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Oxford University Press
Essentials of Conservation Biology / Edition 5

Essentials of Conservation Biology / Edition 5

by Richard B. Primack
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Essentials of Conservation Biology, Sixth Edition, combines theory and applied and basic research to explain the connections between conservation biology and ecology, climate change biology, the protection of endangered species, protected area management, environmental economics, and sustainable development. A major theme throughout the book is the active role that scientists, local people, the general public, conservation organizations, and governments can play in protecting biodiversity, even while providing for human needs.

Each chapter begins with general ideas and principles, which are illustrated with choice examples from the current literature. The most instructive examples are discussed in boxes highlighting projects, species, and issues of particular significance. Chapters end with summaries, an annotated list of suggested readings, and discussion questions. This new edition comes with extensive summary statements in the text margins, as study aids.
Essentials of Conservation Biology, Sixth Edition, is beautifully illustrated in full color, and is written in clear, non-technical language, making it well-suited for undergraduate courses.


For Instructors
Instructor's Resource CD-ROM This resource includes all figures (line-art illustrations and photographs) and tables from the textbook, provided as both high- and low-resolution JPEGs. All have been formatted and optimized for excellent projection quality. Also included are ready-to-use PowerPoint presentations of all figures and tables.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900878936402
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Publication date: 01/01/2010
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 601
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 1.50(h) x 9.50(d)

About the Author

Richard B. Primack is a Professor in the Biology Department at Boston University. He received his B.A. at Harvard University in 1972 and his Ph.D. at Duke University in 1976, and then was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Canterbury and Harvard University. He has served as a visiting professor at the University of Hong Kong and Tokyo University, and has been awarded Bullard and Putnam Fellowships from Harvard University and a Guggenheim Fellowship. Dr. Primack was President of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation, and is currently Editor-in-Chief of the journal Biological Conservation. Twenty-eight foreign-language editions of his conservation biology textbooks (the Essentials and the shorter Primer of Conservation Biology) have been produced, with local coauthors. He is an author of rain forest books, most recently Tropical Rain Forests: An Ecological and Biogeographical Comparison (with Richard Corlett). Dr. Primack's research interests include: the biological impacts of climate change; the loss of species in protected areas; tropical forest ecology and conservation; and conservation education. He has recently completed a popular book about changes in Concord since the time of Henry David Thoreau, titled Walden Warming: Climate Change Comes to Thoreau's Woods.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. What Is Conservation Biology?
The New Science of Conservation Biology
Conservation biology complements the traditional disciplines
Conservation biology's ethical principles
Box 1.1. Collaborative Conservation: The Recovery of Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtles
The Origins of Conservation Biology
European origins
American origins
A New Science Is Born
Conservation biology: A dynamic and growing field

Chapter 2. What Is Biodiversity?
Species Diversity
What is a species?
Box 2.1. Naming and Classifying Species
The origin of new species
Measuring species diversity
Genetic Diversity
Ecosystem Diversity
What are communities and ecosystems?
Ecological succession
Box 2.2. Kelp Forests and Sea Otters: Shaping an Ocean Ecosystem
Species interactions within ecosystems
Principles of community organization
Keystone species and guilds
Keystone resources
Ecosystem dynamics

Chapter 3. Where Is the World's Biodiversity Found?
Diverse Ecosystems
Tropical forests
Coral reefs
Oceanic diversity
Mediterranean-type communities
Patterns of Diversity
Variation in climate and environment
Variation in topography, geological age, and habitat size
Why Are There So Many Species in the Tropics?
How Many Species Exist Worldwide?
New species are being discovered all the time
Discovery of new species
Recently Discovered Communities
Box 3.1. Conserving a World Unknown: Hydrothermal Vents and Oil Plumes
Diversity surveys: Collecting and counting species
Estimating the number of species
Box 3.2. Humans as Habitat: The Incredible Diversity of the Human Microbiome
The Need for More Taxonomists and Collections


