Episcopal Networks and Authority in Late Antique Egypt: Bishops of the Theban Region at Work

Episcopal Networks and Authority in Late Antique Egypt: Bishops of the Theban Region at Work

by R Dekker

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Overview

In this book the author examines how two bishops in the Theban region contributed to the rise of a new, anti-Chalcedonian church hierarchy, which became the forerunner of the Coptic Orthodox Church. Abraham of Hermonthis (ca. 590-621) and Pesynthius of Koptos (599-632) are exceptional, since a large number of their professional documents (mostly in Coptic) is preserved. By applying Social Network Analysis to these documents, the author reconstructed their individual social networks and linked them to a wider regional network that was centered on monastic communities in Western Thebes (west of modern Luxor), but also included a large number of civil officials, clergymen and lay men and women. In addition, a social model of episcopal authority was adopted, in order to evaluate how the bishops used their authority and to explain what made Pesynthius so extraordinary that he is still remembered as a saint by the Coptic Orthodox Church.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789042935600
Publisher: Peeters Publishing
Publication date: 04/01/2018
Series: Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta Series , #264
Pages: 366
Product dimensions: 6.80(w) x 10.10(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

General Introduction 1

A widow's petition to Bishop Pesynthius 1

The rise of a new, Theodosian hierarchy 4

A Theodosian network in the Theban region 9

The aims of this book 11

The sources 13

A mixed approach for analyzing episcopal networks and authority 15

A book with a CD 19

Chapter 1 The analysis of episcopal networks and authority 23

Introduction 23

§1.1 The preparation of Datasets 1-4 24

§1.1.1 Selecting relevant documents 24

§1.1.2 Proposing dates for the documents 26

A A relative chronology of the Topos of Epiphanius 26

B Absolute dates 27

C Dates based on the period of office of lashanes 29

§1.1.3 Organizing the data 30

A Summaries of the episcopal documents 30

B Schematic representations 31

C List of documents, social actors and localities 31

D Overviews with technical data on the selected documents 32

E Edgelists 32

F Matrices 33

§1.2 The analysis of the networks 33

§1.2.1 The choice for Ucinet 6 and Netdraw 33

§1.2.2 Importing the data in Ucinet 6 35

§1.2.3 The procedure developed for network analysis 36

A Network population 36

B Cohesion 37

C Components 38

D Core/periphery 39

E Centrality 39

F Tie strength 40

G Direction of the ties 41

§1.3 The analysis of episcopal authority 43

§1.3.1 Spiritual authority 44

§1.3.2 Ascetic authority 46

§1.3.3 Professional authority 48

A Organization of worship 48

B Mission 49

C Church administration 49

D Care for the underprivileged 49

E Education and discipline 51

F Giving directions for daily life 53

G Intercession with civil authorities 54

§1.3.4 Pragmatic authority 55

§1.3.5 Legal authority 56

Conclusion 58

Chapter 2 The Theban Region 61

Introduction 61

§2.1 The districts 62

§2.1.1 The district of Hermonthis 64

§2.1.2 The district of Koptos 69

§2.1.3 The district of Qena 71

§2.1.4 The district of Huw 72

§2.2 The Theodosian dioceses 72

§2.2.1 The diocese of Hermonthis 73

§2.2.2 The diocese of Ape 76

§2.2.3 The diocese of Koptos and "the eparchy of Qus" 78

§2.2.4 The diocese of Qus 79

§2.3 The likely division between Theodosians and Chalcedonians 80

§2.3.1 Possible predecessors of the Theodosian bishops 80

§2.3.2 Multiple churches, different religious factions 81

§2.3.3 The hermit Cyriacus of TT 65-66 82

Conclusion 83

Chapter 3 The Theodosian network in the Theban region 85

Introduction 85

§3.1 The Theodosian bishops 86

§3.1.1 Abraham of Hermonthis 86

§3.1.2 Pesynthius of Koptos 92

§3.1.3 Constantine of Asyut 98

§3.1.4 Ezekiel (of Ape?) 99

§3.1.5 Serenianus (of Qus?) 99

§3.1.6 Two bishops called John 101

§3.1.7 Shenoute of Antinoopolis 101

§3.1.8 Pisrael of Qus 102

§3.1.9 Anthony of Ape 102

§3.1.10 Horame of Edfu 103

§3.1.11 Bishops excluded from the analysis 103

§3.2 Other members of the Theodosian network 106

