Epigraphia Indus Script
--Hypertexts & Meanings (Vol.3 of 3 volumes)
Logical connection, anvaya, of hieroglyphs/ hypertexts of Indus Script inscriptions to artha 'wealth, business, meaning' constitutes decipherment of the script consistent with vAkyapadIya (science of grammar). Deciphered epigraphs are presented in 3 volumes.
Definitions of terms
Hieroglyph is a logograph, i.e. a pictorial motif to signify the associated sound of the word. Hypertext is a hieroglyph linked to a similar sounding word. Indus Script is designed with hieroglyphs composed as hypertexts. For example, a pictorial motif (hieroglyph) of a water-carrier signifies the word kuTi in Meluhha - which is a spoken form of Proto-Indic language of Bharatiya sprachbund.
Wealth-creating metallurgical repertoire of Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Chanhu-daro foundry metalcasts; Harappa Inscriptions (2590) deciphered
Cunningham, former Director General of Archaeological Survey of India reported, an inscribed seal (about 1 in. square) found in 1872, in Harappa. (Cunningham, Alexander (1875). "Harappa". Archaeological Survey of India: Report for the Years 1872-3. 5: 105-108). Ever since that date, the challenge of Indus Script decipherment has engaged many researchers. The hypertexts on the seal and their meanings are presented below:
Field symbols: sangad 'lathe, portable furnace' rebus: sangara 'trade', samgraha, samgaha 'arranger, manager'; sangad 'lathe, portable furnace' rebus: sangara 'trade', samgraha, samgaha 'arranger, manager' jAkaD 'invoiced on approval basis'.; kOnda 'young bull' rebus: kOnda 'engraver, script' kundana 'fine gold' Text : kanac 'corner' rebus: kancu 'bell-metal' PLUS sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'. Thus bronze/bell-metal workshop.;
aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' (Riggveda) PLUS dhAL 'slanted stroke' rebus: dhALako 'ingot'; karA n. pl. wristlets, bangles Rebus: khAr 'blacksmith'; dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. Meaning, artha: Trade (and metalwork wealth production) ...PLUS (wealth/business categories cited on inscription).
Inscriptions of the Indus Script Corpora are a basic resource to narrate the itihAsa (history) of an ancient Bronze Age civilization.
Thousands of inscriptions from Harappa, Mohenjo-daro and all other sites along the Ancient Maritime Tin Route from Hanoi to Haifa (together with meanings) have been presented.
The total number of sites of Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization are over 2,600. Out of thse, 80% of sites, i.e. over 2000 are on the banks of Vedic River Sarasvati. Almost from every one of the sites smithy/forge metalwork has been evidenced. Hundreds of inscriptions from over 40 of these sites attest to 1) smithies and forges of the Tin-Bronze revolution.and 2) guilds at work contributing to the commonwealth treasury.
The pictorials are as important as signs and must be 'deciphered' to understand the message conveyed by the inscription on an object.
Another clue which may be surmised: A sign by itself may constitute a message and hence may be a lexeme.
Considering that as many as 273 (111 + 42 + 120) inscriptions are communicated using two signs or less (with or without a pictorial motif or 'field symbol'), it may not be appropriate to assign syllabic or alphabetic values to each sign or each pictorial. Each pictorial or each sign may contain a 'word' or 'lexeme'.
The 'economic activity' of metal smith includes (sic) the production of metal objects such as vessels, tools and weapons.
The 'economic activity' of metal smith includes (sic) the production of metal objects such as vessels, tools and weapons. The inscriptions may (!) therefore constitute a record of 'objects' possessed by the owner of the inscribed object whether the 'owner' is a metal-smith or a guild of artisans and seafaring merchants or a customer serviced by the metal-smith.
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