This book presents the proceedings of the 2nd meeting on "Enzymes of Lipid Metabolism" which took place in Strasbourg in October, 1985. It is a sequel to the first conference bearing this title which took place, also in the vicinity of Strasbourg, in March, 1977. In either case the meetings were coorganized by L. Freysz of Strasbourg, France and S. Gatt of Jerusalem, Israel. The present meeting was set up as a joint NATO Advanced Research Workshop and CNRS-INSERM International Symposium. The conference was guided by two principles, namely, that science has no bounderies, neither has the study of lipid metabolism. Participants came from Europe, the USA, Israel and Japan and represented areas of research in lipid metabolism involving fatty acid s, cholesterylesters, glycero-and sphingolipids. The experimental approaches utilized purified enzymes, artificial and biological membranes, as well as a variety of cells, primary or cultured lines. A session was also devoted to modification of lipid enzymes and metabolism resulting from inherited, inborn defects such as the lipid storage diseases which are caused by genetic modification of degradative enzymes of lipid metabolism. A second type of disease stemming from a defect in a cell organnel (ie, the peroxisome) was also discussed. The eight and one and a half years which elapsed since the previous meeting, highlighted the changing emphasis of research in. lipid metabolism.
Table of ContentsLipolytic. Enzymes of the Gastrointestinal Tract.- Kinetic Assay of Human Gastric Lipase on Short and Long Chain Triacylglycerol Emulsions.- Inhibition of Pancreatic and Microbial Lipases by Proteins: Kinetic and Binding Studies.- Tumor-Promoting Phorbol Diesters are Substrates for and Modulators of Diacylglycerol Lipase.- Lipolytic Activities Operative at the Outer Surface of Rat Fat Cells.- On the Mechanism of Endogenous Lipolysis in Rat Heart: A Role of Lysosomes ?.- The Enzymes of Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis.- Characterization of Choline and Ethanolamine Kinase Activities in Plasmodium-Infected Erythrocytes.- Physiological Responses of Intestinal CTP: Phosphocholine Cytidylyltransferase and its Interaction with Lipophilic Drugs.- Degradation of Membrane Phosphoglycerides by the Reversal of Phosphotransferase Reactions.- Treatment of Rat Brain Microsomal Vesicles with Octyl-?-D-Glucopyranoside: A study on Ethanolamine Base-Exchange after Reaggregation.- Effect of Modification of Membrane Phospholipid Composition on Phospholipid Methylation in Aggregating Cell Culture.- Acetyltransferases and Transacylases Relative Rates in 1-Alkyl-or 1-Acyl-Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis by Rat Platelet Homogenates.- Modulation of Deacylation-Reacylation Pathway of Phospholipid Metabolism and Turnover During Reperfusion of Ischemic Myocardium.- Monoacylglycerol Acyltransferase: Stereospecificity and Evidence that the Hepatic and Intestinal Activities are Tissue-Specific Isoenzymes.- The Interaction of Pancreatic Phospholipase A2 with Negatively Charged Substrates-Application: The Transformation of Soluble Phospholipase A2 into a Highly Penetrating “Membrane-Bound” Form.- Mechanism of Interaction of Phospholipase A2 with Phospholipid Substrates and Activators.- Comparison of the Activation of Soluble and Immobilized Phospholipase A2.- Some Properties of Membrane-Bound Phospholipases A2.- Endogenous Suppression of Neutral-Active and Calcium-Dependent Phospholipase A2 Activity in Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes.- Properties of Pancreatic Phospholipases A1 and Intestinal Phospholipase A2 from Guinea Pig: Their Complementary Role in the Intestinal Absorption of Phospholipids.- Partial Characterization of Cytosolic Phospholipase A1 of Rat Heart.