§3.2.1 Isaac I, John, Enoch, Epiphanius and Psan of the Topos of Epiphanius 106

§3.2,2 Pesente, Zael, Moses and Psate of the hermitage at TT 29 110

§3.2.3 The priest Mark of the Topos of St Mark the Evangelist 111

§3.2.4 The priest Victor and David of the Monastery of St Phoibammon 113

§3.2.5 Ezekiel and Djor of the hermitage at TT 1152 116

§3.2.6 Terane of the "Place of Apa Terane" 117

§3.2.7 The archimandrite at Kamak 117

§3.2.8 The priest Cyriacus of the Monasteiy of Apa Macarius 118

§3.3 A common chronological framework 119

§3.3.1 Absolute dates 119

§3.3.2 Approximate dates 120

§3.3.3 The chronological framework 121

Conclusion 121

Chapter 4 The social network of the Theban region 123

Introduction 123

§4.1 The documents selected for Dataset 1-2 125

§4.1.1 Dataset 1: The Theban network in 600-630 125

§4.1.2 Dataset 2: Localities associated with the Theodosian network 126

§4.2 The Theban network in ca. 600-630 128

§4.2.1 The network population 129

§4.2.2 The network level 130

§4.2.3 The component level 131

§4.2.4 The node level 131

§4.2.5 The tie level 133

§4.3 The development of the Theban network 135

§4.3.1 The network in 600-609 135

§4.3.2 The network in 610-619 137

§4.3.3 The network in 620-630 138

§4.4 The position of the bishops in the Theban network 140

§4.4.1 Abraham of Hermonthis 140

§4.4.2 Pesynthius of Koptos 141

§4.4.3 The other bishops 142

§4.5 The topographical extension of the Theodosian network 142

§4.5.1 The network in general 142

§4.5.2 Abraham of Hermonthis 143

§4.5.3 Pesynthius of Koptos 143

§4.5.4 The other bishops 145

§4.5.5 Other central actors in the Theodosian network 145

Conclusion 146

Chapter 5 The social network of Abraham of Hermonthis 149

Introduction 149

§5.1 Dataset 3: Documents featuring Abraham of Hermonthis 150

§5.1.1 The selected material 150

§5.1.2 The identification of the bishop 151

§5.1.3 The kind of documents 152

§5.3.4 The provenance of the documents 153

§5.1.5 The dating of the documents 154

§5.2 Abraham's social network 154

§5.2.1 The network population 154

§5.2.2 The network level 156

§5.2.3 The component level 157

§5.2.4 The node level 157

§5.2.5 Tie strength 159

§5.3 The other central actors in Abraham's network 159

§5.3.1 The priest Victor 160

§5.3.2 The monks of the Monastery of St Phoibammon 160

§5.3.3 The anonymous secretary "Hand E" 161

§5.3.4 The anonymous secretary "Hand F" 161

§5.3.5 The deacon Peter 161

§5.3.6 The priest Patermoute 162

§5.3.7 The priest Papnoute 163

§5.3.8 The archpriest John 164

§5.3.9 The archpriest Dioscorus 164

§5.4 The ecclesiastical apparatus 165

§5.4.1 Clergymen before 600 165

§5.4.2 Clergymen in ca. 600-609 166

§5.4.3 Clergymen in ca. 610-619 167

§5.4.4 Clergymen in ca. 620-621 168

§5.4.5 Clergymen who could not be linked to a period 169

§5.5 Civil and military officials associated with Abraham 170

§5.6 Abraham's directed ego network 171

§5.6.1 Clergymen 172

§5.6.2 Monks 173

§5.6.3 Civil officials 174

§5.6.4 Military officials 174

§5.6.5 Women 174

§5.6.6 Other social actors 175

Conclusion 176

Chapter 6 The nature of Abraham's authority 179

Introduction 179

§6.1 The context in which Abraham worked 179

§6.2 Spiritual authority 182

§6.3 Ascetic authority 183

§6.4 Professional authority 184

A Organization of worship 184

B Mission 186

C Church administration 187

D Care for the underprivileged 189

E Education and discipline 190

F Giving directions for daily life 193

G Intercession with civil authorities 193

§6.5 Pragmatic authority 194

§6.6 Legal authority 194

A Biblical sources 195

B Ecclesiastical canons 196

C Imperial laws 196

D Official deeds 197

E Episcopal orders and warrants 197

F Protocols and declarations 197

G Oaths 198

H Agreements 198

I Guarantees 199

§6.7 The weight of the episcopal office 200

Conclusion 201

Chapter 7 The social network of Pesynthius of Koptos 203

Introduction 203

§7.1 Dataset 4: Documents featuring Pesynthius of Koptos 204

§7.1.1 The selected material 204

A Papyri in the Musée du Louvre in Paris 205

B Papyri from the former Phillipps collection in Cheltenham 205

C Papyri and ostraca from the Topos of Epiphanius 206

D Other relevant documents in separate publications 206