Chapter 4. Ecological Economics
Ecological and Environmental Economics
Evaluating Development Projects
Cost-benefit analysis
Natural Resource Loss and the Wealth of Societies
Box 4.1. Conservation as an Economic Driver: National Parks in the United States
Assigning Economic Value to Biodiversity
Direct Use Values
Consumptive use value
Productive use value
Multiple uses of a single resource: A case study

Chapter 5. Indirect Use Value
The Value of Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem productivity and carbon sequestration
Water and soil protection
Waste treatment and nutrient retention
Box 5.1. Prophecy Fulfilled: How Ecosystem Services Became Front-Page News
Climate regulation
Species relationships
Box 5.2. How Much Are Bats Worth? A Case Study of Texas Bats
Box 5.3. Pollination: A Vital Ecosystem Service
Environmental monitors
Amenity value
Educational and scientific value
The Long-Term View: Option Value
Existence Value
Is Economic Valuation Enough?

Chapter 6. Ethical Values
Ethical Values of Biodiversity
Ethical arguments for preserving biodiversity
Box 6.1. Sharks: Conservation Benefits of a Public Perception Makeover?
Box 6.2. Religion and Conservation
Enlightened self-interest: Biodiversity and human development
Evolving Perspectives and Deep Ecology


Chapter 7. Extinction
Past Mass Extinctions
The Current, Human-Caused Mass Extinction
Background Extinction Rates
Extinction Rates on Islands
Box 7.1. Extinctions of Island Birds
Extinction Rates in Aquatic Environments
Estimating Extinction Rates with the Island Biogeography Model
Extinction rates and habitat loss
Assumptions and generalizations in the island biogeography model
Time to extinction
Local Extinctions
Estimating population extinction rates

Chapter 8. Vulnerability to Extinction
Endemic Species and Extinction
Vulnerability to Extinction
Box 8.1. Why Are Frogs and Toads Croaking?
IUCN Conservation Categories
The U.S. Endangered Species Act
Natural Heritage Data Centers

Chapter 9. Habitat Destruction, Fragmentation, Degradation, and Global Climate Change
Human Population Growth and Its Impact
Habitat Destruction
Threatened tropical rain forests
Other threatened habitats
Marine coastal areas
Habitat Fragmentation
Population effects
Edge effects
Two studies of habitat fragmentation
Habitat Degradation and Pollution
Pesticide pollution
Water pollution
Box 9.1. Pesticides and Raptors: Sentinel Species Warn of Danger
Air pollution
Global Climate Change
Changes in temperate and tropical climates
Plants and climate change
Rising sea levels and warmer waters
The overall effect of global warming

Chapter 10. Overexploitation, Invasive Species, and Disease
Exploitation in the modern world
International wildlife trade
Box 10.1. Endangered Whales: Making a Comeback?
Commercial harvesting
What can be done to stop overexploitation?
Invasive Species
Invasive species on islands
Box 10.2. GMOs and Conservation Biology
Invasive species in aquatic habitats
The ability of species to become invasive
Control of invasive species
Implications of Invasive Species and Diseases for Human Health
A Concluding Remark


Chapter 11. Problems of Small Populations
Essential Concepts for Small Populations
Minimum viable population (MVP
Loss of genetic variability
Consequences of reduced genetic variability
Factors that determine effective population size
Box 11.1. Rhino Species in Asia and Africa: Genetic Diversity and Habitat Loss
Other Factors That Affect the Persistence of Small Populations
Demographic variation
Environmental variation and catastrophes
Extinction Vortices

Chapter 12. Applied Population Biology
Methods for Studying Populations
Gathering ecological information
Monitoring populations
Box 12.1. Finding a Needle in a Haystack: Monitoring Rare Species with Environmental DNA (eDNA)
Population Viability Analysis
Box 12.2. Three Primatologists Who Became Activists
Long-Term Monitoring of Species and Ecosystems

Chapter 13. Establishing New Populations
Three Approaches to Establishing New Populations
Box 13.1. Wolves Return and Change an Ecosystem
New Animal Populations
Learned behavior of released animals
New Plant Populations
The Status of New Populations

