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Jones & Barlett Learning
Essential Genetics: A Genomic Perspective / Edition 4

Essential Genetics: A Genomic Perspective / Edition 4

by Daniel L. Hartl


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780763735272
Publisher: Jones & Barlett Learning
Publication date: 08/01/2005
Edition description: REV
Pages: 600
Product dimensions: 8.48(w) x 10.70(h) x 0.83(d)

Table of Contents

Overview of Molecular Genetics and Genomics
Chapter 1DNA: The Genetic Code of Genes and Genomics1
1.1DNA Is the Molecule of Heredity3
1.2The Structure of DNA Is a Double Helix Composed of Two Intertwined Strands7
1.3In Replication, Each Parental DNA Strand Directs the Synthesis of a New Partner Strand9
1.4Genes Code for Proteins9
1.5Genes Change by Mutation20
1.6Traits Are Affected by Environment as Well as by Genes22
1.7Evolution Means Continuity of Life with Change22
Classical Genetic Analysis
Chapter 2Transmission Genetics: Heritage From Mendel33
2.1Mendel took a distinctly modern view of transmission genetics34
2.2Genes Come in Pairs, Separate in Gametes, and Join Randomly in Fertilization39
2.3The Alleles of Different Genes Segregate Independently45
2.4Chance Plays a Central Role in Mendelian Genetics49
2.5The Results of Segregation Can Be Observed in Human Pedigrees52
2.6Dominance Is a Property of a Pair of Alleles in Relation to a Particular Attribute of Phenyotype54
2.7Epistasis Can Affect the Observed Ratios of Phenotypes59
2.8Complementation Between Mutations of Different Genes Is a Fundamental Principle of Genetics62
Chapter 3The Chromosomal Basis of Heredity73
3.1Each Species Has a Characteristic Set of Chromosomes74
3.2The Daughter Cells of Mitosis Have Identical Chromosomes75
3.3Meiosis Results in Gametes That Differ Genetically80
3.4Eukaryotic Chromosomes Are Highly Coiled Complexes of DNA and Protein90
3.5The Centromere and Telomeres Are Essential Parts of Chromosomes96
3.6Genes Are Located in Chromosomes100
3.7Genetic Data Analysis Makes Use of Probability and Statistics107
Chapter 4Gene Linkage and Genetic Mapping121
4.1Linked Alleles Tend to Stay Together in Meiosis122
4.2Recombination Results from Crossing-Over Between Linked Alleles126
4.3Double Crossovers Are Revealed in Three-Point Crosses135
4.4Polymorphic DNA Sequences Are Used in Human Genetic Mapping141
4.5Tetrads Contain All Four Products of Meiosis146
4.6Recombination Results from Breakage and Reunion of DNA Molecule155
Chapter 5Human Karyotypes and Chromosome Behavior167
5.1Human Beings Have 46 Chromosomes in 23 Pairs168
5.2Chromosome Abnormalities Are Frequent in Spontaneous Abortions177
5.3Chromosome Rearrangements Can Have Important Genetic Effects182
5.4Polyploid Species Have Multiple Sets of Chromosomes193
5.5The Grass Family Illustrates the Importance of Polyploidy and Chromosome Rearrangements in Genome Evolution199
Molecular Genetic Analysis
Chapter 6The Chemical Structure, Replication, and Manipulation of DNA209
6.1Genome Size Can Differ Tremendously, Even Among Closely Related Organisms210
6.2DNA Is a Linear Polymer of Four Deoxyribonucleotides212
6.3Duplex DNA Is a Double Helix in which the Bases Form Hydrogen Bonds215
6.4Replication Uses Each DNA Strand as a Template for a New One216
6.5Many Proteins Participate in DNA Replication223
6.6Knowledge of DNA Structure Makes Possible the Manipulation of DNA Molecules232
6.7The Polymerase Chain Reaction Makes Possible the Amplification of a Particular DNA Fragment237
6.8Chemical Terminators of DNA Synthesis Are Used to Determine the Base Sequence239
Chapter 7Mechanisms of Mutation and DNA Repair249
7.1Mutations Are Classified in a Variety of Ways250
7.2Mutations Result from Changes in DNA Sequence252
7.3Transposable Elements Are Agents of Mutation256
7.4Mutations Are Statistically Random Events262
7.5Spontaneous and Induced Mutations Have Similar Chemistries267
7.6Many Types of DNA Damage Can Be Repaired275
7.7Genetic Tests Are Useful for Detecting Agents That Cause Mutations and Cancer278
Chapter 8The Genetics of Bacteria and Their Viruses287
8.1Many DNA Sequences in Bacteria Are Mobile and Can Be Transferred Between Individuals and Among Species288
