ISBN-10:
0387984860
ISBN-13:
9780387984865
Pub. Date:
05/08/1998
Publisher:
Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
Environmental Stats for S-PLUS: User's Manual for Windows and UNIX, Version 1.1 / Edition 1

Environmental Stats for S-PLUS: User's Manual for Windows and UNIX, Version 1.1 / Edition 1

by S. P. Millard, Steven P. Millard

Paperback

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780387984865
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
Publication date: 05/08/1998
Pages: 400
Product dimensions: 8.48(w) x 11.01(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents

    Notices
    What's in This Manual?
    Typographic Conventions
    Cutting and Pasting Examples from the Help Files into S-PLUS
    A Note About Color
    ENVIRONMENTALSTATS for S-PLUS and S-PLUS Version 4.0
    Acknowledgments
    0: A Quick Start
    What is EnvironmentalStats for S-Plus?
    System Requirements
    User Pre-requisites - What You Need to Know
    Installing ENVIRONMENTALSTATS for S-PLUS
    Installing ENVIRONMENTALSTATS for S-PLUS under Windows
    Installing ENVIRONMENTALSTATS for S-PLUS under UNIX
    Starting ENVIRONMENTALSTATS for S-PLUS
    Technical Support
    Technical Support for ENVIRONMENTALSTATS for S-PLUS
    Technical Support for S-PLUS
    A Tutorial
    TcCB Data at a Reference and Cleanup Site: Summary Statistics, Graphical Analyses, and Nonparametric Comparisons
    1: Introduction
    What is Environmental Statistics?
    What is ENVIRONMENTALSTATS for S-PLUS?
    Intended Audience/Users
    Summary
    2: Getting Started
    Starting ENVIRONMENTALSTATS for S-PLUS
    Starting the Help System
    Starting Help from Within S-PLUS
    Starting Help Using the ENVIRONMENTALSTATS for S-PLUS Help Icon
    Changing Font Sizes in the Help Files
    Changing Font Sizes Under Windows 95
    Changing Font Sizes Under Windows 3.1
    Using the Help System
    Special Buttons for Help Under Windows 3.1
    Removing ENVIRONMENTALSTATS for S-PLUS From Your S-PLUS Sessin
    Customizing ENVIRONMENTALSTATS for S-PLUS
    Customizing Under Windows 95
    Creating a New Folder for a Specific Project
    Creating a New Menu Item to Use the New Project Directory
    Running S-PLUS and ENVIRONMENTALSTATS for S-PLUS for a Specific Project
    Customizing Under Windows3.1
    Creating a New Directory for a Specific Project
    Creating a New Icon to Use the New Project Directory
    Running S-PLUS and ENVIRONMENTALSTATS for S-PLUS for a Specific Project
    Customizing Under UNIX
    Summary
    3: Designing a Sampling Program
    The Necessity of a Good Sampling Design
    What is a Population and What is a Sample?
    Random vs. Judgment Sampling
    The Basic Process of Designing a Sampling Program
    Common Mistakes in Environmental Studies
    Power and Sample Size Calculations
    Sample Size Calculations for Confidence Intervals
    Confidence Intervals for the Mean of a Normal Distribution or the Difference Between Two Means
    Confidence Intervals for Binomial Proportions
    Power and Sample Size Calculations for Hypothesis Tests
    Testing a Mean or Difference Between Means for a Normal Distribution
    Testing the Difference Between Several Means for a Normal Distribution (One-Way ANOVA)
    Testing a Binomial Proportion or a Difference Between Binomial Proportions
    Summary
    4: Looking at Data
    Summary Statistics
    Probability-Weighted Moments and L-Moments
    Graphs for Univariate Data
    Starting a Graphics Device
    Bar Charts and Dot Charts
    Pie Charts
    Strip Plots
    Histograms
    Density Plots
    Boxplots
    Empirical Cumulative Distribution Function (ECDF) Plots or Quantile Plots
    Probability Plots or Quantile-Quantile (Q-Q) Plots
    Tukey Mean-Difference Q-Q Plots
    Q-Q Plots for Other Distributions
    Building an Internal Gestalt for Q-Q Plots
    Using Q-Q Plots to Compare Two Data Sets
    Autocorrelation Plots
    Graphs for Bivariate and Multivariate Data
    Scatterplots
    Adding a Loess Smooth to a Scatterplot
    Scatterplot Matrix
    Brushing a Scatterplot Matrix
    Three-Dimensional Plots
    Multi-Panel Conditioning Plots (Coplots)
    Summary
    5: Probability Distributions
    Overview