Chapter 14. Ex Situ Conservation Strategies
Ex Situ Conservation Facilities
Box 14.1. Love Alone Cannot Save the Giant Panda
Box 14.2. Can Technology Bring Back Extinct Species?
Botanical gardens and arboretums
Seed banks
Box 14.3. Seed Savers and Crop Varieties


Chapter 15. Establishing Protected Areas
Types and Classification of Protected Areas
Existing Protected Areas
Marine protected areas
Box 15.1. The Rise of Giant Marine Protected Areas
The effectiveness of protected areas
Creating New Protected Areas
Establishing conservation priorities
Identifying areas to protect
Selecting New Protected Areas: Filling Gaps and Creating Networks
Gap analysis

Chapter 16. Designing Networks of Protected Areas
Issues of Reserve Design
Protected area size and characteristics
Reserve design and species preservation
Minimizing edge and fragmentation effects
Networks of Protected Areas
Habitat corridors
Box 16.1. Ecologists and Real Estate Experts Mingle at The Nature Conservancy
Habitat corridor case studies
Landscape Ecology and Park Design

Chapter 17. Managing Protected Areas
Monitoring as a Management Tool
Box 17.1. Drones: No Longer Just for the Military
Identifying and Managing Threats
Managing invasive species
Managing Habitat
Box 17.2. Habitat Management: The Key to Success in the Conservation of Endangered Butterflies
Managing Water
Managing Keystone Resources
Management and Local Communities
Zoning to separate conflicting demands
Regulating Activities inside Protected Areas
Box 17.3. Is Arctic Wildlife Management Compatible with Oil Drilling?
Challenges in Park Management
Lack of resources
Management in a rapidly changing environment

Chapter 18. Conservation Outside Protected Areas
The Value of Unprotected Habitat
Box 18.1. In Defense of Wildlife . . . Send in the Soldiers
Conservation in Urban Areas
Conservation in Agricultural Areas
Multiple Use Habitat
Ecosystem Management
Case Studies
Managed coniferous forests
Community-based wildlife management in Namibia and Kenya

Chapter 19. Restoration Ecology
Where to Start?
Box 19.1. Restoring an Extinct Ecosystem on the Edge of Amsterdam
Damage and Restoration
Ecological Restoration Techniques
Practical considerations
Restoration in Urban Areas
Restoration of Some Major Communities
Box 19.2. Restoring the Everglades: An Ambitious Project to Restore One of the World's Largest Wetlands
Prairies and farmlands
Box 19.3. Can Many Small Projects Clean Up the Chesapeake Bay?
Tropical dry forest in Costa Rica
The Future of Restoration Ecology


Chapter 20. Conservation and Sustainable Development at the Local and National Levels
Conservation at the Local Level
Local legislation
Box 20.1. How Clean Is "Green" Energy?
Land trusts and financial incentives
Conservation at the National Level
The U.S. Endangered Species Act in practice
Traditional Societies, Conservation, and Sustainable Use
Conservation beliefs
Conservation efforts that involve traditional societies
Evaluating conservation initiatives that involve traditional societies
Box 20.2. Conservation and Poverty Reduction: Can It Be as Simple as Paying to Protect Bird Nests?

Chapter 21. An International Approach to Conservation and Sustainable Development
International Agreements to Protect Species
Box 21.1. The War for the Elephant: Is the Armistice Over?
International Agreements to Protect Habitat
International Earth Summits
Funding for Conservation
What gets funded?
Large Development Projects
Reforming development lending
Box 21.2. The Three Gorges Dam at Twelve Years Old
National environmental funds
Debt-for-nature swaps
How Effective Is Conservation Funding?
Increased funding is necessary for the future

Chapter 22. An Agenda for the Future
Ongoing Problems and Possible Solutions
Box 22.1. Getting Your Hands Dirty: Citizen Science and Shaping the Next Generation of Conservationists
The Role of Conservation Biologists
Box 22.2. Environmental Activism Confronts the Opposition in the Field and in the Boardroom
Challenges for conservation biologists
Achieving the agenda

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