The Epstein-Barr virus was discovered 15 years ago. Since that time an immense body of information has been accumu lated on this agent which has come to assume great signifi cance in many different fields of biological science. Thus, the virus has very special relevance in human medicine and oncology, in tumor virology, in immunology, and in mole cular virology, since it is the cause of infectious mononu cleosis and also the first human cancer virus, etiologically related to endemic Burkitt's lymphoma and probably to nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In addition, continuous human lymphoid cell lines initiated and maintained by the transform ing function of the virus genome provide a laboratory tool with wide and ever-growing applications. Innumerable papers on the Epstein-Barr virus have ap peared over recent years and reports of work with this agent now constitute a veritable flood. The present book provides the first and only comprehensive, authoritative over-view of all aspects of the virus by authors who have been the original and major contributors in their particular disciplines. A complete and up-to-date survey of this unique and important agent is thus provided which should be of great interest to experts, teachers, and students engaged in cancer research, virology, immunology, molecular biology, epide miology, and cell culture. Where topics have been dealt with from more than one of these viewpoints, some inevitable overlap and duplication has resulted; although this has been kept to a minimum, it has been retained in some places because of positive usefulness.
|Publisher:||Springer Berlin Heidelberg|
|Edition description:||Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1979|
|Product dimensions:||6.69(w) x 9.61(h) x 0.04(d)|
Table of ContentsList of Contents.- 1 Introduction: Discovery and General Biology of the Virus.- A. Introduction.- B. Discovery of EBV.- C. General Biology.- 2 Morphology of the Virus and of Virus-Induced Cytopathologic Changes.- A. Introduction.- B. Virus Morphology.- C. Virus-Induced Cytopathologic Changes.- D. Comment.- 3 EB Virus-Induced Antigens.- A. Introduction.- B. Antigen Detection Methods.- C. Membrane Antigen.- D. The Early Antigen Complex.- E. The Viral Capsid Antigen.- F. The EBV Nuclear Antigen.- G. Lymphocyte-Detected Membrane Antigen.- H. Antigen Expression in EBV-Carrying Cell Lines.- I. Expression of EBV Antigens During the Viral Cycle.- 4 Seroepidemiology of the Virus.- A. Identification of EBV as a New Human Herpes Group Virus.- B. Serologic Association of EBV with Burkitt’s Lymphoma and Other Diseases.- C. The Seroepidemiology of Burkitt’s Lymphoma.- D. The Seroepidemiology of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.- E. The Seroepidemiology of Infectious Mononucleosis.- F. Seroepidemiologic Observations in Other Diseases.- G. Concluding Remarks.- 5 Biochemistry of the Virus and Its Effects on the Metabolism of Infected Cells.- A. Introduction: B Lymphocytes, the Natural Host of EBV.- B. Molecular Composition of EB Virions.- C. Biochemical Consideration of the Resident EBV DNA in Lymphoblastoid Cells.- D. Biochemical Events Leading to the Release of EBV DNA from Control of Host-Cell Mechanisms.- E. Biochemical Aspects of EBV DNA Replication and Transcription:.- F. Biochemical Properties of EBV Nuclear Antigen (EBNA).- G. Biochemical Aspects of Infection of Lymphoblastoid Cells and Leukocytes with EBV.- H. Transformation of Cells with DNA.- I. Discussion.- 6 Molecular Probes and Genome Homology.- A. General Introduction.- B. Technology.- C. What We Have Learned.- D. Prospects.- E. Unifying Concept.- 7 Biochemical Detection of the Virus Genome.- 8 The State of the Virus Genome in Transformed Cells and Its Relationship to Host Cell DNA.- A. Introduction.- B. Types of EBV-Transformed Cells.- C. Models for the Maintenance of Latent EBV Genomes in Transformed Cells.- D. First Experimental Evidence for Free, Nonintegrated EBV Genomes in Raji Cells.- E. Possible Forms of Free, Nonintegrated EBV Genomes.- F. Detailed Analysis of the Free, Nonintegrated EBV Genomes in Raji Cells.- G. Detection of EBV DNA Covalently Bound to Host DNA in Raji Cells.