A revolutionary explanation of the link between psychic phenomena and how human consciousness works.
Dr. Diane Powell, a prominent Johns Hopkins–trained neuropsychiatrist, examines the evidence for many types of psychic phenomena, from telepathy and precognition to psychokinesis, and finds several well-designed and rigorously supervised studies that prove the existence of some psychic phenomena. The fact that psychic abilities are stronger among prodigies, autistic savants, and some people who are bipolar or have suffered certain brain injuries has led to brain-imaging and other research that can explain which parts of the brain are dominant in psychics and mystics. Dr. Powell proposes a new paradigm for consciousness that would explain psychic phenomena, such as how the mind of a mystic or psychic could have an organizational effect on the physical world. Grounded in decades of reliable scientific research, The ESP Enigma establishes a common ground among psychic phenomena believers and skeptics.
|Publisher:||Walker & Company|
|Product dimensions:||5.50(w) x 8.50(h) x 0.80(d)|
About the Author
Diane Hennacy Powell, M.D., is a former member of a think tank on consciousness at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California. She lives in Los Angeles and Medford, Oregon.
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The ESP EnigmaThe Scientific Case for Psychic Phenomena
By Diane Hennacy Powell
Walker & CompanyCopyright © 2009 Diane Hennacy Powell, M.D.
All right reserved.
IntroductionWhether we consider ourselves believers in psychic phenomena or not, many of us have had something happen to make us wonder about the subject. It could have been someone telling us that she was just thinking about us when we called, or vice versa. It might have been a gut feeling to drive a different route from our usual one, only to discover later that a large accident occurred on the road we didn't take. Such experiences may not happen often, but they can leave us with a profound feeling that we are interconnected, that we can know things without understanding how, and that there must be more to our universe than we detect through ordinary senses.
People have believed in psychic abilities since the beginning of recorded history. Certain individuals report more experiences with psychic phenomena than others. Since these experiences usually only occur spontaneously for most of us, many cultures developed divination aids in order to access psychic information more readily. The Dogon in West Africa toss cowrie shells into a basket and interpret the patterns. The Chinese devised the I Ching, and Egyptian priests slept in special temples in order to have prophetic dreams.
Perhaps the most famous divination practice was the Delphic oracle, who drew the rich and famous from all over the Greek world from the sixth century B.C. until the fourth century A.D. The Greek historian Herodotus claimed that the Delphic psychic spoke in a trance induced by natural gases that seeped through the rocks. This was discounted as a myth until 2001, when Jelle de Boer, a geologist at Wesleyan University in Middleton, Connecticut, analyzed the hydrocarbon gases emitted by the temple's nearby spring. He reported in Geology that he found ethylene in sufficient concentrations to have created a narcotic effect that would have been experienced as a floating or disembodied euphoric state.
The most widespread form of divination is scrying, from the old word descry, which means "to catch sight of" and involves deep concentration on a smooth reflective surface until an image appears. Ancient Greeks looked for answers in spring waters; in ancient India, warriors peered into vessels filled with water to see if they'd return from battle; Tahitians poured water into a hole at crime scenes to scry the image of the culprits. The most famous tool for scrying has been the crystal ball, which became a tool of Gypsies, among others.
The Old Testament of the Judeo-Christian Bible contains numerous accounts of prophets, but Christianity forbade all forms of prophecy except for divine revelation and astrology. As Christianity spread, many forms of prophecy declined or went underground in Christian areas, lest the practitioners be accused of heresy or witchcraft. In the Middle Ages, popes still consulted astrologers to provide them with propitious dates for coronation, but after the Copernican revolution changed our understanding of planetary movements, the Catholic Church declared divine revelation to be the only acceptable form of prophecy.
Westerners' growing disbelief in psychic abilities was influenced by the development of the scientific method. During the eighteenth-century Age of Enlightenment, the universe became increasingly viewed as a mechanistic system, accurately known only through observation, calculation, and reason. Anything associated with the supernatural or psychic phenomena lost credibility.
Skepticism about psychic phenomena was further fueled by scandals that linked claims of psychic abilities with con artists who preyed upon people's vulnerabilities. Also, as the psychiatric profession arose, reports of psychic experiences were often accompanied by signs of irrational thinking and became interpreted as signs of brain pathology, rather than innate gifts or capacities.
Added to this was the belief that the mind exists solely within the brain. This is an idea that has grown since Francois de La Peyronie, an eighteenth-century French surgeon, observed changes in human behavior that accompanied specific brain injuries. The scientific model of the brain and consciousness that evolved in this historical context did not have to account for psychic phenomena.
