Hypertension is a major health problem and contrary to ischemic heart disease, which occurs only in Western countries, its distribution is almost universal. It is this universality that has prompted us to gather, in this book, data on arterial blood pressure obtained in different parts of the world. Moreover, cerebrovascular mortality, which is the commonest cause of death from hypertension, is decreasing in most Western countries and in Japan, and the reasons for this are still far from clear. A major problem in comparing blood pressure values from different centers is the standardization of the measurement. Complete standardization will never be achieved if one takes into account the numerous factors that may influence blood pressure in epidemiological studies. Whether blood pressures are measured by doctors or by technicians, are recorded at home, in the working place or in a hospital, in sitting, standing or supine position, and is taken during the same examination-all of these whether a blood sample factors can influence blood pressure measurement. But meals, time of day (blood pressure being higher in the evening), heart rate, cuff size, stethoscope used, digit preference, month of year, temperature, etc., can equally influence the measurement. Home reading of arterial blood pressure at standardized times is probably the best answer to all of these problems and has been used with gratifying results in a comparative study between Belgium and Korea.
Table of ContentsI. Methodological Studies.- 1. Measurement of blood pressure.- 2. Estimating sodium intake in epidemiological studies: Review and results of a methodological pilot study in Finland.- 3. Electrolytes and Creatinine in multiple 24-hour urine collections (1970–1974).- 4. Recommendations of the working group on the methodology and standardization of non-invasive blood pressure measurement in epidemiological studies.- II. Epidemiology and Blood Pressure in Children.- 5. Importance of blood pressures in children: Distribution and measurable determinants.- 6. Distribution and determinants of blood pressure in free-living children: Results from an open population study of children aged 5–19 (EPOZ Study).- III. Epidemiology of Blood Pressure in Adolescents and Children.- 7. Blood pressure distribution and determinants in a sample of adolescent and adult Belgian population: Results of the Belgian Hypertension Committee Epidemiological Survey 1973–1977.- 8. Cardiovascular risk factors in the adolescent population of Cologne: Stability over one year and tendencies towards aggregation.- 9. Hypertension and its distribution in Prague.- IV. Blood Pressure Distribution in Adults.- 10. Epidemiology of arterial blood pressure in Portugal.- 11. Screening of hypertension in a large French professional group.- 12. Epidemiology of essential hypertension in Yugoslavia: The Yugoslavia Cardiovascular Disease Study.- 13. Epidemiology of blood pressure in the German Democratic Republic.- V. Determinants of Blood Pressure in Low Blood Pressure Populations.- 14. Sodium homeostasis and low blood pressure populations.- 15. Blood pressure patterns, salt use and migration in the Pacific.- VI. Determinants of Blood Pressure in High Blood Pressure Populations.- 16. Host and environmental determinants of hypertension: Perspective from the Framingham Study.- 17. Relationships between sodium and potassium intake and blood pressure.- 18. Development of high blood pressure and its consequences for health: A Swedish population study.- 19. Epidemiology and control of hypertension in North Karelia, Finland: Observations from a five-year community control programme.- 20. Relationship between blood pressure and sodium and potassium intake in a Belgian male population group.- 21. Epidemiological studies on hypertension in Newfoundland.- 22. Epidemiological studies on hypertension in Northeast Japan.- 23. Regional difference of blood pressure and its nutritional background in several Japanese populations.- 24. Salt intake and its relationship to blood pressure in Japan: Present and past.- 25. Blood pressure of Qashqai pastoral nomads in Iran in relation to culture, diet, and body form.- VII. International Comparative Studies.- 26. The Ni-Hon-San study of cardiovascular disease epidemiology: Population characteristics and epidemiology of stroke.- 27. Hypertension and heart disease in the Ni-Hon-San study.- 28. A comparative study of blood pressure and sodium intake in Belgium and in Korea.- 29. Problems of hypertension in the Asian-Pacific area.- 30. Stroke, stomach cancer and salt: A possible clue to the prevention of hypertension.