8.2Mutations That Affect a Cell's Ability to Form Colonies Are Often Used in Bacterial Genetics296
8.3Transformation Results from the Uptake of DNA and Recombination297
8.4In Bacterial Mating, DNA Transfer Is Unidirectional299
8.5Some Phages Can Transfer Small Pieces of Bacterial DNA306
8.6Bacteriophage DNA Molecules in the Same Cell Can Recombine310
8.7Lysogenic Bacteriophages Do Not Necessarily Kill the Host314
Molecular Biology of Genes and Genomes
Chapter 9The Molecular Genetics of Gene Expression329
9.1Polypeptide Chains Are Linear Polymers of Amino Acids330
9.2The Linear Order of Amino Acids Is Encoded in a DNA Base Sequence333
9.3The Base Sequence in DNA Specifies the Base Sequence in an RNA Transcript334
9.4RNA Processing Converts the Original RNA Transcript into Messenger RNA339
9.5Translation into a Polypeptide Chain Takes Place on a Ribosome343
9.6The Genetic Code for Amino Acids Is a Triplet Code351
9.7Several Ribosomes Can Move in Tandem Along a Messenger RNA358
Chapter 10Molecular Mechanisms of Gene Regulation369
10.1Regulation of Transcription Is a Common Mechanism in Prokaryotes370
10.2Lactose Degradation Is Regulated by the Lactose Operon372
10.3Tryptophan Biosynthesis Is Regulated by the Tryptophan Operon379
10.4Eukaryotes Regulate Transcription Through Transcriptional Activator Proteins, Enhancers, and Silencers383
10.5Gene Expression Can Be Affected by Heritable Chemical Modifications in the DNA392
10.6Regulation Also Takes Place at the Levels of RNA Processing and Decay394
10.7Regulation Can Also Take Place at the Level of Translation395
10.8Some Developmental Processes Are Controlled by Programmed DNA Rearrangements396
Chapter 11Genetic Engineering and Functional Genomics407
11.1Cloning a DNA Molecule Takes Place in Several Steps408
11.2Reverse Genetics Creates an Organism with a Designed Mutation420
11.3Genetic Engineering Is Applied in Medicine, Industry, Agriculture, and Research426
11.4The Human Genome Project Has Achieved Its Initial Goals for Genomic Sequencing429
11.5Functional Genomics Reveals Genome-wide Patterns of Gene Expression435
Chapter 12The Genetic Control of Development443
12.1Mating Type in Yeast Illustrates Transcriptional Control of Development444
12.2The Determination of Cell Fate in C. elegans Development Is Largely Autonomous445
12.3Development in Drosophila Illustrates Progressive Regionalization and Specification of Cell Fate451
12.4Floral Development in Arabidopsis Illustrates Combinatorial Control of Gene Expression464
Chapter 13The Genetic Origins of Cancer475
13.1Checkpoints in the Cell Cycle Allow Damaged Cells to Repair Themselves or to Self-Destruct476
13.2Cancer Cells Have a Small Number of Mutations That Prevent Normal Checkpoint Function482
13.3Mutations That Predispose to Cancer Can Be Inherited Through the Germ Line487
13.4Acute Leukemias Are Proliferative Diseases of White Blood Cells and Their Precursors492
Complex Traits and Evolutionary Genetics
Chapter 14Population Genetics and Evolution501
14.1Genotypes May Differ in Frequency from One Population to Another502
14.2Random Mating Means That Mates Pair Without Regard to Genotype506
14.3Highly Polymorphic Sequences Are Used in DNA Typing511
14.4Inbreeding Means Mating Between Relatives517
14.5Evolution Is Accompanied by Genetic Changes in Species520
14.6Mutation and Migration Bring New Alleles into Populations520
14.7Natural Selection Favors Genotypes That Are Better Able to Survive and Reproduce521
14.8Some Changes in Allele Frequency Are Random526
14.9Mitochondrial DNA Is Maternally Inherited529
Chapter 15The Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits539
15.1Multifactorial Traits Are Determined by Multiple Genes and the Environment540
15.2Variation in a Trait Can Be Separated into Genetic and Environmental Components545
15.3Artificial Selection Is a Form of "Managed Evolution"554
15.4Genetic Variation Is Revealed by Correlations Between Relatives558
15.5Pedigree Studies of Genetic Polymorphisms Are Used to Map Loci for Quantitative Traits561
Answers to Even-Numbered Problems573
Word Roots583

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