The scientific model is based on these facts: The brain is a biological machine with over a hundred billion neurons, or brain cells, each of which has an average of five thousand connections to other neurons. Electrical signals pass along the neurons, causing them to release chemical messengers, such as serotonin and dopamine, from their terminal ends. These messengers land on the receptors of neurons on the other side of the synapse, or region between neurons for chemical connection. Once neurons receive enough stimulation from their connecting neurons, they send signals along their axons to other neurons. There are almost an infinite number of possible patterns of activity along the neuronal network, and specific patterns are believed to represent concepts, thoughts, or memories. Francis Crick, the late codiscoverer of DNA's structure, summarized this model when he said, "The astonishing hypothesis is that 'You,' your joys and your sorrows, your memories and your ambitions, your sense of personal identity and free will, are in fact no more than the behavior of a vast assembly of nerve cells and their associated molecules."
Even though scientists, including Crick, admit that they do not know what consciousness is or how it is generated, proponents of the current model consider consciousness to be a byproduct of a brain that can access new information only by direct sensory input. The body has receptors for sound, taste, sight, touch, smell, and proprioception (detection of body movement and placement), but there is no hardware to access sensory information from distant points in space and time, let alone to send information directly from one brain to another. The current concept of consciousness cannot accommodate the existence of psychic abilities, and as rational beings, we are skeptical of that which cannot be explained scientifically.
Yet some psychic phenomena have been measured and verified scientifically. One example is the work by Adrian Parker and Joakim Westerlund at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden. They placed the "receivers" of telepathic information in isolation and minimized their sensory input, thereby preventing any potential interference. The "senders" sat in an isolated room watching a film, while the receivers simultaneously commented upon what information came to mind. A real-time recording of the receivers' comments was then superimposed upon the transmitted film for analysis. One participant described accurately, in real time, a full sequence of events as they occurred in the film.
Another example is the research at Stanford Research Institute by Russell Targ and Hal Puthoff, two laser physicists, which provided valuable information to almost every branch of the U.S. intelligence community during the Cold War with the Soviet Union. Much of their work was done on remote viewing, in which the sender went to an undisclosed location and the receiver drew a picture of it. One of their best receivers was Pat Price, a retired policeman who had helped the Berkeley police in their search for Patty Hearst. In his first attempt at remote viewing for SRI he achieved 90 percent accuracy in his psychic drawing of a swimming pool complex that included its dimensions, size, location, and the function of the pools and adjacent buildings.
Despite such experiments, the scientific community still questions the validity of psychic phenomena, demanding research data that is reproducible under tightly controlled conditions in order to accept phenomena as true. At least on a public level, most scientists have taken the stand that something as extraordinary as psychic phenomena requires the data to be extraordinary as well.
A critical review of the laboratory data for psychic phenomena reveals cumulative data would have been sufficient evidence for other areas of research. If one wants to prove whether or not telepathy can exist, one strong convincing case for its existence should be sufficient, because that is analogous to one living brontosaurus being proof that the species isn't extinct. William James, the late professor of psychology at Harvard, shared this same view on what is sufficient proof. He described paranormal experiences as "white crows" and said that "if you wish to upset the law that all crows are black, you must not seek to show that no crows are [black]; it is enough if you prove one single crow to be white."
Applying James's analogy to the status of psychic research, there have been several sightings of white birds. Scientists haven't disputed that they are white, just whether they are crows. One has to capture the white bird, inspect it closely, and perhaps even test its DNA to prove that it is a crow. Anything short of this would be insufficient for a scientific revolution. Technology has advanced such that we can better identify the "white bird" in psychic research, and it does appear to be a crow.
But proof of the existence of some psychic phenomena would mean we need to reconcile how they are possible given our understanding of consciousness and the brain. This would pose more of a challenge if the current model was complete and psychic phenomena were the only mystery. Instead, relatively little is known about consciousness. For example, no one has been able to answer what has been called the "hard question" of consciousness: how can something as nonmaterial as consciousness arise from something material like the brain? The model also doesn't explain free will or our feeling that there is an "I" that has experiences. On top of that, there are reports of near-death survivors that suggest that consciousness can continue even when the brain has shut down, whereas the current scientific paradigm continues to regard consciousness as a product of brain chemistry and wiring.
