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Temple University Press
Equal Play: Title IX and Social Change

Equal Play: Title IX and Social Change

by Nancy Hogshead-Makar


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Equal Play: Title IX and Social Change

One of the least-understood issues in federal sports policy, Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 reflects the nation's aspirational belief that girls and boys, women and men, deserve equal educational opportunities in athletics. Equal Play shows how this ideal has been implemented-and thwarted-by actions in every branch of the federal government.

This reader addresses issues in sports before Title IX and the backlash that has resulted from the policy being instituted. The editors have collected the best scholarly writing on the landmark events of the last four decades and couples these with new original essays, primary documents from court cases, administrative regulations, and relevant supporting sources. The result is the most comprehensive single-volume work on the subject.

Equal Play includes essays by many well-known sports journalists who discuss how government actions have shaped, supported, and hindered the goal of gender equality in school athletics. They discuss the history of women in sports, analyze the meaning of "equal opportunity" for female athletes, and examine shifts in arguments for and against Title IX. Equal Play will interest anyone who is concerned with gender issues in American athletics and the growth of college sports.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 2901592133801
Publisher: Temple University Press
Publication date: 12/28/2007
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 376
Product dimensions: 6.80(w) x 9.90(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

Nancy Hogshead-Makar is a Professor at the Florida Coastal School of Law.  She is a former President of the Women's Sports Foundation (1992-94) and currently serves as its legal advisor.  She has testified in Congress numerous times on the topic of gender equity in athletics, written numerous scholarly and lay articles, serves as an expert witness in Title IX cases, and has written amicus briefs representing athletic organizations in the U.S. Supreme Court.  Professor Hogshead-Makar is an Olympic Champion from the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, wining three gold medals and one silver medal in swimming. 

Andrew Zimbalist is Robert A. Woods Professor of Economics at Smith College. He is the author or editor of eighteen previous books, including The Bottom Line: Observations and Arguments on the Sports Business (Temple) and In the Best Interest of Baseball? The Revolutionary Reign of Bud Selig. He  is a member of the Editorial Board of The Journal of Sports Economics, and has consulted extensively in the sports industry for players associations, leagues, cities, and owners.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments     xi
Introduction   Nancy Hogshead-Makar   Andrew Zimbalist     1
Women's Sports before Title IX
Introduction     7
Coming on Strong: Gender and Sexuality in Twentieth-Century Sports   Susan Cahn     9
Heroines as Well as Heroes   Welch Suggs     14
Didrikson Was a Woman Ahead of Her Time   Larry Schwartz     31
Sport Is Unfair to Women (Part 1)   Bil Gilbert   Nancy Williamson     35
Staking a Claim: The First Decade
Introduction     49
Speech of Senator Birch Bayh to the New York Women's Political Caucus     56
Amendment to Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972     59
Statement of Hon. Birch Bayh, a U.S. Senator from the State of Indiana, on the Tower Amendment     60
Javits Amendment     64
1975 Title IX Regulations     65
A Policy Interpretation: Title IX and Intercollegiate Athletics     67
United States District Court, D. Kansas: National Collegiate Athletic Association v. Joseph Califano et al. (decided January 9, 1978)     84
Supreme Court of the United States: Geraldine G. Cannon v. University of Chicago et al. (decided May 14, 1979)     92
The Initial Backlash: The 1980s
Introduction     99
Supreme Court of the United States: Grove City College et al. v. Terrel H. Bell et al. (decided February 28, 1984)     108
Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987     116
Reducing the Commercialization of Intercollegiate Athletics   Gary R. Roberts     119
Accelerated Pace: The 1990s
Introduction     129
Testing Title IX: Amy Cohen and Brown University   Andrew Zimbalist     140
United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit: Amy Cohen et al. v. Brown University et al. (decided November 21, 1996)     144
1996 Clarification of Intercollegiate Athletics Policy Guidance: The Three-Part Test     152
Letter from the U.S. Department of Education to Bowling Green State University     163
Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal, National Study, Twenty-Nine Year Update, 1977-2006   Vivian Acosta   Linda Jean Carpenter     169
Stronger Women   Mariah Burton Nelson     171
The Second Backlash: 2001-2008
Introduction     179
United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit: National Wrestling Coaches Association et al. v. Department of Education (decided May 14, 2004)     188
Tilting the Playing Field: Schools, Sports, Sex and Title IX   Jessica Gavora     197
A Critique of Tilting the Playing Field: Schools, Sports, Sex and Title IX   Nancy Hogshead-Makar     218
What to Do about Title IX   Andrew Zimbalist     239
Open to All: Title IX at Thirty     243
Minority Views on the Report of the Commission on Opportunity in Athletics   Donna de Varona   Julie Foudy     256
Limitations of the Department of Education's On-Line Survey Method for Measuring Athletic Interest and Ability on U.S.A. Campuses   Don Sabo   Christine Grant     276
Bush Administration Uses Stealth Tactics to Subvert Title IX   Andrew Zimbalist     283
Football Is a Sucker's Game   Michael Sokolove     286
Title IX by the Numbers   Andrew Zimbalist     302
Index     307

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