    What is a Random Variable?
    Discrete vs. Continuous Random Variable
    What is a Probability Distribution?
    Probability Density Function (pdf) and Probability Mass Function (pmf)
    Computing Values of the Probability Density Function
    Plotting the Probability Density Function
    Cumulative Distribution Function (cdf)
    Computing Values of the Cumulative Distribution Function
    Plotting the Cumulative Distribution Function
    Quantiles and Percentiles
    Computing Quantiles of Probability Distributions
    Characteristics of Probability Distributions
    Median and Mode
    Mean or Expected Value
    Variance and Standard Deviation
    Coefficient of Variation
    Skew and Kurtosis
    Generating Random Numbers From Probability Distributions
    Important Distributions in Environmental Statistics
    Normal Distribution
    Lognormal Distribution
    Three-Parameter Lognormal Distribution
    Binomial Distribution
    Poisson Distribution
    Extreme Value Distribution
    Generalized Extreme Value Distribution
    Mixture Distributions
    Zero-Modified Distributions
    Summary
    6: Estimating Distribution Parameters and Quantiles
    Overview
    Methods for Estimating Distribution Parameters
    Method of Moment Estimators
    Maximum Likelihood Estimators
    Minimum Variance Unbiased Estimators
    Comparing Different Estimators
    Confidence Intervals for Distribution Parameters
    Estimating Parameters for Important Distributions in Environmental Statistics
    Normal Distribution
    Lognormal Distribution
    Binomial Distribution
    Estimating and Constructing Confidence Intervals for Quantiles
    Normal Distribution
    Lognormal Distribution
    Poisson Distribution
    Nonparametric Estimation of Quantiles and Construction of Confidence Intervals
    Summary
    7: Prediction and Tolerance Intervals
    Overview
    Prediction Intervals
    Normal and Lognormal Distributions
    Poisson Distribution
    Nonparametric Prediction Intervals
    Tolerance Intervals
    Normal and Lognormal Distributions
    Poisson Distribution
    Nonparametric Tolerance Intervals
    Summary
    8: Hypothesis Tests and Statistical Models
    Overview
    Hypothesis Tests
    Parametric vs. Nonparametric Tests
    Type I and Type II Errors (Significance Level and Power)
    P-Values
    The Relationship Between Hypothesis Tests and Confidence Intervals
    Goodness-of-Fit Tests
    Nonparametric Two-Sample Tests
    Two-Sample Linear Rank Tests
    The Quantile Test
    Nonparametric Test for Trend
    Summary
    9: Censored Data
    Overview
    Terminology
    Classification of Censored Data
    Examples of Different Kinds of Censored Data Sets
    Defining the Detection Limit
    Commonly Used Data Qualifiers
    Graphical Assessment of Censored Data
    Empirical CDF Plots
    Quantile-Quantile Plots
    Estimating Distribution Parameters
    Goodness-of-Fit Tests
    Two-Sample Linear Rank Tests
    Summary
    10: Monte Carlo Simulation & Risk Assessment
    Overview
    Mathematical Models and Monte Carlo Simulation
    Monte Carlo Simulation
    Generating Random Numbers
    Latin Hypercube Sampling
    Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis
    Important vs. Sensitive Parameters
    Uncertainty vs. Variability
    Sensitivity Analysis Methods
    Uncertainty Analysis Methods
    Caveat
    Risk Assessment
    Definitions
    Building a Risk Assessment Model
    Point Estimates of Risk
    Probabilistic Risk Assessment
    Guidelines for Conducting and Reporting a Probabilistic Risk Assessment
    Conducting a Probabilistic Risk Assessment
    Presenting the Results of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment
    Using ENVIRONMENTALSTATS for S-PLUS for Probabilistic Risk Assessment
    Creating Functions to Describe Exposure and Risk
    Characterizing the Theoretical Input Distributions
    Monte Carlo Simulation
    Characterizing the Simulated Distributions of the Input Variables
    Characterizing the Simulated Distributions of Exposure and Risk
    Sensitivity Analysis
    Uncertainty Analysis
    Summary
    Appendix A: References
    Appendix B: License Agreement

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