274
11-7Solutions: Protecting the Ozone Layer281
12Water Resources and Water Pollution286
Water Wars in the Middle East286
12-1Water's Importance and Unique Properties287
12-2Supply, Renewal, and Use of Water Resources288
12-3Too Little Water290
12-4Too Much Water300
12-5Pollution of Streams, Lakes, and Groundwater303
12-6Ocean Pollution314
12-7Solutions: Preventing and Reducing Water Pollution317
13Mineral and Soil Resources326
The Great Terrain Robbery326
13-1Geologic Processes327
13-2Mineral Resources and the Rock Cycle329
13-3Estimating Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources333
13-4Increasing Mineral Resource Supplies334
13-5Environmental Effects of Extracting and Using Mineral Resources336
13-6Soil: The Base of Life339
13-7Soil Erosion343
13-8Solutions: Soil Conservation348
14Solid and Hazardous Waste355
There Is No "Away": The Love Canal Tragedy355
14-1Wasting Resources: The High-Waste Approach356
14-2Producing Less Waste and Pollution: Reducing Throughput357
14-5Case Studies: Recycling Aluminum, Wastepaper, and Plastics367
14-6Detoxifying, Burning, Burying, and Exporting Wastes368
14-7Case Studies: Lead, Dioxins, and Chlorine374
14-8Hazardous-Waste Regulation in the United States377
14-9Solutions: Achieving a Low-Waste Society378
Part IVSustaining Biodiversity and Ecological Integrity383
15Food Resources384
Perennial Crops on the Kansas Prairie384
15-1How Is Food Produced?385
15-2World Food Problems and Challenges390
15-3Increasing World Food Production395
15-4Solutions: Sustainable Agriculture406
16Protecting Food Resources: Pesticides and Pest Control411
Along Came a Spider411
16-1Pesticides: Types and Uses412
16-2The Case for Pesticides413
16-3The Case Against Pesticides415
16-4Pesticide Regulation in the United States419
16-5Solutions: Other Ways to Control Pests421
17Sustaining Terrestrial Ecosystems: Forests, Rangelands, Parks, and Wilderness426
How Farmers and Loud Monkeys Saved a Forest426
17-1Public Lands in the United States427
17-2Managing and Sustaining Forests429
17-3Forest Resources and Management in the United States and Canada436
17-4Tropical Deforestation and the Fuelwood Crisis440
17-5Managing and Sustaining Rangelands447
17-6Managing and Sustaining National Parks450
17-7Protecting and Managing Wilderness and Other Biodiversity Sanctuaries454
18Sustaining Wild Species462
The Passenger Pigeon: Gone Forever462
18-1The Rise and Fall of Species463
18-2Causes of Depletion and Premature Extinction of Wild Species468
18-3Solutions: Protecting Wild Species from Depletion and Extinction479
18-4Wildlife Management485
18-5Fishery Management and Protecting Marine Biodiversity488
18-6Case Study: The Whaling Industry489
Part VEnergy Resources495
19Nonrenewable Energy Resources496
Bitter Lessons from Chernobyl496
19-1Evaluating Energy Resources497
19-3Natural Gas504
19-5Nuclear Energy508
20Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy519
The Energy-Efficiency and Renewable-Energy Revolution519
20-1The Importance of Improving Energy Efficiency520
20-2Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency522
20-3Direct Use of Solar Energy for Heat and Electricity530
20-4Producing Electricity from Moving Water and from Heat Stored in Water536
20-5Producing Electricity from Wind540
20-6Producing Energy from Biomass541
20-7The Solar-Hydrogen Revolution544
20-8Geothermal Energy545
20-9Solutions: A Sustainable Energy Strategy547
1Publications, Environmental Organizations, and Federal and International AgenciesA1
2Units of MeasurementA6
3Major U.S. Resource Conservation and Environmental LegislationA7
4Tactics of the Anti-Environmental MovementA8
5Mapping Concepts and ConnectionsA9
6Individuals Matter: What Can You Do?A14
Internet Sources and Further ReadingsF1

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