- H. State of the EBV Genomes in Other Cells.- I. Replication of the Latent EBV DNA in Transformed Cells.- J. Association of EBV DNA with Chromosomes.- K. The EBV Genome and the Evolution of Burkitt’s Lymphoma.- 9 Early Events in Transformation of Human Lymphocytes by the Virus.- A. Recognition and Adsorption.- B. Penetration of Virus.- C. Expression of Viral Information.- D. Integration of EBV Genomes.- E. Expression of Information from Integrated Genomes.- 10 Transformation by the Virus In Vitro.- A. Introduction.- B. General Description of Transformation.- C. Viral Characteristics.- D. Target Cells and Their Properties.- E. Infectivity Assays.- F. Virus-Cell Relationships.- G. Cellular Interactions.- H. Inhibition of Transformation.- I. Role of In Vitro Transformation by EBV in the Establishment of Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines in Primary Culture of Human Tissues.- J. Effects of EBV Transformation on Karyotype.- K. Conclusion.- 11 The Nature of Lymphoid Cell Lines and Their Relationship to the Virus.- A. Introduction.- B. Provisional Classifications of Hematopoietic Cell Lines.- C. “Spontaneous” Establishment of Permanent EBV-Carrying Lymphoid Cell Lines.- D. Markers for Clonality.- E. Phenotypic Characteristics of EBV-Carrying Lymphoid Cell Lines.- F. Chromosome Studies on EBV-Carrying Lymphoid Cell Lines.- G. Phenotypic Stability During Long-Term Cultivation.- H. EBV Genome-Negative Hematopoietic Cell Lines.- I. Concluding Remarks.- 12 Activation of the Viral Genome In Vitro.- A. Introduction.- B. Properties of Human Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines.- C. State of the Virus Genome in Lymphoblastoid Cells.- D. Spontaneous Activation.- E. Activation Induced by Chemicals.- F. Virus Expression in Hybrid Cells.- G. Concluding Remarks.- 13 The Virus as the Etiologic Agent of Infectious Mononucleosis.- A. Evidence for the Etiologic Role of EBV in Infectious Mononucleosis.- B. Implications of the Serologic and Virologic Observations in Infectious Mononucleosis.- C. Facts and Speculations Regarding Pathogenesis.- 14 The Relationship of the Virus to Burkitt’s Lymphoma.- A. Introduction.- B. Burkitt’s Lymphoma.- C. The Virus and African Burkitt’s Lymphoma.- D. Sporadic Burkitt’s Lymphoma.- E. Oncornaviruses and Burkitt’s Lymphoma.- F. Discussion.- 15 The Relationship of the Virus to Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.- A. Introduction.- B. Histopathology.- C. EBV-Related Serology in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.- D. EBV Genomes in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.- E. Biologic Activity of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Associated EBV.- F. Disease-Related Serologic Studies.- G. Concluding Remarks.- 16 Experimental Carcinogenicity by the Virus in Vivo.- A. Introduction.- B. Virus Factors in Tumorigenesis.- C. Host Factors in Experimental Carcinogenicity.- D. Pathology of the Experimental Disease.- E. EBV Genome in the Experimental Tumors.- F. EBV-Specific and Heterophil Antibody Responses of Experimentally Infected Animals.- G. Special Features of Transformed Marmoset Cells.- H. Significance of Experimental Carcinogenicity by EBV.- I. Future Work with EBV in Primates.- 17 Comparative Aspects: Oncogenic Animal Herpesviruses.- A. Introduction.- B. Herpesviruses of Cold-Blooded Animals.- C. Herpesviruses of Warm-Blooded Animals.- D. Conclusions.- 18 Demographic Studies Implicating the Virus in the Causation of Burkitt’s Lymphoma; Prospects for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.- A. Introduction.- B. Epidemiologic Characteristics of EBV Infection and of the Associated Tumors.- C. The IARC Prospective Study of Burkitt’s Lymphoma in Uganda and the Causative Role of the Virus.- D. Prospects for the Epidemiologic Approach in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.- E. Intervention as the Final Step in Proving Causality.- F. Conclusions.- 19 Vaccine Control of EB Virus-Associated Tumors.- A. Introduction.- B. EBV as the Cause of a Human Cancer.- C. A Vaccine to Prevent EBV Infection.- D. The Vaccine Prevention of EBV-Related Tumors.- E. Discussion.