- Purification and Properties of Phospholipase A from the Outer Membrane of Overproducing Escherichia Coli K-12.- Some Properties of Lysoplasmalogenase and Alkenylhydrolase from Rat Liver Microsomes.- Purification of Platelet-Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase.- Characterization of an Acetylhydrolase Isolated from Rat Alveolar Macrophages in Comparison with the Enzyme Present In Vivo in Lung Alveoli.- Preliminary Study for High Performance Purification of a Hydrophobic Protein: A Biological Fluid Acetylhydrolase.- Biosynthesis and Pharmacology of PAF-Acether (Platelet-Activating Factor).- The Peroxisomal Enzymes of Glycerolipid Metabolism.- Deficiencies in Ether Glycerolipids and Their Biosynthesis in Inherited Peroxisomal Disorders.- Impaired Maturation of Peroxisomal ?-Oxidation Enzymes in Fibroblasts from Patients with the Zellweger Syndrome and Infantile Refsum Disease.- New Techniques in Glycosyltransferase Research.- Biosynthesis of Gangliosides and Blood Group Glycolipids using Solubilized Glycosyltransferases.- Solubilization of Lipid-Glycosyltransferases from Mitochondrial Outer Membranes.- UDP-Glucose Sterol ?-Glucosyl Transferase, a Plant Sterol Conjugating Enzyme.- Purification and Properties of Acid Sphingomyelinase from Human Urine.- Heterogeneity of Human Sphingomyelinase: Relatedness of the Major Polypeptides.- Immunological Studies on Acidic Sphingomyelinase.- Immunological Studies on Lysosomal Sphingomyelinase: Immunization Procedures, Properties of Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibodies Obtained and Effect of Triton X-100 on Binding of Enzyme Activity.- ?-Glucocerebrosidase: Affinity Purification and Characterization of its Active Site with N-Alkyl Derivatives of L-Deoxynojirimycin.- Human Acid ?-Glucosidase: Primary Structure of the Active Site.- Specificity of Human Glucosylceramide ?-Glucosidase Towards Structurally Modified Glucosylceramides in a Liposomal Assay-System.- Activator Proteins (Protein Cofactors) for the Catabolism of Glycosphingolipids.- Glycosphingolipid Activator Proteins.- Studies of SAP-1 and SAP-2 in Cultured Skin Fibroblasts.- The Specificity of Cerebroside Sulfatase Activator.- Two Heat-Stable Low-Molecular-Mass Proteins Stimulating the Enzymic Sphingomyelin Degradation Isolated from Human Gaucher and Normal Spleen.- The Effects of Acidic Lipids and Heat-Stable Factor on the Physical-Chemical and Kinetic Properties of Glucocerebrosidase.- A New Glucosylceramidase Activator in Human Placenta.- Molecular Organization of Glycosphingolipids in Phosphatidylcholine Bilayers and Biological Membranes.- Metabolic Incorporation of a New Fluorescent Anthracene Fatty Acid into the Membrane Lipids of Procaryotic and Eucaryotic Cells for Studying the Dynamic and Topology of Membranes.- TMA-DPH as Specific Plasma Membrane Fluidity Probe for Intact Cells and Its Limitation.- Phospholipid Bilayer Assembly: Facilitated Transmembrane Movement of Phosphatidylcholine.- The Asymmetrical Distribution and Biosynthesis of Molecular Species of Phospholipids in Chick Brain Microsomes.- Cholesterol Pools in Mycoplasma Membranes: Modifications in Phospholipid Composition Affect the Kinetics of Cholesterol Exchange with Lipid Vesicles.- Structure and Function of the Nonspecific Lipid Transfer Protein (Sterol Carrier Protein 2).- A Model for Studying Membrane Fatty Acid Transport: Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthesis in Human Erythrocyte Ghosts.- Transport of Fluorescent Fatty Acids into Cultured Cells: Analysis by the Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter.- Transport and Metabolism of Fatty Acids in Cultured Heart Muscle Cells from Neonatal Rats.- Hormonal Regulation of Exogenous Fatty-Acid Incorporation into Lipids in Cultured Hamster Fibroblasts.- Fatty Acid Composition and Metabolism of Tumor Cells Rendered Resistant to the Anticancer Drug Doxorubicin.