§7.1.2 The identification of the bishop 207

§7.1.3 The kind of documents 208

§7.1.4 The provenance of the documents 210

§7.1.5 The dating of the documents 210

§7.2 Pesynthius' social network 211

§7.2.1 The network population 211

§7.2.2 The network level 213

§7.2.3 The component level 214

§7.2.4 The node level 215

§7.2.5 Tie strength 216

§7.3 The other central actors in Pesynthius' network 217

§7.3.1 The deacon Phanes 217

§7.3.2 The priest Cyriacus of the Monastery of Apa Macarius 217

§7.3.3 The lashane Abraham and the villagers of Pshenhor 218

§7.3.4 The estate manager Patche 219

§7.3.5 Psan and Epiphanius 220

§7.3.6 The priest Mark 220

§7.3.7 Bishop Pisrael of Qus 221

§7.4 The ecclesiastical apparatus 222

§7.4.1 Clergymen in Pesynthius'entourage 223

§7.4.2 Clergymen in the diocese of Koptos 225

§7.4.3 Clergymen in the diocese of Qus 227

§7.4.4 Clergymen in the diocese of Hermonthis 228

§7.4.5 Clergymen in the diocese of Ape 228

§7.5 Civil and militaty officials associated with Pesynthius 228

§7.5.1 Officials in the district of Koptos 228

§7.5.2 Officials in the district of Hermonthis 230

§7.6 Pesynthius' directed ego network 231

§7.6.1 Clergymen 232

§7.6.2 Monks and nuns 233

§7.6.3 Civil officials 233

§7.6.4 Military officials 234

§7.6.5 Women 234

§7.6.6 Other social actors 235

Conclusion 235

Chapter 8 The nature of Pesynthius' authority 239

Introduction 239

§8.1 The context in which Pesynthius worked 240

§8.2 Spiritual authority 244

§8.2.1 Episcopal documents 244

§8.2.2 The Encomium on Pesynthius 245

§8.2.3 The Letter of Pseudo-Pesynthius 248

§8.3 Ascetic authority 248

§8.3.1 Episcopal documents 248

§8.3.2 The Homily on St Onnophrius 248

§8.3.3 The Encomium on Pesynthius 249

§8.4 Professional authority 250

A Organization of worship 250

A.l Episcopal documents 250

A.2 The circular letter 251

A.3 The Encomium on Pesynthius 251

B Mission 252

B.l Episcopal documents 252

B.2 The Homily on St Onnophrius 252

B.3 The Encomium on Pesynthius 252

C Church administration 253

C.1 Episcopal documents 253

C.2 The Encomium on Pesynthius 254

D Care for the underprivileged 254

D.l Episcopal documents 254

D.2 The Encomium on Pesynthius 256

E Education and discipline 256

E.l Episcopal documents 256

E.2 The Homily on St Onnophrius 260

E.3 The Encomium on Pesynthius 261

E.4 The Life of St Andrew 263

E.5 The Letter of Pseudo-Pesynthius 263

F Giving directions for daily life 264

F.1 Episcopal documents 264

F.2 The Encomium on Pesynthius 264

G Intercession with civil authorities 264

G.l Episcopal documents 264

G.2 The Encomium on Pesynthius 264

§8.5 Pragmatic authority 264

§8.5.1 Episcopal documents 264

§8.5.2 The Encomium on Pesynthius 266

§8.6 Legal authority 266

§8.6.1 Episcopal documents 266

§8.6.2 The Homily on St Onnophrius 268

§8.6.3 The Encomium on Pesynthius 269

§8.7 The weight of the episcopal office 272

Conclusion 273

General conclusions 277

1 The position of the bishops in the Theodosian and Theban networks 278

2.A Abraham's social network 279

2.B Pesynthius' social network 280

3 How Abraham and Pesynthius exercised their authority 281

4 How Abraham and Pesynthius contributed to the rise of the Theodosian church 284

5 The combination of papyrology, SNA and a model of episcopal authority 285

6 The strengths and challenges of applying SNA to documentary papyri 286

7 Desiderata for further research 287

Bibliography 289

Map 1 The districts of Hermonthis and Koptos 309

Map 2 Western Thebes 310

List of documents 1-4 311

Plate 1 Colors used to distinguish social actors by attribute 319

Plate 2-15 Graphs of Datasets 1-4 320

Table 1 Abbreviations used for indicating social positions 334

Table 2 Arrows that indicate particular kinds of ties 334

Table 3-4 The members of the Theodosian network 335

Table 5 Civil and monastic communities arranged by period 336

Table 6-8 The ecclesiastical apparatusses 337

Table 9-10 Civil and Military officials 341

Indices 343

1 Individuals 343

2 Localities 345

3 Modem Scholars 346

4 Subjects 346

5 Written Sources 347

A Bible 347

B Documents (selection) 347

Contents of the CD

Dataset 1

Dataset 2

Dataset 3

Dataset 4

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