A primary reason psychic phenomena are hotly contested by the scientific community is that the validity of such phenomena would mean a major scientific revolution, similar to the Copernican revolution that forced us to accept the sun as the center of the solar system. Scientific revolutions are not easy matters. Thomas Kuhn, the late physicist and professor of the history of science at MIT, compared scientific revolutions to political revolutions, with good reason. They involve a lot of politics. Some interested scientists have openly stated that they were afraid that they would lose their credibility should they investigate psi, the technical term for psychic abilities. Partly as a result of these concerns, today there are no more than fifty scientists across the globe involved full-time in this area of research. But it is the study of anomalies, such as psychic experiences, that will provide a better understanding of consciousness.
When a scientist has devoted his or her career to studying psychic abilities, it has usually been because of a thought-provoking personal experience. One of many examples is Hans Berger, the inventor of the electroencephalogram (EEG), which is used clinically to measure brain waves. Berger invented this device as a means of investigating telepathy after an extraordinary experience with his sister, who sent him a telegram saying she was very concerned that something bad had happened to him. Her timing was impeccable. Earlier that day he was almost killed while riding a horse. His sister's timely concern was so striking that Berger hypothesized that brains must be capable of sending signals to one another. Because this was during the time when electromagnetism was an exciting new field of inquiry, he thought that he'd find the answer by designing a machine that measures the electromagnetic activity of the brain. Although the EEG did not provide proof of telepathy, it has been of great help in advancing our understanding of the brain.
My own interest dates back to when I was thirteen years old. Through a good friend, I met a circus magician known primarily for his Houdini escapist tricks. In my friend's living room, he demonstrated something astonishing. From twenty feet across the room, the magician read, word for word, the contents of any book that I randomly chose from among hundreds on the bookshelves. There were no mirrors behind me, and I knew that these books belonged to my friend, not the magician. Even if he had memorized all of the books, he would also have needed exceptional luck to guess which pages I chose. There was no rational explanation at the time for what I observed, but it fostered a deep, abiding curiosity.
I was already familiar with extraordinary mental abilities in one sense. I was a math prodigy as a child, someone who could do ninth- and tenth-grade math at seven years of age. And at age four my grandmother was a musical prodigy who could play songs accurately after hearing them only once. Much later I learned of autistic savants and other prodigies whose abilities were well documented but, like psychic phenomena, were not explained by the current understanding of consciousness and the human brain.
My interest led me to study neuroscience in college and specialize in neuropsychiatry at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. While on faculty at Harvard Medical School, I encountered a patient who claimed to be psychic. She then told me several accurate details about my life and made specific predictions about my future, all of which eventually came true. After this encounter, I decided to systematically investigate psychic phenomena. And over the past twenty years I have gained invaluable insight from patients who shared details of their psychic experiences.
The ESP Enigma presents a summary of the research on the four basic psychic abilities: telepathy (the ability to access someone else's consciousness), psychokinesis (the ability for one's conscious intention to directly act upon physical matter), clairvoyance (the ability to see something remote in space or time), and precognition (the ability to access the future). Some studies looked at large groups of individuals with the hypothesis that psychic abilities may be an innate capacity in all of us. Others have researched individuals who seem to possess these abilities to an extraordinary degree.
The book also addresses another question: how could psychic phenomena be possible? There have been enough advances in science over the last twenty years to now propose an acceptable mechanism by which psychic phenomena could occur. This new model for the brain and consciousness has the potential to reshape not just our attitudes toward psychic phenomena but also our understanding of our own minds.
Excerpted from The ESP Enigma by Diane Hennacy Powell Copyright © 2009 by Diane Hennacy Powell, M.D.. Excerpted by permission of Walker & Company. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Consciousness and the Brain 2
Chapter 2 Do You See What I See? An Examination of the Evidence for Telepathy 25
Chapter 3 Two Hearts Beat as One: Identical Twins and Coupled Consciousness 46
Chapter 4 Clairvoyance: The Ability to See Remotely 59
Chapter 5 The Future Is Now: Evidence for Precognition 73
Chapter 6 Mind over Matter: Evidence for Psychokinesis 90
Chapter 7 Was she out of Her Mind or Just out of Her Body? 106
Chapter 8 Evolution and Extraordinary Human Abilities 133
Chapter 9 The Compartmentalization of Consciousness 153
Chapter 10 Consciousness and the Web of Life 169
Chapter 11 The Essence of Time 191
Chapter 12 The Sum of the Parts Is Greater than the Whole 203