- HMGR (3-Hydroxy, 3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Reductase) Activity of Cultured Rat Brain Cells: Sensitivity to n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) from Cod-Liver and Sunflower Oils.- Development and Maturation of Lipoprotein Lipase in Cultured Adipose Cells.- Synthesis and Properties of Fluorescent Analogs of Cytidine Diphosphate-Diacylglycerol and Phosphatidylinositol.- Biosynthesis and Intracellular Transport of Phospholipids in Yeast.- Phospholipid Catabolism and Phospholipid Turnover in Cultured Cells.- Aging of Rat Heart Myocytes and Fibroblasts: Relationship Between Lipid Composition, Membrane Organization and Biological Properties.- Extracellular Fluid Viscosity: Its Role in the Regulation of Membrane Lipid Metabolism and Cellular Secretion.- Control of Surface Sphingomyelinase Activity in Cultured Neuroblastoma Cells.- Metabolism of Exogenous Gangliosides in Cultured Fibroblasts and Cerebellar Cells.- Intracellular Aspects of Ganglioside Metabolism and Transport.- Metabolic Aspects of Gangliosides involved in the Maturation of Cultured Nerve Cells.- Regulation of Glycosphingolipid Anabolism in Fibroblasts by Ionophores, Plasma Membrane ATP-ASE Inhibiton, and Growth Factors.- Nuclear Triiodothyronine Receptors and Mechanisms of Triiodothyronine and Insulin Action on the Synthesis of Cerebroside Sulfotransferase by Cultures of Cells Dissociated from Brains of Embryonic Mice.- Utilization of Exogenous Ceramide for the Synthesis of Sphingolipids in Cultured SV40-Transformed Rat Schwann Cells.- Genetic Regulation of Phospholipid Synthesis in Yeast.- The Regulation of Arachidonic Acid Release in Parturition.- Relationship Between Arachidonic Acid Biosynthesis and its Level in Rat Tissues.- Regulatory Properties of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase in the Mitochondrial Membrane of Liver.- Structure and Regulation of the sn-Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase of E. Coli.- Mammalian Phospholipase D and Related Activities.- Metabolism of Inositol-Glycerophospholipids in Relation to Transmembrane Signalling and Calcium Mobilization.- Protein Kinase C Regulation by Diacylglycerols: Structure-Function Relationships and Mechanism.- Effect of Ischemia on Activities of Polyphosphoinositide Phosphodiesterase and Diacylglycerol Kinase in Gerbil Brain Synaptosomes.- Receptor-Mediated Degradation of Choline Plasmalogens and Glycerophospho]ipid Methylation: A New Hypothesis.- Transport and Processing of Lysosomal Enzymes.- Genetic Heterogeneity of Gaucher Disease: Enzymatic and Immunologic Studies.- Molecular Forms, Biosynthesis and Maturation of Glucocerebrosidase, a Membrane-Associated Lysosomal Enzyme Deficient in Gaucher Disease.- Forms of Glucocerebrosidase Present in Tissues and Urine.- The ?-Galactosidase-sialidase Complex: Studies on Normal and Mutant Human Fibroblasts.- Intracellular Binding and Transport of Lysosomal Enzymes in Human and Bovine Tissues.- Molecular Heterogeneity in O-Variant GM2 Gangliosidosis.- Preliminary Characterization of a Ganglioside Sialidase in Normal and Mucolipidosis IV Fibroblasts.- Sphingomyelinase and Niemann-Pick Disease.- Fluorescent Derivatives of Sphingomyelin: Synthesis, Use as Substrates for Sphingomyelinase and for Diagnosis of Niemann-Pick Disease in Cultured Cells.- Lipases, Cholesterylesterases and Carboxylesterases in Lymphoid Cell Lines: Substrate Specificity and Relation to Wolman’s, Cholesteryl Ester Storage Diseases and Lipid Storage Myopathy.- Use of Fluorescent Fatty Acids for Labelling Acid Lipase-Deficient Cells.- Morphological and Biochemical Studies of Induced and Pathological Lipidosis in Cultured Muscle Cells.- On the Composition of Autofluorescent Accumulation Products: Ceroid and Lipofuscin.- Participants.- Contributors.